72 results match your criteria socialization generalization


Autism, Therapy and COVID-19.

Pediatr Rep 2021 Jan 5;13(1):35-44. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Disability Research Centre, University of International Studies in Rome, 00147 Roma, Italy.

While numerous treatments for ASD are available, intervention based on the principles and procedures of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has garnered substantial scientific support. In this study we evaluated the effects of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, followed by quarantine provisions and during the three months after the resumption of activities. The study was conducted on a group of children taking part on a ABA-based intervention funded by the Local Health Authority (ASL) of the province of Caserta. Read More

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January 2021

Integrating when and what information in the left parietal lobe allows language rule generalization.

PLoS Biol 2020 11 2;18(11):e3000895. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Cognition and Brain Plasticity Unit, IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

A crucial aspect when learning a language is discovering the rules that govern how words are combined in order to convey meanings. Because rules are characterized by sequential co-occurrences between elements (e.g. Read More

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November 2020

There is no privileged link between kinds and essences early in development.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 05 4;117(20):10633-10635. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520.

According to the dominant view of category representation, people preferentially infer that kinds (richly structured categories) reflect essences. Generic language ("Boys like blue") often occupies the central role in accounts of the formation of essentialist interpretations-especially in the context of social categories. In a preregistered study ( = 240 American children, ages 4 to 9 y), we tested whether children assume essences in the presence of generic language or whether they flexibly assume diverse causal structures. Read More

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Gender Intensification and Gender Generalization Biases in Pre-adolescents, Adolescents, and Emerging Adults.

Br J Dev Psychol 2020 09 1;38(3):415-433. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.

The gender intensification hypothesis claims that the socialization pressures of early adolescence lead to the adoption of traditional sex-typed roles. We tested this proposal by examining how extensively children (M  = 9.39 years; N = 69, 31 female), early adolescents (M  = 12. Read More

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September 2020

Cultures and Persons: Characterizing National and Other Types of Cultural Difference Can Also Aid Our Understanding and Prediction of Individual Variability.

Front Psychol 2019 29;10:2689. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Management and Marketing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Valid understanding of the relationship between cultures and persons requires an adequate conceptualization of the many contexts within which individuals work and live. These contexts include the more distal features of the individual's birth ecology and ethno-national group history. These features converge more proximally upon individual experience as "process" variables, through the institutional-normative constraints and affordances encountered through socialization into a diverse set of cultural groupings. Read More

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November 2019

[A longitudinal (3 years) study of the development of four children with autism without mental retardation after 90 sessions of social skills training].

Encephale 2016 Dec 11;42(6):529-534. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Laboratoire de psychologie « Santé, individu, société », université Lyon II, Lyon, France.

Introduction: Few studies on social skills training essentially based on ABA techniques are dedicated to children with autism aged 5 to 10 years whereas autistic disorders can be diagnosed in very early childhood. Generally, the main criticisms about these social skills training are: shortness of programs (around 20 sessions), no manual with precise descriptions of sessions and used techniques, and a lack of generalization of the learned skills in everyday life.

Objectives: To describe the evolution (before/after) of symptoms and sociocommunicative skills of 7 children with autism and no mental retardation (mean age=7. Read More

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December 2016

Overview and Preliminary Evidence for a Social Skills and Self-Care Curriculum for Adolescent Females with Autism: The Girls Night Out Model.

J Autism Dev Disord 2017 Jan;47(1):110-125

Center for Child Health and Development, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.

A majority of social skills research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and interventions target school age males and no published studies target adolescent females with ASD or related disabilities. Females with ASD are at risk for internalizing symptoms, and experience greater challenges in socialization and communication as social demands become increasingly complex in adolescence. This paper provides a thorough description of a social skills and self-care program designed to address the specific needs of adolescent females with ASD. Read More

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January 2017

The effects of violence exposure on the development of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood: Time-specific and generalized effects in a sample of juvenile offenders.

Dev Psychopathol 2015 Nov;27(4 Pt 1):1267-83

University of Arizona.

Impulse control and future orientation increase across adolescence, but little is known about how contextual factors shape the development of these capacities. The present study investigates how stress exposure, operationalized as exposure to violence, alters the developmental pattern of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood. In a sample of 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, higher exposure to violence was associated with lower levels of future orientation at age 15 and suppressed development of future orientation from ages 15 to 25. Read More

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November 2015

Sea lions' (Zalophus californianus) use of human pointing gestures as referential cues.

Learn Behav 2015 Jun;43(2):101-12

Laboratory of Cognitive Psychology, Aix-Marseille University, Fédération de Recherche 3C, CNRS, 13331, Marseille Cedex, France,

This experiment investigated the ability of four human-socialized sea lions to exploit human communicative gestures in three different object-choice tasks based on directional cues emitted by their caretakers. In Study 1, three of the tested subjects were able to generalize their choice of the pointed target to variations of the basic pointing gestures (i.e. Read More

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A randomized controlled study of a social skills training for preadolescent children with autism spectrum disorders: generalization of skills by training parents and teachers?

BMC Psychiatry 2014 Jul 2;14:189. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Accare Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Social skills training (SST) is a common intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to improve their social and communication skills. Despite the fact that SSTs are often applied in clinical practice, the evidence for the effectiveness of these trainings for children with ASD is inconclusive. Moreover, long term outcome and generalization of learned skills are little evaluated. Read More

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Value stability and change during self-chosen life transitions: self-selection versus socialization effects.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2014 Jan 11;106(1):131-47. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Kent.

Three longitudinal studies examine a fundamental question regarding adjustment of personal values to self-chosen life transitions: Do values fit the new life setting already at its onset, implying value-based self-selection? Or do values change to better fit the appropriate and desirable values in the setting, implying value socialization? As people are likely to choose a life transition partly based on their values, their values may fit the new life situation already at its onset, leaving little need for value socialization. However, we propose that this may vary as a function of the extent of change the life transition entails, with greater change requiring more value socialization. To enable generalization, we used 3 longitudinal studies spanning 3 different life transitions and different extents of life changes: vocational training (of new police recruits), education (psychology vs. Read More

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January 2014

Varying seizure semiology according to age.

Authors:
Douglas R Nordli

Handb Clin Neurol 2013 ;111:455-60

Epilepsy Center, Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

The clinical manifestations of seizures change in a predictable fashion with advancing age. For focal seizures these changes can be summarized into domains similar to those used in developmental models. These include fine motor, communication, and gross motor manifestations. Read More

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Using Perseverative Interests to Improve Interactions Between Adolescents with Autism and their Typical Peers in School Settings.

J Posit Behav Interv 2012 Jul;14(3):133-141

University of California Santa Barbara.

The literature suggests that adolescents with ASD typically are not socially engaged during unstructured school activities and do not initiate social activities with typically developing peers. This study assessed whether implementing socialization opportunities in the form of lunch clubs based around aspects of the adolescents with ASD's perseverative interests would promote positive direct and generalized social interaction between the target adolescent and their typically developing peers. A repeated measures multiple baseline experimental design (with two reversals) was implemented across participants. Read More

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Improving generalization of peer socialization gains in inclusive school settings using initiations training.

Behav Modif 2012 May 29;36(3):361-77. Epub 2012 May 29.

University of California, Santa Barbara, 93106-9490, USA.

Social engagement by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in unstructured school settings generally occurs at very low levels, if at all. Although many interventions improve peer socialization, generalization and maintenance of such gains when interventions are faded are typically low. The present study employed a multiple baseline design across participants to target generalization in the absence of interventionists in elementary school children with ASD at recess. Read More

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Participation and social networks of school-age children with complex communication needs: a descriptive study.

Augment Altern Commun 2011 Sep;27(3):195-204

Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Social participation becomes particularly important in middle childhood, as it contributes towards the acquisition and development of critical life skills such as developing friendships and a sense of belonging. However, only limited literature is available on the impact of communication difficulties on social participation in middle childhood. This study compared the participation patterns of school-age children with and without physical disabilities and complex communication needs in extracurricular activities. Read More

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September 2011

Applied behavior analytic interventions for children with autism: a description and review of treatment research.

Ann Clin Psychiatry 2009 Jul-Sep;21(3):162-73

Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Tarzana, CA 91356, USA.

Background: Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive delays in the development of language and socialization, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors or nonfunctional interests. Although a multitude of treatments for autism exist, very few have been the subject of scientific research. The only treatment that has been supported by substantial empirical research is treatment based on applied behavior analysis (ABA). Read More

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October 2009

Predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after cognitive remediation.

Schizophr Res 2009 Feb 8;107(2-3):267-74. Epub 2008 Nov 8.

Department of Psychology, Wesleyan University, Judd Hall, 207 High Street, Middletown, CT 06459, United States.

Few studies have investigated predictors of response to cognitive remediation interventions in patients with schizophrenia. Predictor studies to date have selected treatment outcome measures that were either part of the remediation intervention itself or closely linked to the intervention with few studies investigating factors that predict generalization to measures of everyday life-skills as an index of treatment-related improvement. In the current study we investigated the relationship between four measures of neurocognitive function, crystallized verbal ability, auditory sustained attention and working memory, verbal learning and memory, and problem-solving, two measures of symptoms, total positive and negative symptoms, and the process variables of treatment intensity and duration, to change on a performance-based measure of everyday life-skills after a year of computer-assisted cognitive remediation offered as part of intensive outpatient rehabilitation treatment. Read More

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February 2009

Effects of a modified milieu therapy intervention on the social communicative behaviors of young children with autism spectrum disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2009 Jan 9;39(1):149-63. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Department of Special Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining milieu therapy and functional communication training (FCT)] to replace aberrant behavior with functional communicative skills in 3 male preschool or elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in the natural environments of the participants and parents acted as change agents. A concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified milieu therapy intervention. Read More

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January 2009

Lack of psychopathic character (Rorschach) in forensic psychiatric rapists.

Nord J Psychiatry 2008 ;62(3):176-5

The Swedish National Police Academy, Further Police Education, Ulriksdal Sörentorp, SE-170 82 Solna, Sweden.

Previous research using Rorschach is sparse in rapists. The aim of this study of 10 violent male forensic psychiatric rapists was to describe them on a set of Rorschach variables, which are assumed to reflect psychopathic character, in order to increase our understanding of rapists. The participants were involved in a long-term psychodynamic sexual offender treatment program. Read More

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October 2008

Increasing activity attendance and engagement in individuals with dementia using descriptive prompts.

J Appl Behav Anal 2008 ;41(2):273-7

St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301, USA.

The effects of providing descriptive prompts to increase activity attendance and engagement in 6 individuals with dementia were evaluated using a reversal design. The results showed that providing descriptive prompts increased activity attendance and engagement for all participants. The results support the use of antecedent interventions for increasing appropriate behavior by individuals with dementia. Read More

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October 2008

The positive illusory bias: do inflated self-perceptions in children with ADHD generalize to perceptions of others?

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2008 Jul 10;36(5):779-91. Epub 2008 Jan 10.

Ohio University, Porter Hall 200, Athens, OH 45701, USA.

This study examined whether children with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate positive illusory perceptions of their own competence and others' competence. Participants (67 children with ADHD symptoms; 40 non-ADHD children) completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children and rated actors' competence in videos clips where inconsistent cues of performance had to be integrated in order to determine the actor's competence. Teachers completed the Teacher Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Read More

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Social-skills treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders: an overview.

Behav Modif 2007 Sep;31(5):682-707

Louisiana State University, LA, USA.

Marked advances in the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has occurred in the past few decades, primarily using applied behavior analysis. However, reviews of trends in social skills treatment for children with ASDs have been scant, despite a robust and growing empirical literature on the topic. In this selective review of 79 treatment studies, the authors note that the research has been particularly marked by fragmented development, using a range of intervention approaches and definitions of the construct. Read More

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September 2007

Teachers in the wild.

Authors:
Gergely Csibra

Trends Cogn Sci 2007 Mar 22;11(3):95-6. Epub 2007 Jan 22.

School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK.

Three recent studies challenge the apparent consensus about the absence of teaching in non-human animals by providing evidence that certain behaviours of ants, birds and mammals satisfy a strict definition of teaching. However, these behaviours, although capable of facilitating information or skill acquisition in youngsters, could not support the transmission of cultural knowledge across individuals, which human teaching arguably serves. Read More

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Using video modeling to teach complex social sequences to children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2007 Apr;37(4):678-93

School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, England.

This study comprised of two experiments was designed to teach complex social sequences to children with autism. Experimental control was achieved by collecting data using means of within-system design methodology. Across a number of conditions children were taken to a room to view one of the four short videos of two people engaging in a simple sequence of activities. Read More

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Recent advances in social skills training for schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2006 Oct 2;32 Suppl 1:S12-23. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

San Fernando Mental Health Center, 10605 Balboa Boulevard, Suite 100, Granada Hills, CA 91344, USA.

Social skills training consists of learning activities utilizing behavioral techniques that enable persons with schizophrenia and other disabling mental disorders to acquire interpersonal disease management and independent living skills for improved functioning in their communities. A large and growing body of research supports the efficacy and effectiveness of social skills training for schizophrenia. When the type and frequency of training is linked to the phase of the disorder, patients can learn and retain a wide variety of social and independent living skills. Read More

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October 2006

The effects of teaching medical professionalism by means of vignettes: an exploratory study.

Med Teach 2005 Aug;27(5):429-32

VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The purpose of this study is (1) to evaluate whether an educational program for preclinical students has an effect on the knowledge of professional behaviour for clerks and (2) to study how preclinical students compare with advanced clinical students concerning this knowledge. The authors used an observer-rated test consisting of vignettes describing a dilemma concerning professional behaviour. Students' description of proposed behaviour was scored in one of three categories: unacceptable, acceptable or excellent. Read More

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The prevalence of dyslexia and AD/HD in a sample of forensic psychiatric rapists.

Nord J Psychiatry 2004 ;58(5):371-81

Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.

The prevalence of dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (DSM-IV) is markedly increased among those who are sentenced for criminal offences. The aim of the study was to identify developmental disabilities, dyslexia and AD/HD among severely disturbed men in forensic psychiatric care, and to study the co-occurrence of such disabilities, with the objective to discuss the importance of the diagnoses in forensic psychiatry. The participants were 10 males who had committed rape on adult women, and included two murder-rapists, one of which had murdered more than one victim (i. Read More

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February 2005

Errorless academic compliance training: improving generalized cooperation with parental requests in children with autism.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004 Feb;43(2):163-71

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Children with autism often demonstrate distress and oppositionality when exposed to requests to complete academic or household tasks. Errorless academic compliance training is a success-focused, noncoercive intervention for improving child cooperation with such activities. In the present study, the authors evaluated treatment and generalization effects of this intervention on four children diagnosed with autism. Read More

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February 2004

Examining the effectiveness of an outpatient clinic-based social skills group for high-functioning children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2003 Dec;33(6):685-701

Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Although social skills group interventions for children with autism are common in outpatient clinic settings, little research has been conducted to determine the efficacy of such treatments. This study examined the effectiveness of an outpatient clinic-based social skills group intervention with four high-functioning elementary-aged children with autism. The group was designed to teach specific social skills, including greeting, conversation, and play skills in a brief therapy format (eight sessions total). Read More

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December 2003

Toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, caregivers, and fathers: implications for theories of socialization.

Dev Psychol 2003 Jul;39(4):680-92

Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

To compare children's socialized behavior to parents and nonparental agents, this study examined self-regulated compliance to mothers and caregivers--an early form of internalization--in 90 toddlers, half of whom were also observed with fathers. Adults were observed in play, teaching, and discipline sessions with the child and were interviewed on child-rearing philosophies. Child cognition and emotion regulation were assessed, and naturalistic observations were conducted at child-care locations. Read More

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