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Associations between sleep duration patterns and cognitive decline trajectories in older Chinese adults.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, North Sichuan Medical College, Fujiang Road, Shunqing, Nanchong, 234, Sichuan, China.

Background: Abnormal sleep duration has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive decline. However, most studies have measured sleep duration and cognitive function at a single time point, while both tend to decrease with age.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in sleep duration patterns and cognitive trajectories in older adults. Read More

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Activity-related typologies and longitudinal change in physical activity and sedentary time in children and adolescents: The UP & DOWN Study.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 Feb 12. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Physical Education, Sports and Human Movement, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain.

Purpose: Children and adolescents can be distinguished by different typologies (clusters) of physical activity and sedentary behavior. How physical activity and sedentary behaviors change over time within different typologies is not known. This study examined longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary time among children and adolescents with different baseline typologies of activity-related behavior. Read More

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February 2020

Psychometric adequacy of the Persian adapted version of the Tilburg pregnancy distress scale (P-TPDS).

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 9;21(1):281. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands.

Background: Pregnancy distress is a combination of anxiety, stress, and depression during pregnancy. The first step in preventing pregnancy distress is to identify women at risk. The present study assessed adaptation and psychometric adequency of the Persian Adapted Version of Tilburg Pregnancy Distress Scale (P-TPDS). Read More

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Financial difficulties and patient-reported outcomes among patients with advanced heart failure.

Qual Life Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Lien Centre for Palliative Care, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.

Purpose: Management of congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with high health care costs and financial difficulties for patients. We aimed to comprehensively assess the association between financial difficulties and patients' quality of life (QOL) (physical, emotional, social and spiritual), perceived health care quality, and perception of being a burden to the family among patients with CHF; and to assess whether perceived control over stress moderated these associations.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 250 patients using the baseline data of the Singapore Cohort of Patients with Advanced Heart Failure (SCOPAH). Read More

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Teaching Medical Students to Help Patients Manage Their Weight: Outcomes of an Eight-School Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Given the rising rates of obesity there is a pressing need for medical schools to better prepare students for intervening with patients who have overweight or obesity and for prevention efforts.

Objective: To assess the effect of a multi-modal weight management curriculum on counseling skills for health behavior change.

Design: A pair-matched, group-randomized controlled trial (2015-2020) included students enrolled in eight U. Read More

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Who avoids being involved in personal carbon trading? An investigation based on the urban residents in eastern China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Energy Economics and Management Research, School of Management, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054, China.

Personal carbon trading scheme has been pulled into the public eye with the increasing urgency of downstream carbon emission reduction, and its feasibility largely depends on public acceptability. This study established a hierarchical framework for urban residents' approach-avoidance responses to personal carbon trading; adopted Likert scale and manikin task methods to assess the current states of residents' responses by investigating 1892 respondents in eastern China; employed one-way analysis of variance to identify the demographic differences of their responses; and used regression analysis to explore the influences of psychological factors on their responses. The findings showed that urban residents' responses to personal carbon trading scheme and participation could be classified into five response hierarchies: deep avoidance, shallow avoidance, uncertain, shallow approach, and deep approach. Read More

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Time-dependent heterogeneity leads to transient suppression of the COVID-19 epidemic, not herd immunity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.

Epidemics generally spread through a succession of waves that reflect factors on multiple timescales. On short timescales, superspreading events lead to burstiness and overdispersion, whereas long-term persistent heterogeneity in susceptibility is expected to lead to a reduction in both the infection peak and the herd immunity threshold (HIT). Here, we develop a general approach to encompass both timescales, including time variations in individual social activity, and demonstrate how to incorporate them phenomenologically into a wide class of epidemiological models through reparameterization. Read More

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A 'case-mix' approach to understand adherence trajectories for a falls prevention exercise intervention: A longitudinal cohort study.

Maturitas 2021 May 22;147:1-6. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Center for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Aging, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: We identified adherence-based case-mixes from participants' longitudinal adherence to falls prevention exercise interventions over 12 months. Second, we identified modifiable baseline predictors (cognition, mobility and functional status) based on participants' case-mix adherence trajectories.

Study Design And Outcome Measures: This study was a 12-month longitudinal secondary analysis of data from 172 participants who received the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) in a randomized controlled trial. Read More

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The use of medicinal plants to prevent COVID-19 in Nepal.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2021 Apr 8;17(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovative Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Medicinal plants are the fundamental unit of traditional medicine system in Nepal. Nepalese people are rich in traditional medicine especially in folk medicine (ethnomedicine), and this system is gaining much attention after 1995. The use of medicinal plants has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic as a private behavior (not under the control of government). Read More

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Automated interpretation of biopsy images for the detection of celiac disease using a machine learning approach.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Feb 27;203:106010. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore; School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore; School of Business, University of Southern Queensland Springfield, Australia; Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taiwan; International Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology (IROAST) Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease occurring in about 1 in 100 people worldwide. Early diagnosis and efficient treatment are crucial in mitigating the complications that are associated with untreated celiac disease, such as intestinal lymphoma and malignancy, and the subsequent high morbidity. The current diagnostic methods using small intestinal biopsy histopathology, endoscopy, and video capsule endoscopy (VCE) involve manual interpretation of photomicrographs or images, which can be time-consuming and difficult, with inter-observer variability. Read More

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February 2021

We all care just as much about the child: stakeholders' experiences of parenting support in a Norwegian school context.

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 2021 Dec;16(1):1908014

Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.

: Despite increased focus on parenting support internationally, there is a lack of agreement in what constitutes parenting support. This paper explores the experiences of parenting support activities from the perspective of stakeholders in Norwegian basic schools.: Five focus group interviews were conducted with representatives from the schools' parent work committee, class teachers, health nurses, and social workers from nine schools. Read More

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December 2021

Intragenerational social mobility and self-rated oral health in the british cohort study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Apr 7;19(1):115. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Dental Public Health group, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom Bessemer Road, London, SE5 9RS, UK.

Background: Most studies on social mobility and oral health have focused on movement between generations (intergenerational mobility) rather than movement within an individual's own lifetime (intragenerational mobility). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intragenerational social mobility from early to middle adulthood and self-rated oral health.

Methods: This study used data from 6524 participants of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study, an ongoing population-based birth cohort of individuals born in England, Scotland and Wales. Read More

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Association of Human Mobility Restrictions and Race/Ethnicity-Based, Sex-Based, and Income-Based Factors With Inequities in Well-being During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e217373. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: An accurate understanding of the distributional implications of public health policies is critical for ensuring equitable responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health threats.

Objective: To identify and quantify the association of race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities of state-specific lockdowns with 6 well-being dimensions in the United States.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This pooled, repeated cross-sectional study used data from 14 187 762 households who participated in phase 1 of the population-representative US 2020 Household Pulse Survey (HPS). Read More

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Communication skills training in undergraduate medical education at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin.

GMS J Med Educ 2021 15;38(3):Doc56. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Prodekanat für Studium und Lehre, Team Spezielle Lehrformate, Berlin, Germany.

The objective of this article is a description of the longitudinal communication curriculum in the Model Medicine Curriculum (MSM) at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. The authors describe the planning and integration of the curriculum into the study program, outline how communicative competence is taught and evaluated in the MSM, and identify which challenges need to be mastered in the process. Starting with the introduction of the MSM in 2010, students have been spending 102 class hours, spread out over seven semesters, practicing social and communicative competences in the interactive small group format "Communication, Interaction & Teamwork (KIT)". Read More

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An Examination of the Patterns of Substance Use in Activity Spaces and Their Relationship to Problematic Use.

Youth Soc 2021 Apr 28;53(3):439-465. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

University of Albany, State University of New York, USA.

During adolescence, adolescents are given more freedom to independently interact with a variety of social contexts. The eco-developmental model suggests that the activity spaces where adolescents spend their time affect substance-use behaviors beyond peer influences, and that the relationships may differ based on the adolescent's demographic characteristics. This study examines adolescent patterns of reported substance use across activity spaces to determine whether the patterns of use are related to problematic substance use, and whether the relationships differ based on the participants' race. Read More

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Is the pink ball still under review? Cricket umpires' perceptions of the pink ball for day/night matches.

J Sci Med Sport 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Vision and Hearing Sciences Research Centre, School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom; Vision and Eye Research Institute, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine, and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The visibility of the pink ball used in day/night Test cricket has been under scrutiny, with recent research suggesting cricketers find the pink ball less visible at dusk under floodlights. With increasing interest in this match format, this study sought to investigate elite umpires' opinions pertaining to the visibility of the pink cricket ball during day/night matches.

Design: Purposeful sampling of a cross-section of elite umpires with experience adjudicating matches played using a pink cricket ball. Read More

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How 'place' matters for addressing the HIV epidemic: evidence from the HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster-randomised controlled trial in Zambia and South Africa.

Trials 2021 Apr 6;22(1):251. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Global Health and Development, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK.

Background: In a cluster-randomised trial (CRT) of combination HIV prevention (HPTN 071 (PopART)) in 12 Zambian communities and nine South African communities, carried out from 2012 to 2018, the intervention arm A that offered HIV treatment irrespective of CD4 count did not have a significant impact on population level HIV incidence. Intervention arm B, where HIV incidence was reduced by 30%, followed national guidelines that mid trial (2016) changed from starting HIV treatment according to a CD4 threshold of 500 to universal treatment. Using social science data on the 21 communities, we consider how place (community context) might have influenced the primary outcome result. Read More

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Improving support for breastfeeding mothers: a qualitative study on the experiences of breastfeeding among mothers who reside in a deprived and culturally diverse community.

Int J Equity Health 2021 Apr 6;20(1):92. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute for Health Research, University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury, Hitchin Road, Luton, UK.

Background: The United Kingdom has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in Europe, with the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding shown to be closely related to the mothers' age, ethnicity and social class. Whilst the barriers that influence a woman's decision to breastfeed are well documented, less is known how these barriers vary by the UK's diverse population. As such, this study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and accessing breastfeeding services offered locally amongst a deprived and culturally diverse community. Read More

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Assessing Neuropsychological Phenotypes of Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors.

Psychooncology 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Children's National Hospital, Division of Pediatric Neuropsychology.

Introduction: Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) are at risk for both neurocognitive impairments and psychological difficulties, yet these two domains have historically been discretely examined, with assessment of psychosocial outcomes rarely included in studies of cognitive outcomes. Taking a person-centered approach, the current study aimed to more comprehensively evaluate PBTS late effect profiles, including both neurocognitive and psychological sequelae, and predictors of these profiles.

Method: PBTS (N=89) were assessed in a pediatric neuropsychological clinic between May 2009 and May 2018, diagnosed at least one year prior, and off-treatment for at least three months (M =6. Read More

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At your 'online' service! A continuous service-learning program for college students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Theology and Religious Education Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004, Philippines.

School health protocols in conducting face-to-face classes must be planned carefully to ensure that students will be safe from the effects of COVID-19. This is what the authors emphasized in a recent correspondence, which we re-echo in this paper in case the situation permits. However, a greater consideration must be given to colleges and universities where the aspect of community/social engagement of the students is already part of the curriculum. Read More

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Inference in skew generalized t-link models for clustered binary outcome via a parameter-expanded EM algorithm.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(4):e0249604. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratoire de Biomathématiques et d'Estimations Forestières, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.

Binary Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) is the most common method used by researchers to analyze clustered binary data in biological and social sciences. The traditional approach to GLMMs causes substantial bias in estimates due to steady shape of logistic and normal distribution assumptions thereby resulting into wrong and misleading decisions. This study brings forward an approach governed by skew generalized t distributions that belong to a class of potentially skewed and heavy tailed distributions. Read More

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Subgroups of High-Risk Veterans Affairs Patients Based on Social Determinants of Health Predict Risk of Future Hospitalization.

Med Care 2021 May;59(5):410-417

Durham Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT), Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System.

Objective: Population segmentation has been recognized as a foundational step to help tailor interventions. Prior studies have predominantly identified subgroups based on diagnoses. In this study, we identify clinically coherent subgroups using social determinants of health (SDH) measures collected from Veterans at high risk of hospitalization or death. Read More

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Latent profile analysis of COVID-19 fear, depression, anxiety, stress, mindfulness, and resilience.

Curr Psychol 2021 Mar 31:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

The purpose of the current study was to identify latent profiles of COVID-19 fear, depression, anxiety, stress, mindfulness, and resilience among university students. A total of 506 university undergraduate and graduate students from various universities were recruited through online platforms in Turkey. Data were collected utilizing self-report scales and were analyzed utilizing latent profile analysis. Read More

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Investigating the mediating role of online learning motivation in the COVID-19 pandemic situation in Bangladesh.

J Comput Assist Learn 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business & Social Science (FBSS) Bangladesh University of Professionals (BUP) Dhaka Bangladesh.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of online learning motivation (OLM) in the COVID-19 pandemic situation in Bangladesh by observing and comparing direct lectures (DL), instructor-learner interaction (ILI), learner-learner interaction (LLI), and internet self-efficacy (ISE) as predictors of OLM and online learning satisfaction (OLS). Data were collected from 442 undergraduate and graduate students from more than 35 universities in Bangladesh. To test the hypotheses, the PLS-SEM approach was applied using SmartPLS 3. Read More

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J Pain 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Center for Clinical Research Dalarna - Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.

Chronic pain-related sickness absence is an enormous socioeconomic burden globally. Optimized interventions are reliant on a lucid understanding of the distribution of social insurance benefits and their predictors. This register-based observational study analyzed data for a seven-year period from a population-based sample of 44,241 chronic pain patients eligible for interdisciplinary treatment (IDT) at specialist clinics. Read More

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Effect of High-frequency (10-kHz) Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pain Management, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.

Importance: Many patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy experience chronic pain and inadequate relief despite best available medical treatments.

Objective: To determine whether 10-kHz spinal cord stimulation (SCS) improves outcomes for patients with refractory painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN).

Design, Setting, And Participants: The prospective, multicenter, open-label SENZA-PDN randomized clinical trial compared conventional medical management (CMM) with 10-kHz SCS plus CMM. Read More

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Situation selection and modification in social inhibition: a person-centered approach.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 Apr 5:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

CoRPS - Centre of Research on Psychological and Somatic disorders, Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands.

Objectives: The current study aimed to identify patterns of situation selection and modification behaviors using a person-centered approach, and to examine to what extent the trait social inhibition (SI) is associated with these patterns of situation-targeted emotion regulation.

Methods: The sample comprised 504 participants (= 21.5, = 8. Read More

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Intensity of Stripping and Sugar Content in the Bark and the Bast of European Beech ().

Open Life Sci 2019 Jan 20;14:19-28. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Department of Silviculture, Poznań Poland ,Institute of Dendrology PAS, Laboratory of Ecology.

The choice of particular trees for stripping by deer is puzzling because a preference is observed for trees of the highest social class. Trees ranked highest in the stand can produce more carbohydrates as a product of carbon assimilation. Among the many important nutrient and defense groups of metabolites in plants, high sugar content is postulated to be an attractant due to its impact on the sense of taste of different herbivores. Read More

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January 2019

Social Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Are Common Among Persons With Multiple Sclerosis at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh.

Cureus 2021 Feb 28;13(2):e13619. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Neurology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, USA.

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a physical disability and disturbed psychosocial functioning in young people. Many psychological and psychiatric comorbidities have been reported in MS. Objective To determine the frequency of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among MS patients and their relation to MS severity. Read More

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February 2021

The effect of physical activity on quality of life and serum glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with congenital heart disease.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2021 15;11(1):53-64. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Research Unit. Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular-Materno Infantil Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 35016, Spain.

As physical activity contributes to quality of life and health, we evaluated its association, as measured by the Global physical activity (GPAQ) questionnaire, on the quality of life (QoL) and serum glucose and cholesterol levels of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 adult patients with CHD (17 to 58 years old), of whom 45 had simple defects, 122 moderate defects and 33 great anatomical complexity defects. Physiological complexity was defined as stage A in 74 patients, stage B in 29, stage C in 86 and stage D in 11. Read More

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February 2021