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Decrease in prevalence but increase in frequency of non-marijuana drug use following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in a large cohort of young men who have sex with men and young transgender women.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 10;223:108701. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Northwestern University, Department of Medical Social Sciences, 625 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL, 60611, United States; Northwestern University, Institute for Sexual and Gender Minority Health and Wellbeing, 625 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL, 60611, United States.

Background: Substantial concern exists regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use behaviors. This is especially true for subpopulations like young men who have sex with men and young transgender women (YMSM-YTW) who report higher rates of substance use. This study examines changes in prevalence and frequency of marijuana and non-marijuana drug use among YMSM-YTW following the onset of the pandemic. Read More

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Environmental Awareness and sensitivity of nursing students.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Apr 8;101:104882. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objective: Currently, environmental problems have reached alarming levels, constituting a serious problem for public health. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the environmental awareness and sensitivity of nursing students.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 286 nursing students of a foundation university in Northern Cyprus in the fall term of the 2016-2017 academic year. Read More

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Decreased quality of life and spirometric alterations even after mild-moderate COVID-19.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 14;181:106391. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General de Zona No.27 Del Instituto Mexicano Del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: The follow-up of recovered COVID-19 patients is still limited. We aimed to evaluate the changes in quality-of-life (QOL) and spirometric alterations in the convalescent phase of 115 patients with at least 30 days post-COVID-19.

Methods: We included patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, available past medical records and at least 30 days after the onset of symptoms. Read More

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COgnitive enhancement and consumption of psychoactive Substances among Youth Students (COSYS): a cross-sectional study in France.

Public Health 2021 Apr 14;194:75-78. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Addictovigilance Center, Fernand-Widal Hospital, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: This descriptive and analytical study investigated the consumption rates of psychoactive substances among individuals aged 18-25 years in France. More specifically, it enabled assessment of the extent of the neuroenhancement (NE) phenomenon among students in France (including study of the misuse of psychostimulant medicines).

Study Design: COgnitive enhancement and consumption of psychoactive Substances among Youth Students (COSYS) is a cross-sectional survey of students in France. Read More

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#MentalHealthArt: How Instagram artists promote mental health awareness online.

Public Health 2021 Apr 14;194:67-74. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 43403, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Instagram artwork about mental illness was examined to learn how artists promote awareness about mental health and mental illness.

Study Design: Mixed methods predictive and descriptive analyses were conducted on a public dataset of artwork posts from Instagram.

Methods: One thousand art images were classified by media (painting, drawing, collage, photograph, digital art, printmaking, sculpture, jewelry, or other) and style (representational, nonrepresentational, and functional). Read More

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Modeling a gross motor curve of typically developing Dutch infants from 3.5 to 15.5 months based on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Apr 1;157:105366. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Interindividual variability in gross motor development of infants is substantial and challenges the interpretation of motor assessments. Longitudinal research can provide insight into variability in individual gross motor trajectories.

Purpose: To model a gross motor growth curve of healthy term-born infants from 3. Read More

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COVID-19 information on social media and preventive behaviors: Managing the pandemic through personal responsibility.

Authors:
Piper Liping Liu

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 12;277:113928. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Communication, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao. Electronic address:

In the face of a pandemic, social media have found to be vital information channels that might exert a positive influence on people's preventive behaviors. However, little is known about the underlying processes that may mediate or moderate the relationship. The present study examined the relation between novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) information consumption on social media and preventive behaviors, as well as the mediation role of personal responsibility and moderation role of health orientation. Read More

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Perception of peer advice in online health communities: Access to lay expertise.

Soc Sci Med 2020 Sep 2;277:113117. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Business Administration, School of Management, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

When seeking advice online about health concerns, forums dedicated to medical themes are increasingly becoming an appreciated source of information for many individuals. In online health communities, patients can ask questions or otherwise seek advice that is particularly relevant to them. While they may find some of the advice useful, other advice may be perceived as less valuable. Read More

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September 2020

What concerns Indian general public on second wave of COVID-19? A report on social media opinions.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 14;15(3):829-830. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India.

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Multi-compartment analysis of the complex gradient-echo signal quantifies myelin breakdown in premanifest Huntington's disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Apr 5;30:102658. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Maindy Road, Cardiff, CF 24 4HQ, UK.

White matter (WM) alterations have been identified as a relevant pathological feature of Huntington's disease (HD). Increasing evidence suggests that WM changes in this disorder are due to alterations in myelin-associated biological processes. Multi-compartmental analysis of the complex gradient-echo MRI signal evolution in WM has been shown to quantify myelin in vivo, therefore pointing to the potential of this technique for the study of WM myelin changes in health and disease. Read More

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Potential medicinal value of celastrol and its synthesized analogues for central nervous system diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 14;139:111551. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for TCM Compatibility, and State Key Laboratory of Research & Development of Characteristic Qin Medicine Resources (Cultivation), and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Fundamentals and New Drugs Research, and Shaanxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an 712046, Shaanxi Province, China. Electronic address:

The central nervous system (CNS) is a vital part of the human nervous system, and the incidence of CNS disease is increasing year by year, which has become a major public health problem and a prominent social problem. At present, the drugs most commonly used in the clinic are receptor regulators, and neurotransmitter inhibitors, but they are accompanied by serious side effects. Therefore, the identification of new drugs and treatment strategies for CNS disease has been a research hotspot in the medical field. Read More

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Has public health messaging during the COVID-19 pandemic reflected local risks to health?: A content analysis of tweeting practices across Canadian geographies.

Health Place 2021 Apr 13;69:102568. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Earth, Environment & Society, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada. Electronic address:

During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health agencies and decision-makers have used social media to disseminate information, encourage changes to behaviour and promote community supports and resources. Their communications have served to educate the public on risks and initiate the widespread adoption of public health measures to 'flatten the curve'. We conducted a content analysis of COVID-19 Tweets by Canadian public health accounts during the first 6 months of the pandemic to explore differences in Tweeting practices by geography and identify opportunities to improve risk communication. Read More

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Engaging vulnerable populations in drug treatment court: Six month outcomes from a co-occurring disorder wraparound intervention.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2021 Apr 14;76:101700. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Objective: Although drug treatment courts (DTCs) have demonstrated positive outcomes, participants with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (CODs) are a high-risk group that often struggle with treatment engagement not previously examined. This pilot study fills this gap by looking at six-month behavioral health and criminal justice outcomes among a hard to engage DTC COD participant sample in two Massachusetts DTCs receiving a wraparound-treatment (Maintaining Independence and Sobriety through Systems Integration, Outreach, and Networking-Criminal Justice - MISSION-CJ).

Methods: Participants were evaluated at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Read More

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Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: The Science of Early-Life Precursors and Interventions for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate which early neurocognitive and behavioural precursors are associated with the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether these are currently targeted in early interventions.

Method: We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses of empirical studies to examine (1) early-life (0-5 years) neurocognitive and behavioural precursors associated with familial likelihood for ADHD, an early ADHD diagnosis/elevated ADHD symptoms, and/or the presence of later-childhood ADHD, and (2) interventions delivered to children aged 0-5 years targeting the identified precursors or measuring these as outcomes. Standardised mean differences (Hedge's g) and pre-post-treatment change scores (SMD) were computed. Read More

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GRADE guidelines: 31. Assessing the certainty across a body of evidence for comparative test accuracy.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: This article provides GRADE guidance on how authors of evidence syntheses and health decision makers, including guideline developers, can rate the certainty across a body of evidence for comparative test accuracy questions.

Study Design And Setting: This guidance extends the previously published GRADE guidance for assessing certainty of evidence for test accuracy to scenarios in which two or more index tests are compared. Through an iterative brainstorm-discussion-feedback process within the GRADE working group, we developed a guidance accompanied by practical examples. Read More

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Comparison of point-of-care test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis japonica.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Parasitology and Excellence in Medical Innovation, and Technology Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; Mekong Health Science Research Institute, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Objective: Schistosomiasis japonica is an important helminthic disease in Asia. Sensitive and accurate diagnostic tools are indispensable in both for clinical diagnosis, screening infection and monitoring its control. In this study, we developed an immunochromatographic test (Sj-ICT) to detect anti-Schistosoma japonicum IgG antibodies in human sera. Read More

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Cross National Comparison of Medical Students' Attitudes and Beliefs about Medical Cannabis and its Application for Pain Management.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Apr 14:102720. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Regional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research (RADAR) Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Objectives: To examine attitudes and beliefs about medical cannabis (MC), and specifically about its application for pain management, across medical students in Israel and Thailand.

Design: Cross-sectional survey which measured attitudes and beliefs about MC. Participants were additionally asked to rate the perceived efficacy of MC for different medical conditions that are related to pain (arthritis, chronic pain, fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis). Read More

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Factors associated with independent nurse prescribers' antibiotic prescribing practice: A mixed methods study using the Reasoned Action Approach.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow. G4 0BA.

Background: Numbers of nurse prescribers is increasing, yet little evidence exists about their antibiotic prescribing behaviour.

Aim: This paper presents the findings of a study which measured nurse independent prescribers' (NIPs) intention to manage patients, presenting with an Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) for the first time, without prescribing an antibiotic and to examine the determinants of this behaviour.

Methods: This was a mixed method study using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Read More

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A Qualitative Study of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Environmental Influences on Hispanic Mothers' Early Childhood Feeding Practices.

Appetite 2021 Apr 14:105268. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.

Young children's lifestyle behaviors are largely shaped by their parents. There are socioeconomic risk factors particular to Hispanic populations that influence the way parents feed their children. As obesity continues to be a public health issue with substantial inequities across race and ethnicity, it is critical to understand Hispanic parents' food choices and feeding practices. Read More

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Using Quality Improvement Science to Create a Navigator in the Electronic Health Record for the Consolidation of Patient Information Surrounding Pediatric End-of-Life Care.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: It is important to document the domains surrounding end-of-life (EOL) care in the electronic health record (EHR). No pediatric navigator exists for these purposes.

Measures: Medical charts were reviewed for documentation surrounding code status and care at the time of death from January 2017 to June 2019. Read More

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Detection of acute stress by smooth muscle electromyography: A translational study on rat and human.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 14:119492. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

Aims: Non-invasive and simultaneous recording of gastrointestinal (GI) activity during stress induction is still an unexplored field. In our previous investigation, the stress-induced alteration of the gastrointestinal tract was explored in rats. Our aims were to expand our previous rat experiment and to induce stress response in rats (Study 1) and humans (Study 2) to detect the GI tract activity, heart rate and body temperature. Read More

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Exploring providers' experience of stigma following the introduction of more liberal abortion care in the Republic of Ireland.

Contraception 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

UCD Perinatal Research Centre, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Holles St, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Objective: To explore if abortion care providers in the Republic of Ireland experience abortion-related stigma.

Study Design: The survey was distributed to abortion care providers working in community and hospital units nationwide. We measured stigma using the 35-item version of the Abortion Providers Stigma Scale (APSS). Read More

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Low COVID-19 mortality in Spanish children.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Paediatrics, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Instituto Investigación Hospital La Paz (IDIPaz), Madrid, Spain.

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Hearing loss in childhood cancer survivors.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 May;5(5):e17

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

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Epilepsy stigma in children in low-income and middle-income countries.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 May;5(5):314-316

KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi 80108, Kenya; Pwani University, Kilifi, Kenya; Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

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Empathy and theft by finding: The intermediary role of moral emotions and norms.

J Community Psychol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Criminology, Criminal Law and Social Law, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Faculty of Law and Criminology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

This study explores the intermediary role of anticipated shame, guilt, and norms in the association between empathy and the likelihood of a specific uncooperative act: theft by finding. Empirical evidence supports a negative association between empathy and a broad range of uncooperative behaviors. Some studies suggest that empathy reduces noncooperation via intermediary factors such as empathy and moral emotions shame and guilt. Read More

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Maternal Health Outcomes and Male Partner Involvement Among HIV Infected Women in Rural South Africa.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

HIV/AIDS, STIs, & TB Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, 134 Pretorius Street, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the association between Male Partner Involvement (MPI) and maternal health outcomes among women attending Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in rural South Africa. The association between Male Partner Participation in the main study (MPP) and maternal health outcomes among these women was also investigated.

Methods: The study utilized data collected from 535 HIV infected women in a randomized controlled trial between 2015 and 2016. Read More

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The role of sex-differentiated variations in stress hormones, antioxidants, and neuroimmune responses in relation to social interaction impairment in a rodent model of autism.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Central Laboratory, Female Center for Medical Studies and Scientific Section, King Saud University, P O Box 22452, Riyadh, 11495, Saudi Arabia.

Males are more likely to develop autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder than females, but the mechanisms underlying male susceptibility are not fully understood. In this paper, we used a well-characterized propionic acid (PPA) rodent model of autism to study sex differences in stress hormones, antioxidants' status, and the neuroimmune response that may contribute to the preponderance of autism in males. Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes were divided into a saline-treated group as controls and PPA-treated groups, receiving 250 mg/kg of PPA per day for three days. Read More

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The Role of Aggressive Peer Norms in Elementary School Children's Perceptions of Classroom Peer Climate and School Adjustment.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Although prior research has indicated that peer norms for aggression enhance the spread of aggression in classrooms, it is unclear to date how these norms relate to students' classroom climate perceptions and school adjustment. Aggressive descriptive norms reflect the average aggression of all students in classrooms, whereas aggressive popularity norms represent the extent to which aggressive behavior relates to popularity among peers. This study examined the role of aggressive descriptive and popularity norms in the classroom climate perceptions (cooperation, conflict, cohesion, isolation) and school adjustment (feelings of belonging; social, academic, and general self-esteem) of popular, well-liked, and victimized children. Read More

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Enhanced Transitions of Care for Medically Complex Refugees.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Box 359780, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Background: Between 2015 and 2019, 261,091 refugees were resettled through the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program. Read More

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