144 results match your criteria snt virus

Broad T Cell Targeting of Structural Proteins After SARS-CoV-2 Infection: High Throughput Assessment of T Cell Reactivity Using an Automated Interferon Gamma Release Assay.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:688436. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Adaptive immune responses to structural proteins of the virion play a crucial role in protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We therefore studied T cell responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in a large cohort using a simple, fast, and high-throughput approach.

Methods: An automated interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) for the Nucleocapsid (NC)-, Membrane (M)-, Spike-C-terminus (SCT)-, and N-terminus-protein (SNT)-specific T cell responses was performed using fresh whole blood from study subjects with convalescent, confirmed COVID-19 (n = 177, more than 200 days post infection), exposed household members (n = 145), and unexposed controls (n = 85). Read More

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The Carboxy Terminal Region on Spike Protein of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Is Important for Evaluating Neutralizing Activity.

Pathogens 2021 May 31;10(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejon 34134, Korea.

In this study, we evaluated 62 sow sera samples from PED-vaccinated sows to compare the serum neutralizing test (SNT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We performed protein ELISA (pELISA) using fragments of spike proteins S1, S2, S3 and entire nucleocapsid proteins, and found a correlation between the SNT and ELISA in PEDV-vaccinated sera. Sera with higher neutralizing activity showed higher titers of IgG. Read More

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Why airborne transmission hasn't been conclusive in case of COVID-19? An atmospheric science perspective.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;773:145525. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Civil Engineering, Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India. Electronic address:

Airborne transmission is one of the routes for the spread of COVID-19 which is caused by inhalation of smaller droplets containing SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., either virus-laden particulate matter: PM and/or droplet nuclei) in an indoor environment. Read More

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Variation in chemical composition and sources of PM during the COVID-19 lockdown in Delhi.

Environ Int 2021 08 9;153:106541. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The Government of India (GOI) announced a nationwide lockdown starting 25th March 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19, leading to an unprecedented decline in anthropogenic activities and, in turn, improvements in ambient air quality. This is the first study to focus on highly time-resolved chemical speciation and source apportionment of PM to assess the impact of the lockdown and subsequent relaxations on the sources of ambient PM in Delhi, India. The elemental, organic, and black carbon fractions of PM were measured at the IIT Delhi campus from February 2020 to May 2020. Read More

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An application of probability density function for the analysis of PM2.5 concentration during the COVID-19 lockdown period.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 27;782:146681. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT, Kanpur 208 016, India. Electronic address:

The first Covid-19 patient in India was reported on January 30, 2020 at the state of Kerala. The patient number rose to three by February 3, 2020. In the month of March 2020, the transmissions started to increase when the people started to return back to India from the Covid-19 affected countries. Read More

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Titers of Neutralizing Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Are Independent of Symptoms of Non-Severe COVID-19 in Young Adults.

Viruses 2021 02 12;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Swiss Armed Forces, Medical Services, Worblentalstrasse, 3063 Ittigen, Switzerland.

Neutralizing antibodies are an important part of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2. It is currently unclear to what extent such antibodies are produced after non-severe disease or asymptomatic infection. We studied a cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections among a homogeneous population of 332 predominantly male Swiss soldiers and determined the neutralizing antibody response with a serum neutralization assay using a recombinant SARS-CoV-2-GFP. Read More

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February 2021

Serological and Molecular Investigation of Batai Virus Infections in Ruminants from the State of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, 2018.

Viruses 2021 02 26;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Arthropod-borne Batai virus (BATV) is an widely distributed throughout European livestock and has, in the past, been linked to febrile diseases in humans. In Germany, BATV was found in mosquitoes and in one captive harbor seal, and antibodies were recently detected in various ruminant species. We have, therefore, conducted a follow-up study in ruminants from Saxony-Anhalt, the most affected region in Eastern Germany. Read More

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February 2021

Variations in Black Carbon concentration and sources during COVID-19 lockdown in Delhi.

Chemosphere 2021 May 26;270:129435. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016, India. Electronic address:

A nationwide lockdown was imposed in India due to COVID-19 pandemic in five phases from 25th March to May 31, 2020. The lockdown restricted major anthropogenic activities, primarily vehicular and industrial, thereby reducing the particulate matter concentration. This work investigates the variation in Black Carbon (BC) concentration and its sources (primarily Fossil Fuel (ff) burning and Biomass Burning (bb)) over Delhi from 18th February to July 31, 2020, covering one month of pre-lockdown phase, all the lockdown phases, and two months of successive lockdown relaxations. Read More

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Hendra virus: Epidemiology dynamics in relation to climate change, diagnostic tests and control measures.

One Health 2021 Jun 21;12:100207. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Hendra virus (HeV) continues to pose a serious public health concern as spillover events occur sporadically. Terminally ill horses can exhibit a range of clinical signs including frothy nasal discharge, ataxia or forebrain signs. Early signs, if detected, can include depression, inappetence, colic or mild respiratory signs. Read More

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Presence of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus in sheep in Tunisia, North Africa.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Nov 12;16(1):441. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Laboratory of Infectious Animal Diseases, Zoonosis and Sanitary Regulation, Institution of Agricultural Research and Higher Education, Univ. Manouba, National School of Veterinary Medicine of Sidi Thabet, 2020, Sidi Thabet, Tunisia.

Background: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv) is a flavivirus that circulates in a complex cycle involving small mammals as amplifying hosts and ticks as vectors and reservoirs. The current study aimed to investigate the presence of TBEv in Tunisian sheep. A sample of 263 adult sheep were selected from 6 localities where Ixodes ricinus is well established. Read More

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November 2020

The Anti-Apoptotic Role of EBV-LMP1 in Lymphoma Cells.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 22;12:8801-8811. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Pathology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441021, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been indicated in the development of some tumors, including lymphoma. However, the potential role of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) encoded by EBV in the tumorigenesis of lymphoma remains debated. Herein, we examined the function of LMP1 in lymphoma. Read More

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September 2020

Comparative analysis of the course of infection and the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected with the 5 genotypes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.

Virology 2021 Jan 6;552:20-31. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Fish Viral Pathology Unit, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280, Plouzané, France.

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen of importance for salmonid aquaculture. In this study, we aimed to characterize virus behavior and defense mechanisms developed in rainbow trout (RT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) experimentally infected with isolates belonging to the five described genotypes of IHNV, i.e. Read More

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January 2021

Detection of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis flaviviruses in breeding and sport horses from Spain.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2020 09 2;11(5):101487. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping-ill virus (LIV) are two closely related zoonotic flaviviruses leading to neurological diseases and belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) serocomplex. Both viruses are transmitted by the same ixodid tick vector, Ixodes ricinus. Due to global warming affecting vector biology and pathogen transmission, the viruses pose an emerging threat for public health in Europe and Asia. Read More

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September 2020

Spatiotemporal monitoring of selected pathogens in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica).

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), Córdoba, Spain.

An epidemiological surveillance programme was carried out to assess exposure and spatiotemporal patterns of selected pathogens (Brucella spp., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Mycoplasma agalactiae, Pestivirus and bluetongue virus (BTV)) in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from Andalusia (southern Spain), the region with the largest population of this species. Read More

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Evaluation of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of bluetongue virus in wild ruminants.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Jun 29;70:101461. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, UCO, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.

Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable re-emerging vector-borne disease of animal health concern. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are frequently used in BT surveillance programs in domestic ruminants, but their diagnostic accuracy has not been evaluated for wild ruminants, which can play an important role as natural reservoirs of bluetongue virus (BTV). The aim of this study was to assess two commercial ELISAs for BT diagnosis in wild ruminants using control sera of known BTV infection status and field samples. Read More

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Development of a High-Throughput Serum Neutralization Test Using Recombinant Pestiviruses Possessing a Small Reporter Tag.

Pathogens 2020 Mar 4;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Division of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.

A serum neutralization test (SNT) is an essential method for the serological diagnosis of pestivirus infections, including classical swine fever, because of the cross reactivity of antibodies against pestiviruses and the non-quantitative properties of antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conventional SNTs, an immunoperoxidase assay or observation of cytopathic effect after incubation for 3 to 7 days is needed to determine the SNT titer, which requires labor-intensive or time-consuming procedures. Therefore, a new SNT, based on the luciferase system and using classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and border disease virus possessing the 11-amino-acid subunit derived from NanoLuc luciferase was developed and evaluated; this approach enabled the rapid and easy determination of the SNT titer using a luminometer. Read More

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Experimental infection of calves with seven serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus: production and characterization of reference sera.

Vet Ital 2019 Dec 31;55(4):339-346. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

The aim of this study was to produce reference sera against the seven serotypes of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV‑1, EHDV‑2, EHDV‑4, EHDV‑5, EHDV‑6, EHDV‑7, and EHDV‑8). In a high containment unit, seven Prim 'Holstein calves were inoculated at day 0 (D0) with the selected strains (1 EHDV serotype per calf ). Blood samples (EDTA and whole blood) were periodically taken from D0 until the end of the experiment (D31). Read More

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December 2019

Cervids as sentinel-species for tick-borne encephalitis virus in Norway - A serological study.

Zoonoses Public Health 2020 06 19;67(4):342-351. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Virology, Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). TBEV is one of the most important neurological pathogens transmitted by tick bites in Europe. The objectives of this study were to investigate the seroprevalence of TBE antibodies in cervids in Norway and the possible emergence of new foci, and furthermore to evaluate if cervids can function as sentinel animals for the distribution of TBEV in the country. Read More

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Comparative immune responses of pups following modified live virus vaccinations against canine parvovirus.

Vet World 2019 Sep;12(9):1422-1427

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Background And Aim: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of enteritis and mortality in pups. Evaluation and monitoring of pre- and post-vaccine immune responses may help to determine the efficacy of the current vaccination schedule being followed in pups in India. This study aimed to evaluate and monitor the pre- and post-vaccine immune responses of CPV vaccinated pups using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Read More

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September 2019

Experimental lumpy skin disease virus infection of cattle: comparison of a field strain and a vaccine strain.

Arch Virol 2019 Dec 19;164(12):2931-2941. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) infections can cause massive clinical signs in cattle and have great economic impact due to severe trade restrictions. For LSDV control, only live attenuated vaccines are commercially available, but they currently are not authorized in the European Union. Moreover, these vaccine virus strains can induce substantial side effects with clinical signs similar to infections with virulent LSDV. Read More

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December 2019

Bluetongue virus outer-capsid protein VP2 expressed in raises neutralising antibodies and a protective immune response in IFNAR mice.

Vaccine X 2019 Aug 22;2:100026. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK.

Bluetongue is a severe, economically important disease of ruminants that is widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions around the world. It is associated with major production losses, restrictions of animal movements and trade, as well as costs associated with developing and implementing effective surveillance and control measures. Mammalian hosts infected with bluetongue virus (BTV) generate a protective neutralising antibody response targeting the major BTV outer-capsid protein and serotype-specific antigen, VP2. Read More

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Development of an Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay to Detect Antibodies against Serotype A2013 of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle.

Arch Razi Inst 2019 06 1;74(2):143-155. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious animal disease that causes irreparable damage to the economy of countries, including Iran in which this disease is a native one. Among the ways to combat FMD are vaccination and slaughter. Due to the specific situation of Iran, it is not possible to kill infected animals. Read More

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Nipah virus - the rising epidemic: a review.

Infez Med 2019 Jun;27(2):117-127

MBBS, Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

The Nipah virus was discovered twenty years ago, and there is considerable information available regarding the specificities surrounding this virus such as transmission, pathogenesis and genome. Belonging to the Henipavirus genus, this virus can cause fever, encephalitis and respiratory disorders. The first cases were reported in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998, when affected individuals presented with severe febrile encephalitis. Read More

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High seroconversion rate to Rift Valley fever virus in cattle and goats in far northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the absence of reported outbreaks.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 05 3;13(5):e0007296. Epub 2019 May 3.

Epidemiology Section, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Gauteng, South Africa.

Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized in South Africa by large epidemics amongst ruminant livestock at very long, irregular intervals, mainly in the central interior. However, the presence and patterns of occurrence of the virus in the eastern parts of the country are poorly known. This study aimed to detect the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) in cattle and goats in far northern KwaZulu-Natal province and to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to the virus and the incidence rate of seroconversion. Read More

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First detection of TBE virus in ticks and sero-reactivity in goats in a non-endemic region in the southern part of Switzerland (Canton of Ticino).

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2019 06 18;10(4):868-874. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Spiez Laboratory, Ausstrasse, 3700, Spiez, Switzerland.

In Switzerland, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a notifiable human disease with an average of 210 cases per year in the last 10 years (2008-2017). A national surveillance conducted in 2009 reported a prevalence of 0.46% for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) detected in ticks, which is in accordance with the prevalences found in Europe from 0. Read More

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Upregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase prevents sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

Arch Toxicol 2019 06 25;93(6):1697-1712. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Pharmacology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050017, Hebei, China.

Sunitinib (SNT) is a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved by the FDA for cancer therapy. However, its cardiotoxicity has limited the clinical applicability with no effective therapeutic approach available. As a broadband kinase inhibitor, the function of several kinases that are essential to cardiac function might also be affected by SNT, such as calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K). Read More

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Direct measurement of the mechanical properties of a chromatin analog and the epigenetic effects of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene.

Sci Rep 2019 04 9;9(1):5816. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

CIRMM, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 153-8505, Japan.

By means of Silicon Nano Tweezers (SNTs) the effects on the mechanical properties of λ-phage DNA during interaction with calf thymus nucleosome to form an artificial chromatin analog were measured. At a concentration of 100 nM, a nucleosome solution induced a strong stiffening effect on DNA (1.1 N m). Read More

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Establishment of an immunofluorescence assay to detect IgM antibodies to Nipah virus using HeLa cells expressing recombinant nucleoprotein.

J Virol Methods 2019 07 5;269:83-87. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Veterinary Science, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

A novel indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for detection of IgM against Nipah virus (NiV) was developed using HeLa 229 cells expressing recombinant NiV nucleocapsid protein (NiV-N). The NiV IFAT was evaluated using three panels of sera: a) experimentally produced sera from NiV-N-immunized/pre-immunized macaques, b) post-infection human sera associated with a Nipah disease outbreak in the Philippines in 2014, and c) human sera from a non-exposed Malaysian population. Immunized macaque sera showed a characteristic granular staining pattern of the NiV-N expressed antigen in HeLa 229 cells, which was readily distinguished from negative-binding results of the pre-immunized macaque sera. Read More

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Vaccination of 1-day-old pigs with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live attenuated virus vaccine is able to overcome maternal immunity.

Porcine Health Manag 2018 15;4:25. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

2Zoetis Inc., 333 Portage St, Kalamazoo, MI 49007 USA.

Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the efficacy of a PRRSV-1 based attenuated vaccine, when administered in 1 day-old piglets by the intramuscular route. The protective immunity of the modified live virus vaccine was evaluated in pigs born from seropositive sows, vaccinated at 1 day of age, upon inoculation with a PRRSV-1 isolate. The animals were challenged when the levels of MDAs detected by seroneutralization test (SNT) in the non-vaccinated control group became undetectable (10 weeks after vaccination). Read More

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November 2018

Isolation and Characterization of Bluetongue Virus Recovered from Blood Samples by Immunoaffinity Purification.

Indian J Microbiol 2018 Dec 8;58(4):433-439. Epub 2018 May 8.

2Eastern Regional Station, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, 37, Belgachia Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 037 India.

An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) method was optimized for the selective capture of bluetongue virus (BTV) from blood samples and isolation of the virus in cell culture. The antibody against BTV core particles (lacking the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5) was used for the optimization of IAC technique. The antibody against BTV core particle was conjugated with Protein A-virus complex and the complex was dissociated using elution buffer (4 M MgCl with 75 mM HEPES, pH 6. Read More

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December 2018