321 results match your criteria smell bitter


Quantitative analysis of taste disorder in COVID-19 patients, the hypersensitivity to salty quality.

New Microbes New Infect 2021 Jul 17:100919. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Otorhinolaryngology, head & neck surgery department of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Recently, many of studies have illustrated that the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2 can affect Central Nervous System through olfactory bulb. In addition to investigating anosmia or hyposmia induced by this virus, the quantitative analysis was needed to clarify the taste and smell disorder of the new corona virus The four basic taste quality with five concentrations for sweet, sour, bitter and salty were administered in to 75 subject divided in to three groups: COVID-19 patients with taste disorder, COVID-19 patients without taste disorder and control group. The results indicated the increment of sweet (2. Read More

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Bitter Taste and Olfactory Receptors: Beyond Chemical Sensing in the Tongue and the Nose.

J Membr Biol 2021 Aug 25;254(4):343-352. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute for Advanced Simulations IAS-5/Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine INM-9, Computational Biomedicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany.

The Up-and-Coming-Scientist section of the current issue of the Journal of Membrane Biology features the invited essay by Dr. Mercedes Alfonso-Prieto, Assistant Professor at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), Germany, and the Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Vogt Institute for Brain Research. Dr. Read More

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Taste and Smell Function in Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

Chem Senses 2021 01;46

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61820, USA.

Survivors of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) frequently complain of taste dysfunction long after radiation therapy is completed, which contradicts findings from most sensory evaluation studies that predict dysfunction should resolve few months after treatment. Therefore, it remains unclear whether taste and smell function fully recovers in HNSCC survivors. We evaluated HNSCC survivors (n = 40; age 63 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation) who received radiation therapy between 6 months and 10 years before recruitment and compared their responses to those of a healthy control group (n = 20) equivalent in age, sex, race, smoking history, and body mass index. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Gustatory Function in Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 May 12:1455613211015754. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, 40293Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung.

Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effect of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on gustatory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).

Methods: Forty-three patients with CRS who underwent FESS were included in this study. Prior to FESS and 3 months after surgery, the severity of rhinosinusitis was assessed using the Taiwanese version of the 22-item SNOT (SNOT-22), endoscopic examination, and acoustic rhinometry. Read More

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What's in a name? That which we call perinatal stress hyperinsulinism by any other name would smell so bitter.

J Perinatol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division Chief and Director Congenital Hyperinsulinism Center, Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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Prospective Analysis of the Chronology of Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Positive ENT Doctors.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Apr 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029 India.

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction has been reported as an early presentation in COVID-19. We intent to analyze the chronological outline of these chemosensory disturbances in term of onset, progression and resolution in ENT doctors with COVID-19. In six symptomatic otolaryngologists who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, detailed symptomatology of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was collected prospectively on regular basis till a period of at least three months. Read More

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Simultaneously complete but not partial taste and smell losses were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 2;106:329-337. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Department of Disease Control, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between taste and smell losses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and to elucidate whether taste preference influences such taste loss.

Methods: A matched case-control study was conducted in 366 Thai participants, including 122 who were confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive by RT-PCR (case group) and 244 who were SARS-CoV-2-negative (control group). Taste, smell, and appetite changes were assessed by self-reported visual analog scale. Read More

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Evolutionary shifts in taste coding in the fruit pest .

Elife 2021 Feb 22;10. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, United States.

Although most species lay eggs in overripe fruit, the agricultural pest lays eggs in ripe fruit. We found that changes in bitter taste perception have accompanied this adaptation. We show that bitter-sensing mutants of undergo a shift in egg laying preference toward ripe fruit. Read More

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February 2021

The presence of chemosensory cues transmitted through the mother's milk increases the search and ingestion responses toward bitter and sour solutions.

Appetite 2021 06 31;161:105147. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas A Lanari, IDIM-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Combatientes de Malvinas 3150, CP 1427, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad Abierta Interamericana - Centro de Altos Estudios en Ciencias Humanas y de La Salud, Av. Montes de Oca 745, CP 1270, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Olfaction is of major importance during early stages of life in altricial species. This sense allows newborns to develop different behaviors that will allow them to survive. Odors tend to be associated to contextual stimuli (such as warmth); this, in turn, enables the pups to recognize when to withdraw or approach. Read More

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A Pilot Study to Develop a New Method of Assisting Children in Taking Their Medication by Using Immersive Virtual Reality.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(2):279-282

Department of Clinical Pharmacy Research and Education, Osaka University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Taking bitter-tasting drugs can be stressful for children who have underdeveloped swallowing skills and do not understand the meaning of medication. Furthermore, the senses of vision and smell are known to majorly influence taste. This pilot study was aimed at determining the effect of visual stimulation by immersive virtual reality (iVR) on taste and the safety of this approach for developing a new method to assist children with taking medication. Read More

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January 2021

Objective gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: a prospective cross-sectional study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Sep 20;278(9):3325-3332. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Klinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Hals- und Gesichtschirurgie, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of objective gustatory (GD) and olfactory (OD) dysfunction in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study of 51 COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed using RT-PCR-based testing. Of these study participants, 41 reported having present GD and OD at the time of enrollment and ten patients were without symptomatic OD and GD. Read More

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September 2021

A large genome with chromosome-scale assembly sheds light on the evolutionary success of a true toad (Bufo gargarizans).

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 May 8;21(4):1256-1273. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China.

We present a high-quality genome assembly for the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) and explore the evolution of several large gene families in amphibians. With a large genome assembly size of 4.55 Gb, the chromosome-scale assembly includes 747 scaffolds with an N50 of 539. Read More

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COVID-19: Recovery from Chemosensory Dysfunction. A Multicentre study on Smell and Taste.

Laryngoscope 2021 05 15;131(5):1095-1100. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Objective/hypothesis: With the COVID-19 pandemic, chemosensory dysfunction are among the most prevalent symptoms. Most reports are subjective evaluations, which have been suggested to be unreliable. The objective is to test chemosensory dysfunction and recovery based on extensive psychophysical tests in COVID-19 during the course of the disease. Read More

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Association between olfactory function and quality of life in patients with olfactory disorders: a multicenter study in over 760 participants.

Rhinology 2021 Apr;59(2):164-172

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: This cross-sectional, multi-centric study aimed to investigate the differences in quality of life among patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) of different origin, and to identify factors associated with olfactory-related quality of life (QOL).

Methods: Seven hundred sixty-three adults were recruited from 8 Smell & Taste clinics in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Olfactory-related QOL was assessed by the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD). Read More

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Alteration, Reduction and Taste Loss: Main Causes and Potential Implications on Dietary Habits.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 27;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

University of Gastronomic Sciences, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele 9, Bra, 12042 Pollenzo, CN, Italy.

Our sense of taste arises from the sensory information generated after compounds in the oral cavity and oropharynx activate taste receptor cells situated on taste buds. This produces the perception of sweet, bitter, salty, sour, or umami stimuli, depending on the chemical nature of the tastant. Taste impairments (dysgeusia) are alterations of this normal gustatory functioning that may result in complete taste losses (ageusia), partial reductions (hypogeusia), or over-acuteness of the sense of taste (hypergeusia). Read More

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October 2020

Use of Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases for Conversion of Trimethylamine in Salmon Protein Hydrolysates.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 11 24;86(24). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bergen, Norway

Enzymatic processing of fish by-products for recovery of peptides (hydrolysates) is a promising technology to reach food grade ingredients of high nutritional quality. Despite this, their bitter taste and "fish" odor block implementation in food products and limit their economic potential. Trimethylamine (TMA) is a known contributor to malodor in fish. Read More

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November 2020

An Observational Study Evaluating the Introduction of a Prolonged-Release Protein Substitute to the Dietary Management of Children with Phenylketonuria.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 3;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Dietetic Department, Birmingham Women's and Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK.

Dietary restriction of phenylalanine combined with a protein substitute prevents intellectual disability in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). However, current protein substitutes are associated with low adherence owing to unpalatability and burdensome administration regimens. This prospective, observational acceptability study in children with PKU assessed the use of a prolonged-release protein substitute designed with an ethyl cellulose and arginate coating masking the bitter taste, smell and reducing the osmolarity of free amino acids. Read More

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September 2020

Chemosensory Dysfunction in COVID-19: Prevalences, Recovery Rates, and Clinical Associations on a Large Brazilian Sample.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 03 1;164(3):512-518. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: Our study aimed to measure the percentage of reported olfactory or taste losses and their severity, recovery time, and association with other features in a large cohort of patients with COVID-19.

Study Design: Prospective survey.

Setting: Quaternary medical center and online survey. Read More

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Does phenotypic expression of bitter taste receptor T2R38 show association with COVID-19 severity?

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 11 29;10(11):1255-1257. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Rhinology and Skull Base Research Group, Baton Rouge General Medical Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the pathogen causing the outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) commencing in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Multiple reports have shown subjective loss of taste and smell as an early and hallmark symptom for COVID-19.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed in our clinical practice during July 2020 on patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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November 2020

Metabolism and Functions of Amino Acids in Sense Organs.

Authors:
Guoyao Wu

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1265:201-217

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin) provide senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch, respectively, to aid the survival, development, learning, and adaptation of humans and other animals (including fish). Amino acids (AAs) play an important role in the growth, development, and functions of the sense organs. Recent work has identified receptor-mediated mechanisms responsible for the chemosensory transduction of five basic taste qualities (sweet, sour, bitter, umami and salty tastes). Read More

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September 2020

Smell and taste function in childhood cancer patients: a feasibility study.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Mar 2;29(3):1619-1628. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Purpose: Chemotherapy can affect smell and taste function. This has never been investigated in childhood cancer patients during chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether psychophysical smell and taste tests are suitable for children with cancer. Read More

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Positive association between bitter taste threshold and preference of vegetables among adolescents.

Acta Paediatr 2021 03 7;110(3):875-880. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Clinical Medicine (Flavour Institute), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Aim: Better understanding of aspects of taste in adolescents is needed since it has bearings on food policies, food industry and pharmaceutical design. Furthermore, taste preferences likely play a role in overeating and anorexia. We aimed to validate a questionnaire about taste preferences and dietary habits along with measurements of sense of smell and taste. Read More

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Optogenetic Activation of Type III Taste Cells Modulates Taste Responses.

Chem Senses 2020 10;45(7):533-539

Department of Otolaryngology and Rocky Mountain Taste and Smell Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Studies have suggested that communication between taste cells shapes the gustatory signal before transmission to the brain. To further explore the possibility of intragemmal signal modulation, we adopted an optogenetic approach to stimulate sour-sensitive (Type III) taste cells using mice expressing Cre recombinase under a specific Type III cell promoter, Pkd2l1 (polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1), crossed with mice expressing Cre-dependent channelrhodopsin (ChR2). The application of blue light onto the tongue allowed for the specific stimulation of Type III cells and circumvented the nonspecific effects of chemical stimulation. Read More

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October 2020

[Detection rates of chemosensory evoked Potenzials with healthy and anosmic subjects].

Laryngorhinootologie 2020 11 22;99(11):803-810. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Klinik für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkrankheiten, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Background: The detection rate of olfactory chemosensory event-related EEG Potentials (oCSERP) and trigeminal chemosensory event-related EEG Potentials (tCSERP) is also dependent on the stimulants and the evaluator of the averaged EEG curves.

Methods: In 45 subjects with age-appropriate normal olfactory capacity (NP) and 20 anosmics (AN), oCSERP (stimulation by hydrogen sulphide, HS 6 ppm and phenylethyl alcohol, PEA 30 % v/v,) and tCSERP (irritation with CO 20-60 % v/v, intensity standardized) were derived by default. Two investigators categorized the averaged EEG curves in: CSERP recognizable, no CSERP recognizable and artefact. Read More

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November 2020

[Hydrogen sulphide stimuli shorten exhalation during sleep as well as in wakefulness].

Laryngorhinootologie 2020 09 29;99(9):620-627. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Klinik für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Background: In the attentive waking state, pleasant odours often prolong inhalation while unpleasant odours often shorten the exhalation. It should be checked whether this induced breathing pattern is maintained even during sleep.

Methodology: 23 healthy normosmic adults were examined by polysomnography for one night and randomized pulsed either with HS, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) or CO via a flow olfactometer. Read More

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September 2020

[The active butanol detection threshold remains the same during exercise].

Laryngorhinootologie 2020 07 22;99(7):453-459. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Klinik für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkrankheiten, Uniklinikum, Jena, Germany.

Background: The active butanol detection thresholds (B-DT), determined using the sniffin' sticks, show a high intra- and inter-individual test-retest reliability, although the internal stimulus concentration may vary considerably depending on the dilution of the external stimulus concentration with odorless ambient air during active sniffing. There are various hypotheses for this surprising result. In this study, it should be tested whether a larger respiratory effort (vigor) under physical stress changes the active B-DT. Read More

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Smell and taste in titanium and nickel allergic sensitization in orthodontic patients.

Orthod Craniofac Res 2020 Nov 4;23(4):517-522. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Rijeka, Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of allergic sensitization to titanium and nickel in orthodontic patients and to evaluate alterations of smell and taste.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 250 subjects were invited to participate, 245 accepted. The age range was 11-45 years, 68% were females and 52% adolescents. Read More

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November 2020

Chemosensory Sensitivity after Coffee Consumption Is Not Static: Short-Term Effects on Gustatory and Olfactory Sensitivity.

Foods 2020 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Flavour Institute, Aarhus University, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Chemosensory sensitivity has great variation between individuals. This variation complicates the chemosensory diagnostics, as well as the creation of a meal with universally high hedonic value. To ensure accurate characterization of chemosensory function, a common rule of thumb is to avoid food/beverages one hour before chemosensory testing. Read More

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Bitter perception is altered in asthma and predicts its severity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 10 4;146(4):919-921.e4. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Dresden, Germany.

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October 2020