54,392 results match your criteria small neurons


KCNK13 potassium channels in the ventral tegmental area of rats are important for excitation of VTA neurons by ethanol.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 60612.

Background: Alcohol excites neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the release of dopamine from these neurons is a key event in ethanol reward and reinforcement. Many mechanisms for ethanol actions on neurons of the VTA have been proposed, but antagonists generally do not eliminate ethanol-induced excitation of VTA neurons. We have previously demonstrated that the ion channel KCNK13 plays an important role in ethanol excitation of mouse VTA neurons. Read More

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Interaction of NHE1 and TRPA1 Activity in DRG Neurons Isolated from Adult Rats and its Role in Inflammatory Nociception.

Neuroscience 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Departamento de Farmacobiología, Cinvestav, South Campus, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is expressed in a subset of nociceptive neurons. This channel integrates several nociceptive signals. Particularly, it is modulated by intracellular pH (pH). Read More

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Rac-maninoff and Rho-vel: The symphony of Rho-GTPase signaling at excitatory synapses.

Small GTPases 2021 May 6:1-34. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Synaptic connections between neurons are essential for every facet of human cognition and are thus regulated with extreme precision. Rho-family GTPases, molecular switches that cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, comprise a critical feature of synaptic regulation. Rho-GTPases are exquisitely controlled by an extensive suite of activators (GEFs) and inhibitors (GAPs and GDIs) and interact with many different signalling pathways to fulfill their roles in orchestrating the development, maintenance, and plasticity of excitatory synapses of the central nervous system. Read More

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Ablation of dynamin-related protein 1 promotes diabetes-induced synaptic injury in the hippocampus.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 5;12(5):445. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anatomy and Convergence Medical Science, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam, 52727, Republic of Korea.

Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with synaptic injury in the diabetic brain. However, the dysfunctional mitochondria by Drp1 deletion in the diabetic brain are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of neuron-specific Drp1 deletion on synaptic damage and mitophagy in the hippocampus of a high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Read More

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Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Common yet Disproportionately Deadly Stroke Subtype.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Departments of Critical Care Medicine, Neurologic Surgery, and Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a medical emergency and is disproportionately associated with higher mortality and long-term disability compared with ischemic stroke. The phrase "time is brain" was derived for patients with large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke in which approximately 1.9 million neurons are lost every minute. Read More

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MRI of Capn15 Knockout Mice and Analysis of Capn 15 Distribution Reveal Possible Roles in Brain Development and Plasticity.

Neuroscience 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada. Electronic address:

The Small Optic Lobe (SOL) family of calpains are intracellular cysteine proteases that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in neuronal development in both Drosophila, where loss of this calpain leads to the eponymous SOLs, and in mouse and human, where loss of this calpain leads to eye anomalies. Some human individuals with biallelic variants in CAPN15 also have developmental delay and autism. However, neither the specific effect of the loss of the Capn15 protein on brain development nor the brain regions where this calpain is expressed in the adult is known. Read More

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CAG RNAs induce DNA damage and apoptosis by silencing expression in polyglutamine degeneration.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Laboratory of Drosophila Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China;

DNA damage plays a central role in the cellular pathogenesis of polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD). In this study, we showed that the expression of untranslatable expanded CAG RNA per se induced the cellular DNA damage response pathway. By means of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we found that expression of the () gene was down-regulated in mutant CAG RNA-expressing cells. Read More

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Characterization of putative tachykinin peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 1;559:197-202. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division for Identification and Analysis of Bioactive Peptides, Department of Bioactive Peptides, Frontier Science Research, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan. Electronic address:

Tachykinin-like peptides, such as substance P, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B, are among the earliest discovered and best-studied neuropeptide families, and research on them has contributed greatly to our understanding of the endocrine control of many physiological processes. However, there are still many orphan tachykinin receptor homologs for which cognate ligands have not yet been identified, especially in small invertebrates, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Read More

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Suppressing the DSCAM/PAK1 pathway reverses neurogenesis deficits in Down Syndrome patient iPSC-derived cerebral organoids.

J Clin Invest 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Pharmacy, Institute for Stem Cell and Neural Regeneration, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, occurs in 1 of every 800 live births. Early defects in cortical development likely account for the cognitive impairments in DS, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we performed histological assays and unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis on cerebral organoids derived from four euploid cell lines and from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from three individuals with trisomy 21 to explore cell type-specific abnormalities associated with DS during early brain development. Read More

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Autism associated missense point mutations impact conformational fluctuations and protein turnover at synapses.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Optobiology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Biology, Berlin, Germany.

Members of the SH3- and ankyrin-rich repeat (SHANK) protein family are considered as master scaffolds of the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. Several missense mutations within the canonical SHANK3 isoform have been proposed as causative for the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, there is a surprising paucity of data linking missense mutation-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics to the occurrence of ASD-related synaptic phenotypes. Read More

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Conventional Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation in an Experimental Model of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Quantitative Immunocytochemical Analysis of Intracellular γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background And Objective: The sensory cell somata in the DRG contain all equipment necessary for extensive GABAergic signaling and are able to release GABA upon depolarization. With this study, we hypothesize that pain relief induced by conventional dorsal root ganglion stimulation (Con-DRGS) in animals with experimental painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is related to the release of GABA from DRG neurons. With use of quantitative immunocytochemistry, we hypothesize DRGS to result in a decreased intensity of intracellular GABA-immunostaining in DRG somata. Read More

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Interocular Suppression in Primary Visual Cortex in Strabismus.

J Neurosci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Program in Neuroscience, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA

People with strabismus acquired during childhood do not experience diplopia (double vision). To investigate how perception of the duplicate image is suppressed, we raised two male monkeys with alternating exotropia by disinserting the medial rectus muscle in each eye at age 4 weeks. Once the animals were mature, they were brought to the laboratory and trained to fixate a small spot while recordings were made in V1. Read More

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Experiences affect social behaviors via altering neuronal morphology and oxytocin system.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 29;129:105247. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Anatomy and Histology & Embryology, Neuroscience, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000, PR China; Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

Life experiences, such as maternal deprivation (MD) and environment enrichment (EE), affect social behaviors in the adult. But, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we determined whether neonatal MD induces social deficits, whether postweaning EE restores the deficits, and their effects on neuron morphology and oxytocin (OT)-oxytocin receptor (OTR) system. Read More

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Phosphorylated tau targeted small-molecule PROTACs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Tauopathies.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Apr 30:166162. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Neurology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA. Electronic address:

Tau is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that plays an important role in the formation of axonal microtubules in neurons. Phosphorylated tau (p-Tau) has received great attention in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a potential therapeutic target due to its involvement with synaptic damage and neuronal dysfunction. Mounting evidence suggests that amyloid beta (Aβ)-targeted clinical trials continuously failed; therefore, it is important to consider alternative therapeutic strategies such as p-tau-PROTACs targeted small molecules for AD and other tauopathies. Read More

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Umbilical cord-derived MSC and hyperbaric oxygen therapy effectively protected the brain in rat after acute intracerebral haemorrhage.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCDMSCs) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was superior to either one on preserving neurological function and reducing brain haemorrhagic volume (BHV) in rat after acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) induced by intracranial injection of collagenase. Adult male SD rats (n = 30) were equally divided into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (ICH), group 3 (ICH +HUCDMSCs/1.2 × 10 cells/intravenous injection at 3h and days 1 and 2 after ICH), group 4 (ICH +HBO/at 3 hours and days 1 and 2 after ICH) and group 5 (ICH +HUCDMSCs-HBO), and killed by day 28 after ICH. Read More

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Enteric mesenchymal cells support the growth of postnatal enteric neural stem cells.

Stem Cells 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Interplay between embryonic enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) and enteric mesenchymal cells (EMCs) in the embryonic gut is essential for normal development of the enteric nervous system. Disruption of these interactions underlies the pathogenesis of intestinal aganglionosis in Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). ENSC therapy has been proposed as a possible treatment for HSCR, but whether the survival and development of postnatal-derived ENSCs similarly rely on signals from the mesenchymal environment is unknown and has important implications for developing protocols to expand ENSCs for cell transplantation therapy. Read More

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MicroRNA-338 inhibition protects against focal cerebral ischemia and preserves mitochondrial function in vitro in astrocytes and neurons via COX4I1.

Mitochondrion 2021 Apr 30;59:105-112. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Dept of Anesthesiology, Perioperative & Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Brain-enriched microRNA-338 (miR-338) is known to play a central role in brain mitochondrial function, however the role of miR-338 in stroke injury remains unknown. This study investigated the role of miR-338 in injury from transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice, and in cell survival and mitochondrial function after in vitro ischemia in astrocyte and neuronal cultures. Pre-treatment of mice with intracerebroventricular injection of miR-338 antagomir 24 h prior to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological score at both 24 h and 7d after injury. Read More

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Characterization of neuronal viability and network activity under microfluidic flow.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Apr 28;358:109200. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Microfluidics technology has the potential to allow precise control of the temporal and spatial aspects of solute concentration, making it highly relevant for the study of volume transmission mechanisms in neural tissue. However, full utilization of this technology depends on understanding how microfluidic flow at the rates needed for rapid solution exchange affects neuronal viability and network activity.

New Method: We designed a tape-based pressurized microfluidic flow system that is simple to fabricate and can be attached to commercial microelectrode arrays. Read More

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Edaravone alleviated propofol-induced neural injury in developing rats by BDNF/TrkB pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

As a variety of free radical scavenger, edaravone has shown its potential in producing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in various disease models. However, the underlying mechanism behind the neuroprotective effects of edaravone remained unclear. This study is aimed at determining the effects of edaravone on neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory through a propofol-induced neural injury rat model. Read More

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Collective Synchronous Spiking in a Brain Network of Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(15):158102

Center for Scientific Computation in Imaging, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0854, USA and Center for Functional MRI, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0677, USA.

A network of propagating nonlinear oscillatory modes (waves) in the human brain is shown to generate collectively synchronized spiking activity (hypersynchronous spiking) when both amplitude and phase coupling between modes are taken into account. The nonlinear behavior of the modes participating in the network are the result of the nonresonant dynamics of weakly evanescent cortical waves that, as shown recently, adhere to an inverse frequency-wave number dispersion relation when propagating through an inhomogeneous anisotropic media characteristic of the brain cortex. This description provides a missing link between simplistic models of synchronization in networks of small amplitude phase coupled oscillators and in networks built with various empirically fitted models of pulse or amplitude coupled spiking neurons. Read More

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Corynoxine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons Through Inducing Autophagy and Diminishing Neuroinflammation in Rotenone-Induced Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:642900. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.

Recent studies have shown that impairment of autophagy is related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and small molecular autophagy enhancers are suggested to be potential drug candidates against PD. Previous studies identified corynoxine (Cory), an oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine (Miq.) Jacks, as a new autophagy enhancer that promoted the degradation of α-synuclein in a PD cell model. Read More

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Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the RNA M6A Demethylases FTO Potently Support the Survival of Dopamine Neurons.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.

The fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO), an RNA N-methyladenosine (mA) demethylase, is an important regulator of central nervous system development, neuronal signaling and disease. We present here the target-tailored development and biological characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of FTO. The active compounds were identified using high-throughput molecular docking and molecular dynamics screening of the ZINC compound library. Read More

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Small GTPases of the Rab and Arf Families: Key Regulators of Intracellular Trafficking in Neurodegeneration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Science Park of the UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa, Spain.

Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) of the Rab and Arf families are key regulators of vesicle formation and membrane trafficking. Membrane transport plays an important role in the central nervous system. In this regard, neurons require a constant flow of membranes for the correct distribution of receptors, for the precise composition of proteins and organelles in dendrites and axons, for the continuous exocytosis/endocytosis of synaptic vesicles and for the elimination of dysfunctional proteins. Read More

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The Role of Exosomes in Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Exosomes, small membrane-bound organelles formed from endosomal membranes, represent a heterogenous source of biological and pathological biomarkers capturing the metabolic status of a cell. Exosomal cargo, including lipids, proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs, can either act as inter-cellular messengers or are shuttled for autophagic/lysosomal degradation. Most cell types in the central nervous system (CNS) release exosomes, which serve as long and short distance communicators between neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Read More

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Oligonucleotides as therapeutic tools for brain disorders: Focus on major depressive disorder and Parkinson's disease.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 27;227:107873. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 08036 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), ISCIII, Madrid, Spain.

Remarkable advances in understanding the role of RNA in health and disease have expanded considerably in the last decade. RNA is becoming an increasingly important target for therapeutic intervention; therefore, it is critical to develop strategies for therapeutic modulation of RNA function. Oligonucleotides, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA mimic (miRNA), and anti-microRNA (antagomir) are perhaps the most direct therapeutic strategies for addressing RNA. Read More

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Basal ganglia and cortical control of thalamic rebound spikes.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, S1 2LT, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Movement-related decreases in firing rate have been observed in basal ganglia output neurons. They may transmit motor signals to the thalamus, but the effect of these firing rate decreases on downstream neurons in the motor thalamus is not known. One possibility is that they lead to thalamic post-inhibitory rebound spikes. Read More

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A quantitative description of macaque ganglion cell responses to natural scenes: the interplay of time and space.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Graduate Center for Vision Research, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY College of Optometry, 33 West 42nd St., NY, NY, 10036, USA.

Key Points:  Responses to natural scenes are the business of the retina. We find primate ganglion cell responses to such scenes consistent with those to simpler stimuli. A biophysical model confirmed this and predicted ganglion cell responses with close-to-retinal reliability. Read More

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Somatic mutation landscapes at single-molecule resolution.

Nature 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.

Somatic mutations drive the development of cancer and may contribute to ageing and other diseases. Despite their importance, the difficulty of detecting mutations that are only present in single cells or small clones has limited our knowledge of somatic mutagenesis to a minority of tissues. Here, to overcome these limitations, we developed nanorate sequencing (NanoSeq), a duplex sequencing protocol with error rates of less than five errors per billion base pairs in single DNA molecules from cell populations. Read More

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Gene therapy with caspase-3 small interfering RNA-nanoparticles is neuroprotective after optic nerve damage.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2534-2541

Institute of Medical Psychology, Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg; Center of Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Magdeburg, Germany.

Apoptosis, a key mechanism of programmed cell death, is triggered by caspase-3 protein and lowering its levels with gene therapy may rescue cell death after central nervous system damage. We developed a novel, non-viral gene therapy to block caspase-3 gene expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered by polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (CaspNPs). In vitro CaspNPs significantly blocked caspase-3 protein expression in C6 cells, and when injected intraocularly in vivo, CaspNPs lowered retinal capsase-3 immunofluorescence by 57. Read More

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December 2021

Stress increases MHC-I expression in dopaminergic neurons and induces autoimmune activation in Parkinson's disease.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2521-2527

The National Key Clinical Specialty, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

The expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), a key antigen-presenting protein, can be induced in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, thus indicating its possible involvement in the occurrence and development of Parkinson's disease. However, it remains unclear whether oxidative stress induces Parkinson's disease through the MHC-I pathway. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to determine the expression of MHC-I in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP)-treated SH-SY5Y cells and a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. Read More

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December 2021