197,388 results match your criteria small intestine


Effect of life stage and target tissue on dose-response assessment of ethyl methane sulfonate-induced genotoxicity.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas.

In order to investigate the possibility that treatment age affects the genotoxic response to ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) exposure, we dosed gpt-delta neonatal mice on postnatal days 1-28 with 5 to 100 mg/kg/day of EMS and measured micronucleus (MN) induction in peripheral blood and gpt gene mutation in liver, lung, bone marrow, small intestine, spleen, and kidney. The data were compared to measurements from similarly exposed adult gpt-delta mice (Cao et al., 2014, Environ Mol Mutagenesis 55: 385-399). Read More

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October 2021

Significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injury - Comparison of two CT scoring systems in a trauma registry cohort.

Eur J Radiol Open 2021 30;8:100380. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: This study evaluated and compared two imaging-based scoring systems for the detection of significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injury (sBBMI) by emergency computed tomography (CT).

Methods And Materials: We included all consecutive adult polytrauma patients admitted to our emergency department following a road traffic accident from January 2008 to June 2015, provided that intravenously contrast-enhanced whole-body CT examination was performed immediately after hospital admission. Two radiologists, blinded to patients' outcome, reviewed the CT examinations for distinctive direct intestinal or mesenteric vascular injury and indirect signs of abdominal injury. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of maca () on nutrient digestibility and major nutrient transporters in rats fed a high-fat diet.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Oct 31;9(10):5765-5773. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Firat University Elazig Turkey.

Scope: This study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of a new combination of root extracts of the (maca) plant, known for its nutritional and energizing features as well as its antioxidant properties, on nutrient digestibility and nutrient transporters expression.

Methods And Results: A total of 28 Sprague-Dawley rats (8-week-old) were divided into four groups: (i) control, (ii) ., (iii) high-fat diet (HFD), and (iv) HFD+. Read More

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October 2021

Ultrasound-guided post-pyloric feeding tube insertion in peri-operative cardiac infants.

Cardiol Young 2021 Oct 14:1-4. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Section of Pediatric Cardiac ICU, King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Delivery of enteral nutrition in critical infants post-paediatric cardiac surgery is sometimes hampered, necessitating direct feeding into the small intestine. This study is highlighting the role of ultrasound-guided post-pyloric feeding tube insertion performed by the paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist in critically ill infants.

Methods: We carried out a prospective pilot observational experimental study in peri-operative cardiac infants with feeding intolerance between 2019 and 2021. Read More

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October 2021

St. John's Wort alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis through pregnane X receptor-dependent NFκB antagonism.

FASEB J 2021 Nov;35(11):e21968

Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

St. John's wort (SJW), from traditional herbs, activates the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a potential drug target for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, how SJW alleviates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced experimental IBD by activating PXR is unknown. Read More

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November 2021

Chloride transport modulators as drug candidates.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, NA, Italy; Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples,, Naples, Italy.

Chloride transport across cell membranes is broadly involved in epithelial fluid transport, cell volume and pH regulation, muscle contraction, membrane excitability, and organellar acidification. The human genome encodes at least 53 chloride transporting proteins with expression in cell plasma or intracellular membranes, which include chloride channels, exchangers and cotransporters, some having broad anion specificity. Loss of function mutations in chloride transporters cause a wide variety of human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, secretory diarrhea, kidney stones, salt wasting nephropathy, myotonia, osteopetrosis, hearing loss and goiter. Read More

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October 2021

Immunity cells in the small intestinal mucosa of newborn yaks.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Background: This study aimed to characterize and evaluate the main markers of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG plasmocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells of the intestinal mucosa of newborn yaks.

Materials And Methods: Ten newborn yaks (2-4 weeks old) were choosed. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the immune cell distribution and specific markers at the mRNA expression level in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Read More

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October 2021

Direct endoscopic placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies with jejunal extension tubes (PEG-J) using ultra-thin endoscopes - long-term outcomes from a U.S. tertiary referral center.

Surg Endosc 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA, 52240, USA.

Introduction: Several techniques for PEG-J tube placement have been described, commonly requiring fluoroscopic guidance and/or fixation of the jejunostomy tube (J-tube) into the small intestine. We describe a modified technique for placing jejunostomy tubes under direct visualization through a PEG with the use of ultra-thin endoscopes and steel guidewire.

Methods: A retrospective study at a single tertiary academic center evaluating patients who underwent PEG-J placement between 2010 and 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Autopsy Case of Meningoencephalomyelitis Associated With Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Antibody.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Nov 12;8(6). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

From the Department of Neurology (M.Y., J.L., Y.N.J.); Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (K.O.H.); Department of Radiology (J.L.), University of Kansas Medical Center; and Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian (Y.N.J.), Pickup Family Neuroscience Institute, Newport Beach, CA.

Background And Objectives: To describe the autopsy findings and neuropathologic evaluation of autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical course, imaging, laboratory, and autopsy findings of a patient with autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis associated with GFAP antibody who had a refractory course to multiple immunosuppressive therapies.

Results: The patient was a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed as GFAP antibody-associated autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis. Read More

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November 2021

A transcription factor DAF-5 functions in Haemonchus contortus development.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Oct 12;14(1):529. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Key Laboratory for the Development of Veterinary Products, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.

Background: Abnormal dauer formation gene (daf-5), located downstream of the DAF-7 signalling pathway, mainly functions in dauer formation and reproductive processes in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the structure and function of daf-5 have been clarified in C. elegans, they still remain totally unknown in Haemonchus contortus, a socio-economically important parasitic nematode of gastric ruminants. Read More

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October 2021

From digestion and absorption to innate immunity and health care: water and food intake may contribute to IL-22 in ILC3-dependent mucosal immunity in the jejunum.

J Physiol Sci 2021 Oct 12;71(1):31. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Innovation of Medical and Health Sciences Research, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

In this review, with our current studies we demonstrated medical evidence that water and food intake are useful for IL-22-related mucosal immunity-dependent maintenance of health care. The traditional Japanese health care practices recommend daily consumption of suitable volume of water. However, immunological mechanisms that support of the traditional practices are still unsolved. Read More

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October 2021

Automatic Prediction of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Small Intestine Using Convolutional Neural Networks: A Pilot Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 8;21(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

Acute intestinal ischemia is a life-threatening condition. The current gold standard, with evaluation based on visual and tactile sensation, has low specificity. In this study, we explore the feasibility of using machine learning models on images of the intestine, to assess small intestinal viability. Read More

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October 2021

Molecular Insights into SARS-CoV2-Induced Alterations of the Gut/Brain Axis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 28;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

INSERM, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute U1208, Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69500 Bron, France.

For a yet unknown reason, a substantial share of patients suffering from COVID-19 develop long-lasting neuropsychiatric symptoms ranging from cognitive deficits to mood disorders and/or an extreme fatigue. We previously reported that in non-neural cells, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme 2 (), the gene coding for the SARS-CoV2 host receptor, harbors tight co-expression links with dopa-decarboxylase (), an enzyme involved in the metabolism of dopamine. Here, we mined and integrated data from distinct human expression atlases and found that, among a wide range of tissues and cells, enterocytes of the small intestine express the highest expression levels of , and several key genes supporting the metabolism of neurotransmitters. Read More

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September 2021

Organoid Models for Cancer Research-From Bed to Bench Side and Back.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 26;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of General, Visceral, Transplantation, Vascular and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacherstr. 6, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Organoids are a new 3D ex vivo culture system that have been applied in various fields of biomedical research. First isolated from the murine small intestine, they have since been established from a wide range of organs and tissues, both in healthy and diseased states. Organoids genetically, functionally and phenotypically retain the characteristics of their tissue of origin even after multiple passages, making them a valuable tool in studying various physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Read More

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September 2021

Gastrointestinal biotransformation and tissue distribution of pterostilbene after long-term dietary administration in mice.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 22;372:131213. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Electronic address:

The metabolic fate of dietary compounds is closely related to their biological functions. Pterostilbene (PT) is a methylated stilbene found in many plant foods. Herein, we investigated gastrointestinal biotransformation and tissue distribution of PT in mice fed with 0. Read More

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September 2021

Expression, purification and characterization of human proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 hPEPT1.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 Oct 9:105990. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

The human peptide transporter hPEPT1 (SLC15A1) is responsible for uptake of dietary di- and tripeptides and a number of drugs from the small intestine by utilizing the proton electrochemical gradient, and hence an important target for peptide-like drug design and drug delivery. hPEPT1 belongs to the ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily that all contain a 12TM core structure, with global conformational changes occurring during the transport cycle. Several bacterial homologues of these transporters have been characterized, providing valuable insight into the transport mechanism of this family. Read More

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October 2021

Incidentally Discovered Meckel's Diverticulum during Routine Hysterectomy.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

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October 2021

Spatial gene expression maps of the intestinal lymphoid follicle and associated epithelium identify zonated expression programs.

PLoS Biol 2021 Oct 11;19(10):e3001214. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

The intestine is lined with isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) that facilitate sampling of luminal antigens to elicit immune responses. Technical challenges related to the scarcity and small sizes of ILFs and their follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) impeded the characterization of their spatial gene expression programs. Here, we combined RNA sequencing of laser capture microdissected tissues with single-molecule transcript imaging to obtain a spatial gene expression map of the ILF and its associated FAE in the mouse small intestine. Read More

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October 2021

Insights from tissue "omics" analysis on intestinal remodeling in celiac disease.

Authors:
Jorunn Stamnaes

Proteomics 2021 Oct 11:e2100057. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Immunology, K.G. Jebsen Coeliac Disease Research Centre, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Celiac disease (CeD) is a prevalent intestinal disorder that only develops in genetically susceptible individuals when they mount a harmful CD4+ T-cell response towards gluten peptides. Intake of gluten leads to inflammation and remodeling of the small intestine with symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea. The only current treatment is a lifelong gluten free diet. Read More

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October 2021

Regeneration of the digestive system in the crinoid Lamprometra palmata (Mariametridae, Comatulida).

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.

The morphology and regeneration of the digestive system and tegmen after autotomy of the visceral mass in the crinoid Lamprometra palmata (Clark 1921) was studied. The gut has a five-lobed shape and is covered by a tegmen. The tegmen consists of epidermis and underlying connective tissue. Read More

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October 2021

Phase I double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dolcanatide (SP-333) 27 mg to explore colorectal bioactivity in healthy volunteers.

Cancer Biol Ther 2021 Oct 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USa.

Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a tumor-suppressing receptor silenced by loss of expression of the luminocrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin early in colorectal carcinogenesis. This observation suggests oral replacement with a GUCY2C agonist may be an effective targeted chemoprevention agent. Previous studies revealed that linaclotide, an oral GUCY2C agonist formulated for gastric release, did not persist to activate guanylyl cyclase signaling in the distal rectum. Read More

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October 2021

Computational study and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of medicinal plants from a Thai folk remedy.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 29;7(9):e08078. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

School of Medicine, Research Excellence Center for Innovation and Health Product Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, 80160, Thailand.

The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased worldwide. Although an instant cure was achieved with the standard treatment acabose, unsatisfactory symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease after acabose administration have been reported. Therefore, it is important to explore new treatments. Read More

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September 2021

Triple Intussusception in an Adult-A Rare Presentation of Adenocarcinoma Ileum.

Surg J (N Y) 2021 Oct 5;7(4):e271-e274. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Surgery, B. J. Government Medical College and Sassoon General Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Intestinal intussusception is uncommon in adults. It occurs more often in the small intestine than in the colon. In adults, when small bowel intussusception occurs, it can be due to a malignant lead point. Read More

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October 2021

Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites of Stray Cats () in Northwest Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2021 Jul-Sep;16(3):418-425

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Stray cats are considered an important source of various human and animal diseases, particularly diseases of parasitic helminths. We aimed to investigate the distribution of zoonotic species of gastrointestinal helminths in stray cats in Meshkin-Shahr district in Ardabil Province in the northwest of Iran.

Methods: The gastrointestinal tract of 104 stray cats from villages of Meshkin-Shahr district were provided during 2014-2015. Read More

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Supplement Can Ameliorate the Intestinal Barrier Roles in Broiler Chickens Experimentally Infected With .

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:737481. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by , is an economically important disease in the broiler. Among normal flora in the broiler intestinal region, has been identified as a probiotic agent that reduces the susceptibility of broilers to . However, the effects of supplement on broiler intestinal integrity during NE are largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

, a Standardized Herbal Formula, Enhances Gastric Emptying via Modulation of the Ghrelin Pathway in a Loperamide-induced Functional Dyspepsia Mouse Model.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:753153. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Daejeon Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Yeokwisan, a standardized herbal formula, has exhibited clinical benefit for patients suffering from refractory functional dyspepsia (FD) in Korea since 2016. However, data about the mechanism of action of this formula are yet not available. To evaluate and explore the effects of Yeokwisan on gastric emptying, a major symptom of functional dyspepsia, and its underlying mechanisms of action using a mouse model. Read More

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September 2021

Inverted Meckel's diverticulum diagnosed using capsule endoscopy: A case report.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep;27(36):6154-6160

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid 28222, Spain.

Background: Meckel's diverticulum is a common asymptomatic congenital gastrointestinal anomaly. However, its presentation as an inverted Meckel's diverticulum is a rare complication, of which few cases have been reported in the literature.

Case Summary: Here, we report the case of a 33-year-old man with iron deficiency anemia without manifestation of gastrointestinal bleeding. Read More

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September 2021

Effectiveness and safety of over-the-scope clip in closing perforations after duodenal surgery.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep;27(35):5958-5966

Key Laboratory of Minimally Invasive Techniques and Rapid Rehabilitation of Digestive System Tumor of Zhejiang Province, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Endoscopic resection of duodenal subepithelial lesions (SELs) is a difficult procedure with a high risk of perforation. At present, dealing with perforation after endoscopic resection of duodenal SELs is still considered a great challenge.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of an over-the-scope clip (OTSC) in the treatment of perforation post-endoscopic resection of duodenal SELs. Read More

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September 2021

[A case of adult intussusception in the transverse colon with an advanced ileal Peutz-Jeghers type polyp associated with cancer].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2021 ;118(10):959-966

Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Kagawa University.

A man in his thirties was admitted to the hospital because of upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed intussusception in the ascending and transverse colon. After spontaneous discontinuation, endoscopy revealed a 25-mm 0-I tumor in the ileum. Read More

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October 2021

[Diagnosis of an ileal neuroendocrine tumor based on lymph node metastases: a case report].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2021 ;118(10):943-951

Center of Gastroenterology, Otaru Ekisaikai Hospital.

A 72-year-old man was diagnosed with tumors outside of the stomach and mesentery of the small intestine on abdominal computed tomography. Histopathological examination of an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, small bowel capsule endoscopy, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were performed. Read More

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October 2021