628,547 results match your criteria small cell


Predicting the herbal medicine triggering innate anti-tumor immunity from a system pharmacology perspective.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 21;143:112105. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Northwest University), Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, China; Lab of Systems Pharmacology, Center of Bioinformatics, College of Life Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China. Electronic address:

Although the main focus of immuno-oncology has been manipulating the adaptive immune system, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are the main infiltrating component in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and play a critical role in cancer progression. TAMs are mainly divided into two different subtypes: macrophages with antitumor or killing activity are called M1 while tumor-promoting or healing macrophages are named M2. Therefore, controlling the polarization of TAMs is an important strategy for cancer treatment, but there is no particularly effective means to regulate the polarization process. Read More

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September 2021

A review on pharmacological activities and synergistic effect of quercetin with small molecule agents.

Phytomedicine 2021 Sep 13;92:153736. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovskeho 1203, Hradec Kralove CZ500 05, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: Quercetin is a natural flavonoid, which widely exists in nature, such as tea, coffee, apples, and onions. Numerous studies have showed that quercetin has multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging. Hence, quercetin has a significant therapeutic effect on cancers, obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. Read More

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September 2021

A prospective cohort evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the chest X-ray for the detection of lung cancer in symptomatic adults.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Sep 20;144:109953. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.

Background: The accuracy of the chest x-ray (CXR) in the identification of lung cancer amongst symptomatic individuals is uncertain.

Purpose: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the CXR for the detection of non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC) and all primary intrathoracic malignancies.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of consecutive CXR reports obtained within a primary care open access initiative. Read More

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September 2021

Does large NGS panel analysed using exome tumour sequencing improve the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancers?

Lung Cancer 2021 Aug 29;161:98-107. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Georges François Leclerc Cancer Center - UNICANCER, 1 rue du Professeur Marion, Dijon 21000, France; University of Burgundy-Franche Comté, Maison de l'université Esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon, France; Platform of Transfert in Biological Oncology, Georges François Leclerc Cancer Center - UNICANCER, 1 rue du Professeur Marion, Dijon 21000, France; Genomic and Immunotherapy Medical Institute, Dijon University Hospital, 14 rue Paul Gaffarel 21000 Dijon, France; UMR INSERM 1231, 7 Boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, 21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers. Several molecular drivers of oncogene addiction are now known to be strong predictive biomarkers for target therapies. Advances in large Next Generation Sequencing (LNGS) have improved the ability to detect potentially targetable mutations. Read More

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Neurotensin regulates proliferation and stem cell function in the small intestine in a nutrient-dependent manner.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536; Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are sensitive to dietary alterations and nutrient availability. Neurotensin (NT), a gut peptide localized predominantly to the small bowel and released by fat ingestion, stimulates the growth of intestinal mucosa under basal conditions and during periods of nutrient deprivation, suggesting a possible role for NT on ISC function.

Methods: Lgr5-EGFP, NT wild type (Nt) and Lgr5-EGFP, NT knockout (Nt) mice were fed ad libitum (AL) or fasted for 48 h. Read More

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September 2021

Vertex-wise multivariate genome-wide association study identifies 780 unique genetic loci associated with cortical morphology.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 21:118603. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

NORMENT Centre, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Center for Multimodal Imaging and Genetics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Brain morphology has been shown to be highly heritable, yet only a small portion of the heritability is explained by the genetic variants discovered so far. Here we extended the Multivariate Omnibus Statistical Test (MOSTest) and applied it to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of vertex-wise structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical measures from N=35,657 participants in the UK Biobank. We identified 695 loci for cortical surface area and 539 for cortical thickness, in total 780 unique genetic loci associated with cortical morphology robustly replicated in 8,060 children of mixed ethnicity from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Read More

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September 2021

Discovery of novel IDO1 inhibitors targeting the protein's apo form through scaffold hopping from holo-IDO1 inhibitor.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Sep 21:128373. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Optimization, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Immunomodulating enzyme IDO1 plays an important role in tumor immune resistance. Inhibiting IDO1 by small molecules with new mechanism of action is a potential strategy in IDO1 inhibitor development. Based on our urea derived compound originally binding with holo-IDO1, through scaffold hopping, a series of diisobutylaminophenyl hydroxyamidine compounds were designed. Read More

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September 2021

ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C members 2, 3 and cadherin protein are susceptibility-determining factors in Bombyx mori for multiple Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Sep 21:103649. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan. Electronic address:

Field-evolved resistance of insect pests to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins (Cry toxins) is a threat to the efficacy of Bt-based bio-insecticides and transgenic crops. Recent reports have suggested that ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2 (ABCC2) and cadherin-like receptor play important roles in conferring susceptibility to Cry1 toxins. However, the receptors involved in Bt susceptibility in each insect remain unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Evaluation of the Munt-Dash Air-Interface Diffusion Chamber and Franz Chamber for the In Vitro Examination of Topical Spray Formulations.

Int J Pharm 2021 Sep 21:121127. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Pharmacy Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska. Electronic address:

In vitro diffusion testing of topical formulations has long been examined using Franz diffusion chambers, however, Franz chambers are typically used with relatively large volumes, lack the air/membrane interface present in vivo, and do not account for changes in formula characteristics as solvent evaporates. Here we present our patented Munt-Dash diffusion chamber designed for direct spray application onto a model membrane. Diffusion characteristics from topical spray formulations utilizing both the Munt-Dash chamber and Franz diffusion chambers were evaluated and compared. Read More

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September 2021

Exact site frequency spectra of neutrally evolving tumors: A transition between power laws reveals a signature of cell viability.

Theor Popul Biol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

The site frequency spectrum (SFS) is a popular summary statistic of genomic data. While the SFS of a constant-sized population undergoing neutral mutations has been extensively studied in population genetics, the rapidly growing amount of cancer genomic data has attracted interest in the spectrum of an exponentially growing population. Recent theoretical results have generally dealt with special or limiting cases, such as considering only cells with an infinite line of descent, assuming deterministic tumor growth, or taking large-time or large-population limits. Read More

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September 2021

Myricetin slows liquid-liquid phase separation of Tau and activates ATG5-dependent autophagy to suppress Tau toxicity.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 21:101222. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; Wuhan University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China. Electronic address:

Intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles composed of Tau aggregates have been widely accepted as an important pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A current therapeutic avenue for treating Alzheimer's disease is aimed at inhibiting Tau accumulation with small molecules such as natural flavonoids. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of Tau can lead to its aggregation, and Tau aggregates can then be degraded by autophagy. Read More

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September 2021

A PHF1-TFE3 fusion atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumor with prominent collagenous rosettes: Case report with a brief review.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 Sep 21:104686. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine Center, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain line of differentiation that can be subdivided into typical, atypical, and malignant tumors. Cytogenetically, OFMT is characterized by recurrent gene rearrangement involving PHF1 in up to 85% of cases. The most common PHF1 fusion partner is EP400, present in approximately half of cases. Read More

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September 2021

Validation of a next-generation sequencing assay for the detection of EGFR mutations in cell-free circulating tumor DNA.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 Sep 21:104685. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Institute of Human Genetics, Diagnostic and Research Center for Molecular BioMedicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Detection of EGFR mutations from circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from blood plasma represents a gentle, non-invasive alternative to rebiopsy and can therefore be used for therapy monitoring of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this project was to investigate whether the Reveal ctDNA™ 28 NGS assay (ArcherDX, Boulder, CO), has a comparable sensitivity and specificity to droplet digital PCR (ddPCR, gold-standard) and is therefore suitable for therapy monitoring of progressing lung cancer patients. First, we validated the NGS assay with commercially available reference material (SeraCare, Massachusetts, US). Read More

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September 2021

iPSC culture expansion selects against putatively actionable mutations in the mitochondrial genome.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Leibniz Research Laboratories for Biotechnology and Artificial Organs (LEBAO), Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, REBIRTH - Research Center for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany; Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), 30625 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Therapeutic application of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives requires comprehensive assessment of the integrity of their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to exclude oncogenic potential and functional deficits. It is unknown, to which extent mtDNA variants originate from their parental cells or from de novo mutagenesis, and whether dynamics in heteroplasmy levels are caused by inter- and intracellular selection or genetic drift. Sequencing of mtDNA of 26 iPSC clones did not reveal evidence for de novo mutagenesis, or for any selection processes during reprogramming or differentiation. Read More

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September 2021

Tumor-derived exosomes drive immunosuppressive macrophages in a pre-metastatic niche through glycolytic dominant metabolic reprogramming.

Cell Metab 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; Division of Immunotherapy, The Hiram C. Polk, Jr., MD Department of Surgery, Immuno-Oncology Program, Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

One of the defining characteristics of a pre-metastatic niche, a fundamental requirement for primary tumor metastasis, is infiltration of immunosuppressive macrophages. How these macrophages acquire their phenotype remains largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) polarize macrophages toward an immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased PD-L1 expression through NF-kB-dependent, glycolytic-dominant metabolic reprogramming. Read More

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September 2021

Detection of rapidly accumulating stress-induced SUMO in prostate cancer cells by a fluorescent SUMO biosensor.

Mol Carcinog 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biology, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.

SUMO conjugates and SUMO chains form when SUMO, a small ubiquitin-like modifier protein, is covalently linked to other cellular proteins or itself. During unperturbed growth, cells maintain balanced levels of SUMO conjugates. In contrast, eukaryotic cells that are exposed to proteotoxic and genotoxic insults mount a cytoprotective SUMO stress response (SSR). Read More

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September 2021

ZmCTLP1 is required for the maintenance of lipid homeostasis and the basal endosperm transfer layer in maize kernels.

New Phytol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry and National Maize Improvement Center, Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, P. R. China.

Maize kernel weight is influenced by the unloading of nutrients from the maternal placenta and their passage through the transfer tissue of the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL) and the basal intermediate zone (BIZ) to the upper part of the endosperm. Here, we show that Small kernel 10 (Smk10) encodes a choline transporter-like protein 1 (ZmCTLP1) that facilitates choline uptake and is located in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Its loss-of-function results in reduced choline content, leading to smaller kernels with a lower starch content. Read More

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September 2021

Abrogation of STAT3 activation cascade by Ginkgolide C mitigates tumourigenesis in lung cancer preclinical model.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Ginkgolide C (GGC) isolated from Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) leaf can demonstrate pleiotropic pharmacological actions. However, its anti-oncogenic impact in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) model has not been reconnoitered. As signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cascade can promote tumour growth and survival, we contemplated that GGC may interrupt this signalling cascade to expend its anti-cancer actions in NSCLC. Read More

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September 2021

Lymphoproliferative Neoplasms With Plasmablastic Morphology: An Overview and Diagnostic Approach.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

From the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.

Context.—: Plasmablastic morphology can be seen in several uncommon lymphoproliferative neoplasms. Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish these neoplasms from each other. Read More

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September 2021

Development of a novel ALK rearrangement screening test for non-small cell lung cancers.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257152. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory, Department of Pathology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

Approximately 5-7% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases harbor an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene and may benefit from ALK inhibitor therapy. To detect ALK fusion genes, we developed a novel test using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the ALK kinase domain (KD). Since ALK expression is mostly silenced in the adult with the exception of neuronal tissue, the normal lung tissue, mesothelial lining, and inflammatory cells are devoid of ALK transcript, making ALK KD RT-PCR an ideal surrogate test for ALK fusion transcripts in lung or pleural effusion. Read More

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September 2021

Apoptotic Tumor DNA Activated Nanomotor Chemotaxis.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Inspired by the tactic organisms in Nature that can self-direct their movement following environmental stimulus gradient, we proposed a DNase functionalized Janus nanoparticle (JNP) nanomotor system for the first time, which can be powered by ultralow nM to μM levels of DNA. The system exhibited interesting chemotactic behavior toward a DNA richer area, which is physiologically related with many diseases including tumors. In the presence of the subtle DNA gradient generated by apoptotic tumor cells, the cargo loaded nanomotors were able to sense the DNA signal released by the cells and demonstrate directional motion toward tumor cells. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of intestinal macromolecular absorption in young piglets to pave the way to oral vaccination: preliminary results.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO), University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada.

The small intestine of the piglet has evolved to be permeable immediately after birth to facilitate the uptake of colostrum-derived immunoglobulins as well as other macromolecules, and cells. However, the precise timing of gut closure in today's precocious pig is not known. We gavaged piglets immediately after birth and at 1-h after birth with Cy5-labeled Ovalbumin (Cy5-Ova) then harvested their small intestine's 6-7 h later. Read More

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September 2021

PET/CT imaging of head-and-neck and pancreatic cancer in humans by targeting the "Cancer Integrin" αvβ6 with Ga-68-Trivehexin.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Pathology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To develop a new probe for the αvβ6-integrin and assess its potential for PET imaging of carcinomas.

Methods: Ga-68-Trivehexin was synthesized by trimerization of the optimized αvβ6-integrin selective cyclic nonapeptide Tyr2 (sequence: c[YRGDLAYp(NMe)K]) on the TRAP chelator core, followed by automated labeling with Ga-68. The tracer was characterized by ELISA for activities towards integrin subtypes αvβ6, αvβ8, αvβ3, and α5β1, as well as by cell binding assays on H2009 (αvβ6-positive) and MDA-MB-231 (αvβ6-negative) cells. Read More

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September 2021

Metastases to the Pituitary Gland: Histological Patterns of Spread and Review of the Literature.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pathology, Department of Neurology, and Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA (B.K.K.-D.).

Few studies have focused on histological patterns of metastatic spread to the pituitary gland. We review our experience and that in the literature, 1970-present. Departmental cases, 1998-2021, were assessed for anterior versus posterior gland and/or capsular involvement and cohesive tumor obliterating underlying pituitary architecture versus metastatic cells filling pituitary acini with relative acinar preservation. Read More

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September 2021

MRI and CT in the follow-up after irreversible electroporation of small renal masses.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2021 Sep;27(5):654-663

Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Ablation plays a growing role in the treatment of small renal masses (SRMs) due to its nephron sparing properties and low invasiveness. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has the potential, although still experimental, to overcome current limitations of thermal ablation. No prospective imaging studies exist of the ablation zone in the follow up after renal IRE in humans. Read More

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September 2021

The role of noncoding RNAs in pituitary adenoma.

Epigenomics 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy & Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education & Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are common cranial tumors that affect the quality of life in patients. Early detection of PA is beneficial for avoiding clinical complications of this disease and increasing the quality of life. Noncoding RNAs, including long noncoding RNA, miRNA and circRNA, regulate protein expression, mostly by inhibiting the translation process. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical predictors of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy neurotoxicity: a single-center study.

Immunotherapy 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Neurotoxicity (NT) is a common complication of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Data on early clinical identifiers for impending severe NT are lacking. The authors performed a retrospective study on 26 adult relapsed/refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients treated with commercial CAR T-cell therapy (December 2017 - September 2018). Read More

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September 2021

Diallyl Trisulfide Suppresses High-Glucose-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Targeting Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α/Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Activation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, 100, Sec. 1, Jingmao Road, Beitun District, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

It has been reported that 80% of diabetic patients die due to cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that activated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1 α)/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) signaling by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-regulated prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) is involved in high-glucose (HG)-induced cardiac apoptosis. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic component, shows the strongest inhibitory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Read More

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September 2021

Role of Cholesterol-Associated Steatohepatitis in the Development of NASH.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

The rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NAFLD-related cirrhosis in the United States and globally highlights the need to better understand the mechanisms causing progression of hepatic steatosis to fibrosing steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in a small proportion of patients with NAFLD. Accumulating evidence suggests that lipotoxicity mediated by hepatic free cholesterol (FC) overload is a mechanistic driver for necroinflammation and fibrosis, characteristic of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in many animal models and also in some patients with NASH. Diet, lifestyle, obesity, key genetic polymorphisms, and hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance are pivotal drivers leading to aberrant cholesterol signaling, which leads to accumulation of FC within hepatocytes. Read More

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Quantitation of residual D positive red cells in D negative recipients of D positive solid organ transplants.

Transfus Med 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Red Cell Immunohaematology, NHS Blood & Transplant, Bristol, UK.

Background: Solid organ transplants (SOT) from D positive donors are potentially sensitising events for D negative recipients. For this reason, it is important to quantify the presence of residual D positive red blood cells (RBCs) in the recipient's circulation and calculate the correct dose of prophylactic anti-D (PAD) required to prevent sensitisation. This is especially important in females of child-bearing potential where the presence of allo anti-D can, at worst, cause the death of the fetus in future pregnancies. Read More

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September 2021