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Effectiveness of mobile phone text message reminder interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adolescents living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254890. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, Netherlands.

Background: Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adolescents living with HIV is a global challenge. One of the key strategies to improve adherence is believed to be the use of digital adherence tools. However, evidence is limited in this area. Read More

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Powerful detection of polygenic selection and evidence of environmental adaptation in US beef cattle.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009652. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

Selection on complex traits can rapidly drive evolution, especially in stressful environments. This polygenic selection does not leave intense sweep signatures on the genome, rather many loci experience small allele frequency shifts, resulting in large cumulative phenotypic changes. Directional selection and local adaptation are changing populations; but, identifying loci underlying polygenic or environmental selection has been difficult. Read More

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Quantitative Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanoparticles Functionalization by H NMR.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland.

Porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles have been applied in various fields, such as catalysis, imaging, and biomedical applications, because of their large specific surface area, easily modifiable surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. For biomedical applications, it is important to precisely control the surface modification of PSi-based materials and quantify the functionalization density, which determines the nanoparticle's behavior in the biological system. Therefore, we propose here an optimized solution to quantify the functionalization groups on PSi, based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method by combining the hydrolysis with standard H NMR experiments. Read More

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Silver Foams with Hierarchical Porous Structures: From Manufacturing to Antibacterial Activity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University Materials Institute of Alicante, University of Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03690 Alicante, Spain.

The development of porous materials with hierarchical porous structures is currently of great interest. These materials exhibit properties representative of different pore scales and thus open up the possibility of being used in new applications. In this paper, a method for the preparation of silver foams with hierarchical porous structures is discussed. Read More

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Land-use changes in Northern Ukraine: patterns and dynamics of illegal amber mining during 1986-2016.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 22;193(8):502. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL), University of Bonn, Genscherallee 3, 53113, Bonn, Germany.

Political instability and economic crises may trigger informal, unsustainable and often illegal land use, leading to land degradation. One of the most recent and striking examples of such a phenomenon within Europe is demonstrated by the Polissia region in Northern Ukraine, famous for its amber deposits. Amid severe political disturbances and subsequent economic recession in Ukraine in 2014 and 2015, amber mining flourished in the region. Read More

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HBeAg-positive patients with HBsAg  < 100 IU/mL and negative HBV RNA have lower risk of virological relapse after nucleos(t)ide analogues cessation.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing International Cooperation Base for Science and Technology On NAFLD Diagnosis, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, 100044, China.

Background: Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) cessation is not widely practiced and remains a controversial, but highly relevant subject in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). We aimed to explore the related factors for safe NAs cessation.

Methods: This is a multicenter prospective cohort study. Read More

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Interventions for the treatment of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 07 22;7:CD013876. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cochrane UK, Oxford, UK.

Background: Olfactory dysfunction is an early and sensitive marker of COVID-19 infection. Although self-limiting in the majority of cases, when hyposmia or anosmia persists it can have a profound effect on quality of life. Little guidance exists on the treatment of post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction, however several strategies have been proposed from the evidence relating to the treatment of post-viral anosmia (such as medication or olfactory training). Read More

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Interventions for the prevention of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 07 22;7:CD013877. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cochrane UK, Oxford, UK.

Background: Loss of olfactory function is well recognised as a cardinal symptom of COVID-19 infection, and the ongoing pandemic has resulted in a large number of affected individuals with abnormalities in their sense of smell. For many, the condition is temporary and resolves within two to four weeks. However, in a significant minority the symptoms persist. Read More

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A High-Throughput Nanofluidic Device for Exosome Nanoporation to Develop Cargo Delivery Vehicles.

Small 2021 Jul 21:e2102150. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Biomedical Microsystems and Nano Devices, Center for Bionic Sensing and Intelligence, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Efficient loading of various exogenous cargos into exosomes while not affecting their integrity and functionalities remains a major challenge. Here, a nanofluidic device named "exosome nanoporator (ENP)" is presented for high-throughput loading of various cargos into exosomes. By transporting exosomes through nanochannels with height comparable to their dimension, exosome membranes are permeabilized by mechanical compression and fluid shear, allowing the influx of cargo molecules into the exosomes from the surrounding solution while maintaining exosome integrity. Read More

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Fluorescent kinase inhibitors as probes in cancer.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, Box 30012, College Station, TX 77842, USA.

Fluorescent dyes attached to kinase inhibitors (KIs) can be used to probe kinases in vitro, in cells, and in vivo. Ideal characteristics of the dyes vary with their intended applications. Fluorophores used in vitro may inform on kinase active site environments, hence the dyes used should be small and have minimal impact on modes of binding. Read More

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On the path towards personalized medicine: Implications of pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder medications.

Expert Rev Precis Med Drug Dev 2020 10;5(1):43-54. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

University of California Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: The heritability of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is estimated to be ~50%; however, the genetic basis of the disease is still poorly understood. The genetic variants identified thus far only explain a small percentage of AUD phenotypic variability. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are impacted by technical and methodological limitations, genetic variants that have been identified independently of GWAS findings can moderate the efficacy of AUD medications. Read More

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February 2020

Use of 1,470 nm laser for treatment of superficial venous insufficiency.

J Vasc Bras 2021 25;20:e20200244. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Clínica Coris Medicina Vascular do Baía Sul Medical Center, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil.

Background: There are several ways to treat varicose veins of the lower limbs, among which use of 1470nm diode lasers stands out. This technique can be used to treat patients in outpatient settings, with early return to work, good esthetic results, and low rates of complications. However, variables such as the laser wavelength, the power administered in each area, the type of fiber, and the linear intravenous energy density (LEED) are still extensively discussed. Read More

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Ultrastructural and histological descriptions of the oropharyngeal cavity of the rock pigeon Columba livia dakhlae with special refer to its adaptive dietary adaptations.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

The current investigation gave a full ultrastructural and histological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the rock-pigeon Columba livia dakhlae. Our study carried on 10 heads of adult rock pigeons by gross, scanning, and light microscopic examination, in addition to the immunohistochemical analysis of the cytokeratin of the dorsal surface mucosa epithelium and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (PCNA) immunoreactivity. The pointed apex of the elongated tongue covered rostrally and laterally with numerous caudally directed scales-like papillae. Read More

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Automatic cell counting from stimulated Raman imaging using deep learning.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254586. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of System Science and Industrial Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, United States of America.

In this paper, we propose an automatic cell counting framework for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) images, which can assist tumor tissue characteristic analysis, cancer diagnosis, and surgery planning processes. SRS microscopy has promoted tumor diagnosis and surgery by mapping lipids and proteins from fresh specimens and conducting a fast disclose of fundamental diagnostic hallmarks of tumors with a high resolution. However, cell counting from label-free SRS images has been challenging due to the limited contrast of cells and tissue, along with the heterogeneity of tissue morphology and biochemical compositions. Read More

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Correlation of brachycephaly grade with level of exophthalmos, reduced airway passages and degree of dental malalignment' in Persian cats.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254420. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Clinic for Small Animals, Neurosurgery, Neuroradiology and Clinical Neurology, Justus-Liebig University-Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

For many years, there has been a trend to breed cats with an increasing degree of brachycephalic head features, which are known to have a severe impact on the animals' health and welfare. The direct relation between different grades of brachycephaly and their negative implications have not been researched in this species. The aim of this study was therefore to establish correlations between the different grades of brachycephaly and reduced upper respiratory airways, exophthalmos of the eye globes and malalignment of the teeth in Persian cats. Read More

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Association of anaplastic lymphoma kinase variants and alterations with ensartinib response duration in non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Here, we aimed to assess the association of ALK variants and alterations with ensartinib response duration in NSCLC, and explore the potential value of computed tomography (CT) radiomic features in predicting progression-free survival (PFS).

Methods: We enrolled 88 patients with identified ALK variant NSCLC in a multicenter phase 2 trial, and assessed the impact of ALK variants and secondary ALK alterations on the clinical outcome (response duration) of patients receiving ensartinib. We also established a multifactorial model of clinicopathological and quantitative CT radiomic features to predict PFS and risk stratification. Read More

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Self-Healing Functional Electronic Devices.

Small 2021 Jul 21:e2101383. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Center on Nanoenergy Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

Electronic devices with various functions bring great convenience and revolutionize the way we live. They are inevitable to degrade over time because of physical or chemical fatigue and damage during practical operation. To make these devices have the ability to autonomously heal from cracks and restore their mechanical and electrical properties, self-healing materials emerged as the time requires for constructing robust and self-healing electronic devices. Read More

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2020 guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous pruritus.

J Dermatol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Dermatology, Course of Integrated Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

The mechanisms underlying itch are not fully understood. Physicians usually encounter difficulty controlling itch in generalized pruritus. Since only a small percentage of patients with generalized pruritus respond to antihistamines (H receptor antagonists), a variety of itch mediators and mechanisms other than histaminergic signals are considered to be involved in itch for these non-responsive patients. Read More

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Radiation shielding and safety implications following linac conversion to an electron FLASH-RT unit.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Purpose: Due to their finite range, electrons are typically ignored when calculating shielding requirements in megavoltage-energy linear accelerator vaults. However, the assumption that 16 MeV electrons need not be considered does not hold when operated at FLASH-RT dose rates (~200× clinical dose rate), where dose rate from bremsstrahlung photons is an order of magnitude higher than that from an18 MV beam for which shielding was designed. We investigate the shielding and radiation protection impact of converting a Varian 21EX linac to FLASH-RT dose rates. Read More

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Benchtop NMR in Forensic Chemistry.

Magn Reson Chem 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Korimako Chemical Limited, Wellington, New Zealand.

NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique well-known for its ability to elucidate structures, analyse mixtures and its quantitative nature. However, the cost and maintenance of high field NMR instruments prevents its widespread use by forensic chemists. The introduction of benchtop NMR spectrometers to the market operating at 40-80 MHz have a small footprint, are easy to use and cost much less than high field instruments which makes them well suited to meet the needs of forensic chemists. Read More

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Learning walks in an Australian desert ant, Melophorus bagoti.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

The Central Australian ant Melophorus bagoti is the most thermophilic ant in Australia and forages solitarily in the summer months during the hottest period of the day. For successful navigation, desert ants of many species are known to integrate a path and learn landmark cues around the nest. Ants perform a series of exploratory walks around the nest before their first foraging trip, during which they are presumed to learn about their landmark panorama. Read More

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Deep learning to automate the labelling of head MRI datasets for computer vision applications.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences, Kings College London, Rayne Institute, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to build a deep learning model to derive labels from neuroradiology reports and assign these to the corresponding examinations, overcoming a bottleneck to computer vision model development.

Methods: Reference-standard labels were generated by a team of neuroradiologists for model training and evaluation. Three thousand examinations were labelled for the presence or absence of any abnormality by manually scrutinising the corresponding radiology reports ('reference-standard report labels'); a subset of these examinations (n = 250) were assigned 'reference-standard image labels' by interrogating the actual images. Read More

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A Pilot Trial: Fish Oil and Metformin Effects on ApoB-Remnants and Triglycerides in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Sep 19;5(9):bvab114. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases Laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased incidence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Interventions targeting atherogenic dyslipidemia to reduce CVD risk are limited in women with PCOS.

Objective: This pilot study was conducted to determine the effect of 12 weeks of high dose fish oil (FO), metformin, and FO as an adjunct to metformin (FO-metformin) therapy on fasting and nonfasting plasma lipids and ApoB-remnants in young women with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and PCOS. Read More

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September 2021

Preoperative 18F-FDG SUVmax >6.3 or Size >2.3 cm of primary lesions predict lymph nodes metastasis with higher negative predictive value in peripheral cT1 non-small-cell lung cancer.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou Department of Radiology, Xuzhou Cancer Hospital, Xuzhou Changzhou Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Sublobar resection is suitable for peripheral cT1N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The traditional PET-CT criterion (lymph node size ≥1.0 cm or SUVmax ≥2. Read More

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A radiation ulcer that required partial lung resection and recurred in a small residual area of ectopic calcification.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 17;85:106201. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Nara Medical University Hospital, 840 Shijocho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan.

Introduction And Importance: Surgery for chest radiation ulcers must involve appropriate wide margins, but it is not usually possible to remove all radiation-damaged tissue. Therefore, it is difficult to determine how extensive such surgery should be. There have not been any reports about the recurrence of such ulcers years after surgery. Read More

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Advances in micro-CT imaging of small animals.

Authors:
D P Clark C T Badea

Phys Med 2021 Jul 17;88:175-192. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Quantitative Imaging and Analysis Lab, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address: https://sites.duke.edu/qial.

Purpose: Micron-scale computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging is a ubiquitous, cost-effective, and non-invasive three-dimensional imaging modality. We review recent developments and applications of micro-CT for preclinical research.

Methods: Based on a comprehensive review of recent micro-CT literature, we summarize features of state-of-the-art hardware and ongoing challenges and promising research directions in the field. Read More

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Automatic continuous EEG signal analysis for diagnosis of delirium in patients with sepsis.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 9;132(9):2075-2082. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, The Neuroscience Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Valdemar Hansens Vej 1-23, Glostrup, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: In critical care, continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is useful for delirium diagnosis. Although visual cEEG analysis is most commonly used, automatic cEEG analysis has shown promising results in small samples. Here we aimed to compare visual versus automatic cEEG analysis for delirium diagnosis in septic patients. Read More

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The impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on surface urban heat island changes and air-quality improvements across 21 major cities in the Middle East.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 16;288:117802. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Campus de Aula Dei, Avda. Montañana, 50059, Zaragoza, Spain.

This study investigates changes in air quality conditions during the restricted COVID-19 lockdown period in 2020 across 21 metropolitan areas in the Middle East and how these relate to surface urban heat island (SUHI) characteristics. Based on satellite observations of atmospheric gases from Sentinel-5, results indicate significant reductions in the levels of atmospheric pollutants, particularly nitrogen dioxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO), and carbon monoxide (CO). Air quality improved significantly during the middle phases of the lockdown (April and May), especially in small metropolitan cities like Amman, Beirut, and Jeddah, while it was less significant in "mega" cities like Cairo, Tehran, and Istanbul. Read More

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Identification of microRNAs and their target genes related to needle discoloration of evergreen tree Chinese cedar (Cryptomeria fortunei) in cold winters.

Planta 2021 Jul 20;254(2):31. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.

Main Conclusion: Comparative analysis of miRNAs and their gene targets between the evergreen and yellowish-brown Cryptomeria fortunei phenotypes in cold winters suggests a possible role of miRNA-regulated pathways in needle color. Cryptomeria fortunei (Chinese cedar) is a conifer tree of considerable economic, ornamental and ecological importance. Despite the evergreen nature of C. Read More

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Knees with straight Blumensaat's line have small volume of femoral intercondylar notch.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Purpose: Smaller femoral intercondylar notch volume has been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The present study aims to investigate differences in the intercondylar notch volume based on differences in the morphology of Blumensaat's line.

Methods: Eighty-eight (88) subjects (42 male and 46 female: median age 27: range 15-49), were included in this study. Read More

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