483,111 results match your criteria small animal

Reversing pathology in a preclinical model of Alzheimer's disease by hacking cerebrovascular neoangiogenesis with advanced cancer therapeutics.

EBioMedicine 2021 Sep 14;71:103503. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, 2185 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; The Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, 2215 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; The Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver General Hospital, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Gordon & Leslie Diamond Health Care Centre, Level 6, 2775 Laurel Street, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Cognitive decline leading to dementia, accompanied by the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in neuritic plaques together with the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (tau), are previously noted hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously discovered hypervascularity in brain specimens from AD patients and consistent with this observation, we demonstrated that overexpression of Aβ drives cerebrovascular neoangiogenesis leading to hypervascularity and coincident tight-junction disruption and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakiness in animal models of AD. We subsequently demonstrated that amyloid plaque burden and cerebrovascular pathogenesis subside when pro-angiogenic Aβ levels are reduced. Read More

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September 2021

Anti-Müllerian hormone, testosterone, and insulin-like peptide 3 as biomarkers of Sertoli and Leydig cell function during deslorelin-induced testicular downregulation in the dog.

Theriogenology 2021 Aug 15;175:100-110. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Food Animal Medicine Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, Hungary; ATRC Aurigon Ltd., Dunakeszi, Hungary.

The role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in male infertility is not fully understood. We used the downregulated testis as a model of gonadotropin-dependent infertility. Serum testosterone and AMH concentrations were studied in five adult male Beagles implanted (day 0) with 4. Read More

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Vasa nervorum of epicardial nerves and valves of small veins investigated in porcine heart by two types of vascular injections.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Anatomy, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The morphology of the vascular supply of peripheral branches of cardiac nerves has not been systematically described until now. The aim of this study was to describe the architectonics of the vasa nervorum of epicardial nerves in porcine hearts by using two injection techniques. Twenty-three hearts from young healthy pigs were used. Read More

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September 2021

In vitro selection of Remdesivir resistance suggests evolutionary predictability of SARS-CoV-2.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 17;17(9):e1009929. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Remdesivir (RDV), a broadly acting nucleoside analogue, is the only FDA approved small molecule antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. To date, there are no reports identifying SARS-CoV-2 RDV resistance in patients, animal models or in vitro. Here, we selected drug-resistant viral populations by serially passaging SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in the presence of RDV. Read More

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September 2021

Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Hisar, India: identification of risk factors and assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices among livestock owners.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Sep 17;53(5):450. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.

Brucellosis caused by facultative intracellular bacteria, Brucella, remains a global threat to both animal and human health. In this study we aimed to identify potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of livestock keepers in Hisar, India. A standardized questionnaire was used to collate information regarding potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and livestock owners' KAPs. Read More

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September 2021

High heritability of telomere length and low heritability of telomere shortening in wild birds.

Mol Ecol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Telomere length and telomere shortening predict survival in many organisms. This raises the question of the contribution of genetic and environmental effects to variation in these traits, which is still poorly known, particularly for telomere shortening. We used experimental (cross-fostering) and statistical (quantitative genetic 'animal' models) means to disentangle and estimate genetic and environmental contributions to telomere length variation in pedigreed free-living jackdaws (Corvus monedula). Read More

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September 2021

3-Hydroxyhexan-2-one and 3-Methylthiopropan-1-ol as Pheromone Candidates for the South American Cerambycid Beetles Stizocera phtisica and Chydarteres dimidiatus dimidiatus, and Six Related Species.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Departments of Entomology and Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.

Here, we study the pheromone chemistry of two South American cerambycid beetle species, and their behavioral responses to candidate pheromone components. Adult males of Stizocera phtisica Gounelle (subfamily Cerambycinae: tribe Elaphidiini) produced a sex-specific blend of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one with lesser amounts of 3-methylthiopropan-1-ol. In field bioassays, traps baited with racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and 3-methylthiopropan-1-ol did not catch conspecific beetles, but did catch both sexes of a sympatric species, Chydarteres dimidiatus dimidiatus (F. Read More

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September 2021

Welfare of Native Goat Breeds in Serbia-Emphasis on Parasitological Infections.

Front Vet Sci 2021 31;8:678880. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Native goat breeds in Serbia has been recognized as an important element of regional agrobiodiversity and play an important role in the safeguarding of cultural and traditional heritage. The aim of this study was to identify the main welfare issues likely to be encountered in extensive goat farming systems with an emphasis on parasitological infections. The study was conducted during the winter season on four small farms of native Balkan and Serbian white goats. Read More

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Differential Abundance of Brain Mitochondrial Proteins in Yak and Cattle: A Proteomics-Based Study.

Front Vet Sci 2021 31;8:663031. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Animal Science Department, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

The plateau adaptability and stress resistance of yaks are widely known based on their capacity to survive under severe habitat conditions. However, a few studies on brain mitochondria have characterized these adaptations at the protein level. We identified and quantified the brain mitochondrial proteins using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and Proteomics. Read More

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Congenital Cataracts and Microphakia with Retinal Dysplasia and Optic Nerve Hypoplasia in a Calf.

Case Rep Vet Med 2021 6;2021:2064103. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

. A two-month-old, female, Aberdeen-Angus calf was presented for congenital cataracts and blindness in both eyes (OU). The dam had a reported history of visual defects (not specified) and had produced other affected calves (per owner history). Read More

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September 2021

Development of an amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay for the detection of sulfonamides in animal-derived products.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 12;9(9):4938-4945. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine Beijing China.

In this study, we carried out an amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (AlphaLISA) to detect sulfonamides (SAs) antibiotic residues in plasma, milk, pork, chicken, and fish. The SAs AlphaLISA method can detect 13 SAs with half-inhibitory concentration (IC) 2.11-29. Read More

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September 2021

Canine Leishmaniasis in Morocco: A Descriptive Prospective Clinical Study.

Vet Med Int 2021 6;2021:6304127. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Reproduction, Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Institute, Rabat-Instituts, Madinat Al Irfane, PO Box 6202, Rabat, Morocco.

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic vector-borne disease that is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin including Morocco. Dogs play a major epidemiological role in this zoonosis as reservoir hosts. This study investigated the clinical manifestations of CanL in dogs naturally infected with . Read More

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September 2021

MicroRNAs in Woody Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:686831. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼21-nucleotides) non-coding RNAs found in plant and animals. MiRNAs function as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in their target mRNAs, leading to mRNA destabilization and translational inhibition. Plant miRNAs have some distinct characteristics compared to their animal counterparts, including greater evolutionary conservation and unique miRNA processing methods. Read More

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Uncovering Diagnostic Value of Mitogenome for Identification of Cryptic Species .

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:714651. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Botany and Nature Protection, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.

Fungal complexes are often composed of morphologically nearly indistinguishable species with high genetic similarity. However, despite their close relationship, they can exhibit distinct phenotypic differences in pathogenicity and production of mycotoxins. Many plant pathogenic and toxigenic fungi have been shown to consist of such cryptic species. Read More

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Whole-Genome Sequencing of Isolates From England and Wales Reveals Similarities to European Isolates and Mutations Associated With Reduced Sensitivity to Antimicrobials.

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:713233. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom.

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the principal cause of swine dysentery, a disease that threatens economic productivity of pigs in many countries as it can spread readily within and between farms, and only a small number of antimicrobials are authorized for treatment of pigs. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 81 archived at the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) from diagnostic submissions and herd monitoring in England and Wales between 2004 and 2015. The resulting genome sequences were analyzed alongside 34 genomes we previously published. Read More

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A Novel Selective PKR Inhibitor Restores Cognitive Deficits and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease Experimental Models.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Sep 16;378(3):262-275. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Neurodegeneration Cluster, Rare and Neurologic Disease Research TA (M.L.-G., N.M., E.G., C.V., V.R., D.I., L.P., V.T.), Integrated Drug Discovery (P.B., J.-F.S., D.M.), and DMPK (A.K.), Sanofi R&D, Chilly-Mazarin, France

In Alzheimer disease (AD), the double-strand RNA-dependent kinase protein kinase R (PKR )/EIF2AK2 is activated in brain with increased phosphorylation of its substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). AD risk-promoting factors, such as ApoE4 allele or the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid- oligomers (AOs), have been associated with activation of PKR-dependent signaling. Here, we report the discovery of a novel potent and selective PKR inhibitor (SAR439883) and demonstrate its neuroprotective pharmacological activity in AD experimental models. Read More

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September 2021

Ultra- and micro-structural changes of respiratory tracts in SARS-CoV-2 infected Syrian hamsters.

Vet Res 2021 Sep 16;52(1):121. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, 54596, South Korea.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is causing a global crisis. It is still unresolved. Although many therapies and vaccines are being studied, they are still in their infancy. Read More

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September 2021

[Effect of neuregulin-1 on cardiac glucose metabolism in rats with experimental myocardial infarction].

Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2021 Sep;49(9):912-919

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

To investigate the effect of neuregulin-1(NRG-1) on cardiac glucose metabolism in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham-operated group, MI group, and MI+NRG1 group. The rat MI model was established via ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal study of calf morbidity and mortality on smallholder farms in southern Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(9):e0257139. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Animal Science and Health, College of Agricultural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Calf morbidity and mortality are serious constraints in the success of dairy calf production. Thus, the current study was carried out with the objective to estimate the incidence of calf morbidity and mortality and associated risk factors in milk-shed districts of Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A prospective cohort and cross-sectional survey were employed from November 2019 to April 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Radiographic and anatomical morphometric assessments of heart size in presumed healthy pet guinea pigs.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department for Small Animals, Division of Cardiology, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Cardiac disease in guinea pigs has been reported in the literature; however, reference intervals for normal radiographic heart size obtained using objective measurement methods have not been provided for this species. The aim of this prospective, reference interval study was to describe cardiac dimensions in presumed healthy guinea pigs using the vertebral heart scale (VHS) from thoracic radiographs, as described for dogs and cats. Furthermore, an anatomical study was carried out to compare the radiographic and anatomical findings. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Cryptochrome-modulating compounds on circadian behavioral rhythms in zebrafish.

J Biochem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

The circadian clock controls daily rhythms of various physiological processes, and impairment of its function causes many diseases including sleep disorders. Chemical compounds that regulate clock function are expected to be applied for treatment of circadian clock-related diseases. We previously identified small-molecule compounds KL001, KL101, and TH301 that lengthen the period of cellular circadian clock by directly targeting clock proteins Cryptochromes (CRYs) in mammals. Read More

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September 2021

Particle Integrity and Size Effect on the Journey of Polymeric Nanocarriers in Zebrafish Model and the Correlation with Mice.

Small 2021 Sep 16:e2103584. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, 999078, China.

Polymeric nanocarriers have high biocompatibility for potential drug delivery applications. After entering bloodstream, nanocarriers will circulate, interact with proteins, dissociate, or be cleared by reticuloendothelial system. Zebrafish as a visual animal model, can serve as a tool for screening nanomedicines and monitoring nanocarrier behaviors in vivo. Read More

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September 2021

Emerging Gene and Small Molecule Therapies for the Neurodevelopmental Disorder Angelman Syndrome.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, MIND Institute, University of California, Research II Building 96, 4625 2nd Avenue, Suite 1001B, Davis, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare (~1:15,000) neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, impaired communication skills, and a high prevalence of seizures, sleep disturbances, ataxia, motor deficits, and microcephaly. AS is caused by loss-of-function of the maternally inherited UBE3A gene. UBE3A is located on chromosome 15q11-13 and is biallelically expressed throughout the body but only maternally expressed in the brain due to an RNA antisense transcript that silences the paternal copy. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Injection of Polysaccharide on the Intestinal Development and Mucosal Immunity in Broiler Chickens.

Front Vet Sci 2021 30;8:738816. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Basic Medical College, Jilin Medical University, Jilin, China.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of injection of polysaccharide (APS) on hatchability, body weight (BW), intestinal histomorphology, the number of IgA cells and sIgA content in intestine, and the expression of intestinal immune-related genes in broiler chickens. On day 18 of the incubation, a total of 960 live embryo eggs were weighed and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: a control group and three APS groups. The eggs in the control group were injected with 0. Read More

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Issues of under-representation in quantitative DNA metabarcoding weaken the inference about diet of the tundra vole .

PeerJ 2021 26;9:e11936. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT-the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

During the last decade, methods based on high-throughput sequencing such as DNA metabarcoding have opened up for a range of new questions in animal dietary studies. One of the major advantages of dietary metabarcoding resides in the potential to infer a quantitative relationship between sequence read proportions and biomass of ingested food. However, this relationship's robustness is highly dependent on the system under study, calling for case-specific assessments. Read More

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-modified human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the efficacy of allogeneic heart transplantation through inducing immune tolerance.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Aug;13(8):5064-5076

Department of Cardiac Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

Background: Immune rejection of heart transplantation has been regarded as the biggest challenge encountered by a patient suffering from end-stage heart disease. The transplantation of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) has exhibited promising application prospects in organ transplantation. However, its persistent unsatisfactory tolerance has limited the widespread application of this technology. Read More

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The unique physiological features of the broiler pectoralis major muscle as suggested by the three-dimensional ultrastructural study of mitochondria in type IIb muscle fibers.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University.

Typical skeletal muscles are composed of mixed muscle fiber types, which are classified as slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II) fibers, whereas pectoralis major muscles (PMs) in broiler chickens are 100% composed of type IIb fast-twitch fibers. Since metabolic properties differ among muscle fiber types, the combination of muscle fiber types is involved in physiological functions and pathological conditions in skeletal muscles. In this study, using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, we compared three-dimensional (3D) mitochondrial properties in type IIb fibers in broiler PMs and those in type I fibers of broiler gastrocnemius muscles (GMs) heterogeneously composed of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers. Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced transformation of sulfamethoxazole by birnessite in the presence of gallic acid: Kinetics and pathways.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 3;803:150074. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China. Electronic address:

The emergence of antibiotic agents like sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in soils and surface water can cause serious threat to human and animal health. In this work, mechanisms for the promotive effect of gallic acid (GA) on the transformation of SMX by birnessite were studied. In the absence of GA, the observed pseudo-first-order reaction constants (k) decreased as the pH increased from 4. Read More

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September 2021

Research Note: Contamination of eggs by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens in indoor cage-free housing.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 18;100(11):101438. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Contaminated eggs are a leading source of human Salmonella infections and this problem continues to challenge public health authorities and egg industries around the world. Salmonella invasion of the ovaries and oviducts of infected laying hens can result in bacterial deposition inside the edible portions of developing eggs. The introduction, persistence, and transmission of salmonellae in commercial egg-laying flocks are influenced by flock management practices, but the food safety ramifications of different types of laying hen housing remain unresolved. Read More

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High-throughput screening on cochlear organoids identifies VEGFR-MEK-TGFB1 signaling promoting hair cell reprogramming.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep;16(9):2257-2273

MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Medical School, Model Animal Research Center of Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210032, China; Research Institute of Otolaryngology, No. 321 Zhongshan Road, 210008 Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210032, China; Institute for Brain Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210032, China. Electronic address:

Hair cell degeneration is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Hair cells in mammalian cochlea do not spontaneously regenerate, posing a great challenge for restoration of hearing. Here, we establish a robust, high-throughput cochlear organoid platform that facilitates 3D expansion of cochlear progenitor cells and differentiation of hair cells in a temporally regulated manner. Read More

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September 2021