53,820 results match your criteria skeletal remains

Protective effects of farnesyltransferase inhibitor on sepsis-induced morphological aberrations of mitochondria in muscle and increased circulating mitochondrial DNA levels in mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 9;556:93-98. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA; Shriners Hospitals for Children, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients and is characterized by multi-organ dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis. In addition to metabolic impairments resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) causes systemic inflammation as a damage-associated molecular pattern when it is released to the circulation. Read More

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A step towards glucose control with a novel nanomagnetic-insulin fordiabetes care.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 9:120587. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200436, PR China. Electronic address:

Massive efforts have been devoted to insulin delivery for diabetes care. Achieving a long-term tight-regulated blood glucose level with a low risk of hypoglycemia remains a great challenge. In this study we propose a novel strategy to efficiently regulate insulin action after insulin is injected or released into patient body aiming to achieve better glycemic control, which is achieved by the administration of insulin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-Ins). Read More

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Body fat composition and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: Mendelian randomisation study.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health Data Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool.

Observational studies showed obesity (defined using BMI) to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk, but its causal role remains unclear. Dramatic weight loss following bariatric surgery did not reduce RA risk [1]. Obesity is also paradoxically associated with reduced mortality among RA patients [2]. Read More

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Physiological Characteristics of Female Soccer Players and Health and Performance Considerations: A Narrative Review.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Life Sciences R&D, PepsiCo, Leicester, UK.

Female soccer has seen a substantial rise in participation, as well as increased financial support from governing bodies over the last decade. Thus, there is an onus on researchers and medical departments to develop a better understanding of the physical characteristics and demands, and the health and performance needs of female soccer players. In this review, we discuss the current research, as well as the knowledge gaps, of six major topics: physical demands, talent identification, body composition, injury risk and prevention, health and nutrition. Read More

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Association of visceral adiposity index with new-onset type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive Chinese adults.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Purpose: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a reliable indicator for the distribution and function of adipose tissue in the body. The relation of VAI with new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset impaired fasting glucose (IFG) remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prospective relation of VAI with new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset IFG in Chinese hypertensive adults. Read More

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Sinonasal mucosal melanoma: treatment strategies and survival rates for a rare disease entity : A single center experience and review of literature.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 26, 8036, Graz, Austria.

Background: Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) is a rare disease entity comprising 0.4-1.3% of all melanomas. Read More

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Individualized versus Fixed Positive End-expiratory Pressure for Intraoperative Mechanical Ventilation in Obese Patients: A Secondary Analysis.

Anesthesiology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Background: General anesthesia may cause atelectasis and deterioration in oxygenation in obese patients. The authors hypothesized that individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves intraoperative oxygenation and ventilation distribution compared to fixed PEEP.

Methods: This secondary analysis included all obese patients recruited at University Hospital of Leipzig from the multicenter Protective Intraoperative Ventilation with Higher versus Lower Levels of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Obese Patients (PROBESE) trial (n = 42) and likewise all obese patients from a local single-center trial (n = 54). Read More

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Mechanisms and primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2021 May;16(3):177-185

Division of Cardiology, UCSF at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight mechanisms of elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) among people living with HIV (PLWH), discuss therapeutic strategies, and opportunities for primary prevention.

Recent Findings: HIV-associated ASCVD risk is likely multifactorial and due to HIV-specific factors and traditional risk factors even in the setting of treated and suppressed HIV disease. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and immune activation are key drivers of atherogenesis, therapies designed to lower inflammation including colchicine and low-dose methotrexate have not improved secondary cardiovascular endpoints among PLWH. Read More

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Epidemiology of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies in Africa: A Contemporary Systematic Review.

J Clin Rheumatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Yaoundé, Cameroon Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, University of Adelaide and Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia Rheumatology Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, CHRU Lille, Referral Centre for rare systemic autoimmune diseases North and Northwest of France, Univ. Lille, INSERM U995, LIRIC-Lille Inflammation Research International Centre, Lille, France.

Background: The epidemiology of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) has been extensively studied in America, Europe, and Asia, but remains unclear in Africa.

Objective: The aim of this review was to summarize available data on the epidemiology of IIMs in Africa.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and African Journals Online for studies published up to December 30, 2020, and reporting epidemiological data on IIMs in Africa. Read More

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Call for More Effective Regulation of Clinical Trials with Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Consisting of or Containing Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Biogen Idec Inc, 2191, Regulatory Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls, Maidenhead, Berkshire, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;

Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs), such as gene therapies that consist of or contain Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) need to comply with the European Union (EU) GMO legislation, as implemented in each EU Member State, before a clinical trial can commence. Complying with GMO requirements is complex, varies significantly across EU Member States and is leading to delays to clinical trials with ATMPs (see Supplemental materials). Such delays and varying implementation of the GMO legislation makes the EU less attractive as a region to conduct clinical trials with investigational gene therapies. Read More

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Elevated COVID19 mortality risk in detroit area hospitals among patients from census tracts with extreme socioeconomic vulnerability.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Apr 6;34:100814. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States.

Background: the incidence of novel coronavirus disease (COVID19) is elevated in areas with heightened socioeconomic vulnerability. Early reports from US hospitals also implicated social disadvantage and chronic disease history as COVID19 mortality risk factors. However, the relationship between race and COVID19 mortality remains unclear. Read More

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Incidence of Cranial Adjacent Segment Disease after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using the Cortical Bone Trajectory Technique for the Treatment of Single-Level Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis; More than a 2-Year Follow-Up.

Spine Surg Relat Res 2021 31;5(2):98-103. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Introduction: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a widely used effective, safe, and established treatment for degenerative spinal disorders. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is one of the serious concerns governing the clinical results following spinal fusion surgery. Cortical bone trajectory (CBT) is an alternative and less-invasive technique for lumbar pedicle screw placement. Read More

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Morphea: progress to date and the road ahead.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):437

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Morphea is a rare autoimmune condition causing inflammation and sclerosis of the skin and underlying soft tissue. It is characterized by periods of activity (inflammation admixed with fibrosis), ultimately resulting in permanent damage (pigment change and tissue loss). Damage resulting from unchecked activity can lead to devastating, permanent cosmetic and functional sequelae including hair loss; cutaneous, soft tissue and bony atrophy; joint contractures; and growth restriction of the affected body site in children. Read More

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Decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 19 level is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):376

Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a regulator of glucose metabolism and may provide a new therapeutic target for type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the clinical relevance of FGF19 in T1D remains unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between the serum FGF19 concentration and T1D. Read More

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Mining the Selective Remodeling of DNA Methylation in Promoter Regions to Identify Robust Gene-Level Associations With Phenotype.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:597513. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Lab of Epigenetics and Advanced Health Technology, Space Science and Technology Institute, Shenzhen, China.

Epigenetics is an essential biological frontier linking genetics to the environment, where DNA methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic events. In recent years, through the epigenome-wide association study (EWAS), researchers have identified thousands of phenotype-related methylation sites. However, the overlaps of identified phenotype-related DNA methylation sites between various studies are often quite small, and it might be due to the fact that methylation remodeling has a certain degree of randomness within the genome. Read More

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Comprehensive Association Analysis of 21-Gene Recurrence Score and Obesity in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:619840. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of General Surgery, Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: A center-specific 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay has been validated in Luminal-like, HER2-, pN0-1 Chinese breast cancer patients with both predictive and prognostic value. The association between RS and host factors such as obesity remains unclear. The objectives of the current study are to comprehensively analyze the distribution, single gene expression, and prognostic value of RS among non-overweight, overweight and obese patients. Read More

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Evaluation of the Component Separation Technique for the Treatment of Patients with Large Incisional Hernia.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):40-43. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background: Incisional hernia remains a frequent complication of abdominal surgery. Results of surgical repair are disappointing with recurrence rates of suture repair being in the range of 5%-63% depending on the type of repair used, with better results using mesh implantation. For the management of such large hernias, interest has been generated in the Component Separation Technique. Read More

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January 2021

Does sarcopenia affect postoperative short- and long-term outcomes in patients with lung cancer?-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1358-1369

Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

Background: Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from sarcopenia, and reports on the association of resectable lung cancer and their postoperative outcomes are increasing. Information on whether sarcopenia has any impact on short- and long-term postoperative outcomes in patients surgically treated for non-small cell lung cancer remains insufficient. Furthermore, reports vary regarding the pathological stage, surgical procedure, diagnostic tool of sarcopenia, cut-off value, prognosis, and postoperative complications. Read More

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Chronic pain and weight regain in a lifestyle modification trial.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Apr 1;7(2):192-198. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health Marshfield Clinic Research Institute Marshfield Wisconsin USA.

Objective: Obesity and chronic pain often co-occur and exert bidirectional influences on one another. How patients with obesity and chronic pain respond to weight loss treatments, however, remains unclear. This study evaluated body weight, physical activity, and diet outcomes in participants with and without chronic pain in a 2-year behavioral weight loss trial. Read More

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Bariatric surgery outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Apr 22;7(2):176-191. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Surgery University of Minnesota Minneapolis Minnesota USA.

Background: The Medicare population is increasing while the prevalence of obesity remains high. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. The objective of this investigation was to assess trends in utilization, readmission, mortality, and cost of bariatric surgery in the Medicare population. Read More

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Tree Shrew as a New Animal Model for the Study of Dengue Virus.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:621164. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.

Dengue virus is a significant public health threat worldwide; however, the pathogenesis of dengue disease remains poorly understood due to lack of appropriate small animal models. Tree shrews are an emerging experimental animal model for the study of human diseases due to their resemblance of genetic characteristics to primate animals. Herein we report that dengue infection in tree shrews elicits resemble clinical symptoms as in humans. Read More

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Venomous Snakes Reveal Ecological and Phylogenetic Factors Influencing Variation in Gut and Oral Microbiomes.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:657754. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, United States.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of vertebrates contains a series of organs beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus or cloacal opening. Each organ represents a unique environment for resident microorganisms. Due to their simple digestive anatomy, snakes are good models for studying microbiome variation along the GIT. Read More

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Knowledge Gaps in Mobile Health Research for Promoting Physical Activity in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Daehyoung Lee

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:635105. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Applied Human Sciences, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, United States.

A growing body of research highlights that adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor health outcomes, yet effective health interventions are lacking for this population. While mobile health applications demonstrate potential for promoting physical activity (PA) in adults with ASD, scientific evidence for supporting this tool's long-term effectiveness on PA behavior change remains inconclusive. This study aimed to provide the latest information on PA research and the prospective role of mobile health applications for promoting PA in adults with ASD. Read More

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Irisin Regulating Skeletal Response to Endurance Exercise in Ovariectomized Mice by Promoting Akt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:639066. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Physical Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Thought irisin is recognized as a pivotal modulator for bone formation, its role in regulating skeletal response to exercise training remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the change of irisin in response to 8-week exercise training and its role in regulating the effects of exercise on bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx) mice. Forty 3-month old female C57BL/6 mic were randomly allocated into four groups: (1) Sham-operated (Sham); (2) ovariectomized; (3) Ovx plus 8-week downhill running exercise (Ex); (4) Ovx plus exercise and received twice weekly injection of cyclo RGDyk protein (a putative anti-irisin receptor agents) (ExRg). Read More

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Influence of Rearing Environment on Longitudinal Brain Development, Object Recognition Memory, and Exploratory Behaviors in the Domestic Pig ().

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:649536. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, United States.

Introduction: Over the last 40 years, the domestic pig has emerged as a prominent preclinical model as this species shares similarities with humans with regard to immunity, gastrointestinal physiology, and neurodevelopment. Artificial rearing of pigs provides a number of advantages over conventional rearing (i.e. Read More

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Overcoming the Chasm Between Evidence and Routine Practice for Bladder Cancer; Just a Quixotic Notion?

M Varughese

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Oncology, Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK. Electronic address:

There has been a failure to improve outcomes in bladder cancer over the last 30 years. This is despite clinical trial evidence showing a benefit of interventions such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy or concurrent radiosensitisation for non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The bladder cancer population is characteristically elderly, who typically suffer from multiple comorbidities. Read More

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Oxygen delivery-guided perfusion for the prevention of acute kidney injury: A randomized controlled trial.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Juntendo University, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: The reduction of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery using an oxygen delivery-guided perfusion strategy (oxygen delivery strategy) for cardiopulmonary bypass management compared with a fixed flow perfusion (conventional strategy) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a oxygen delivery strategy would reduce the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

Methods: We randomly enrolled 300 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Read More

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Small Fiber Neuropathy in Diabetes Polyneuropathy: Is It Time to Change?

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2021 Apr 12:1932296821996434. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Diabetes Trails unit, Ipswich Hospital (ESNEFT), Ipswich, UK.

Diabetes polyneuropathy is an important complication of diabetes polyneuropathy, and its notable sequelae of foot ulceration, autonomic dysfunction, and neuropathic pain are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the major impact on quality of life and health economic costs, it remains underdiagnosed until late in its natural history, and there is lack of any intervention that can reverse its clinical progress. Assessment of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) in diabetes offers an opportunity to detect abnormalities at an early stage so that both interventional studies and preventative measures can be enacted to prevent progression to the devastating complications of foot ulceration and cardiac dysautonomic death. Read More

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The Role of Mitochondrial Adaptation and Metabolic Flexibility in the Pathophysiology of Obesity and Insulin Resistance: an Updated Overview.

Curr Obes Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: The term "metabolic flexibility" denotes the dynamic responses of the cellular oxidative machinery in order to adapt to changes in energy substrate availability. A progressive loss of this adaptive capacity has been implicated in the development of obesity-related comorbidities. Mitochondria are dynamic intracellular organelles which play a fundamental role in energy metabolism, and the mitochondrial adaptation to environmental challenges may be viewed as the functional component of metabolic flexibility. Read More

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Hourglass Body Shape Ideal Scale and disordered eating.

Body Image 2021 Apr 8;38:85-94. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Arizona State University, United States.

Disordered eating research has long considered the negative consequences of internalizing sociocultural appearance ideals (e.g., thin ideal, muscular ideal). Read More

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