349,016 results match your criteria skeletal muscles

Are muscle parameters obtained by computed tomography associated with outcome after esophagectomy for cancer?

Clin Nutr 2021 May 1;40(6):3729-3740. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background & Aims: Esophageal cancer patients often suffer from cancer-related malnutrition and, as a result, sarcopenia. Whether sarcopenia worsens the outcome after esophagectomy is unclear. Inconsistent study results are partly caused by varying cut-off values used for defining sarcopenia. Read More

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Structure and function of STAC proteins: calcium channel modulators and critical components of muscle excitation-contraction coupling.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 12:100874. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of British Columbia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Life Sciences Institute, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

In skeletal muscle tissue, an intriguing mechanical coupling exists between two ion channels from different membranes: the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca1.1), located in the plasma membrane, and Ryanodine Receptor 1 (RyR1) located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Excitable cells rely on Cas to initiate Ca entry in response to action potentials. Read More

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Differential diagnosis of acute traumatic hip pain in the elderly.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):1-7

Elderly patients who present with an inability to weight bear following a fall, with normal radiographs, should be appropriately investigated to rule out an occult hip fracture (OHF). We aim to identify both the range and incidence of the differential diagnosis of acute traumatic hip pain in a large series of patients investigated for OHF. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients investigated for an OHF with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. Read More

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Insulin rapidly increases skeletal muscle mitochondrial ADP sensitivity in the absence of a high lipid environment.

Biochem J 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

Reductions in mitochondrial function have been proposed to cause insulin resistance, however the possibility that impairments in insulin signaling negatively affects mitochondrial bioenergetics has received little attention. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that insulin could rapidly improve mitochondrial ADP sensitivity, a key process linked to oxidative phosphorylation and redox balance, and if this phenomenon would be lost following high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. Insulin acutely (60 minutes post I. Read More

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Distinct glycolytic pathway regulation in liver, tumour and skeletal muscle of mice with cancer cachexia.

Cell Biochem Funct 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Energetically inefficient inter-organ substrate shuttles are proposed contributors to cachexia-related weight loss. Here, we examined glycolytic pathway metabolites, enzyme activity and transport proteins in skeletal muscle, liver and tumours of mice with cachexia-related weight loss induced by colon-26 cancer cells. Skeletal muscle of cachexic mice had increased [L-lactate]/[pyruvate], LDH activity and lactate transporter MCT1. Read More

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Influence of Muscle Mass Area and Visceral Obesity on 30-day Mortality After Colorectal Surgery with Primary Anastomosis.

Rev Invest Clin 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Muscle mass and visceral fat may be assessed at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) in computed tomography (CT). Both variables have been related with adverse surgical outcomes.

Objective: The objective of the study was to study the association of skeletal muscle index (SMI) and visceral fat area (VFA) with 30-day mortality in colorectal surgery. Read More

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Clinicopathological analysis and genomic profiling of a rare histiocyte-rich rhabdomyoblastic tumor: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26105

Department of General Surgery, Shenzhen University General Hospital & Carson International Cancer Research Centre, Shenzhen, P.R. China.

Rationale: Skeletal muscle tumors are traditionally classified as rhabdomyomas or rhabdomyosarcomas. However, some soft tissue tumors cannot easily be identified as benign or malignant. We report a case of a histiocyte-rich rhabdomyoblastic tumor, with pathologic characteristics distinct from either rhabdomyoma or rhabdomyosarcoma. Read More

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GADD45A is a protective modifier of neurogenic skeletal muscle atrophy.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States of America.

Neurogenic muscle atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with nerve injury and in denervating diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aside from prompt restoration of innervation and exercise where feasible, there are currently no effective strategies for maintaining skeletal muscle mass in the setting of denervation. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of gene expression changes occurring in atrophying skeletal muscle, and identified Gadd45a as a gene that shows one of the earliest and most sustained increases in expression in skeletal muscle after denervation. Read More

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N-3 PUFA as an ergogenic supplement modulating muscle hypertrophy and strength: a systematic review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 15:1-21. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

There is growing evidence that suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may improve physical performance when combined with proper training through modulation of muscle hypertrophy, muscle strength, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This systematic review aims to examine the effect and optimal dosage of n-3 PUFA supplementation on muscle hypertrophy, muscle strength, and DOMS when combined with physical exercise. The PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE Complete, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched following the PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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Real time measurement of intramuscular pH during routine knee arthroscopy using a tourniquet : a preliminary study.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Jun;10(6):363-369

Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK.

Aims: Tourniquets have potential adverse effects including postoperative thigh pain, likely caused by their ischaemic and possible compressive effects. The aims of this preliminary study were to determine if it is possible to directly measure intramuscular pH in human subjects over time, and to measure the intramuscular pH changes resulting from tourniquet ischaemia in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy.

Methods: For patients undergoing short knee arthroscopic procedures, a sterile calibrated pH probe was inserted into the anterior fascial compartment of the leg after skin preparation, but before tourniquet inflation. Read More

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Substrate-Specific Respiration of Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria after 1 h of Moderate Cycling in Sedentary Adults.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1375-1384

School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Introduction: Skeletal muscle mitochondria have dynamic shifts in oxidative metabolism to meet energy demands of aerobic exercise. Specific complexes oxidize lipid and nonlipid substrates. It is unclear if aerobic exercise stimulates intrinsic oxidative metabolism of mitochondria or varies between substrates. Read More

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Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Deficiency Abrogates Diabetic and Obese Phenotypes while Restoring Endothelial Function via Inhibition of NOX1.

Diabetes 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095;

We have previously demonstrated a novel role of bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory activation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it has remained unclear as to how BMP4 activates NOX1 and whether targeting the new mechanistic pathway revealed is effective in preserving endothelial function in T2DM. Here we observed that BMP4 induced marked, time-dependent increase in physiological binding between TLR2 and NOX1 in aortic endothelial cells, as well as increased binding of TLR2 to NOXO1. Read More

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Treatment effects of Carriere Motion Appliance on patients with class II malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Orthod 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Damascus Dental School, Department of Orthodontics, Damascus, Syria.

Objective: To investigate the treatment effects of Carriere Motion Appliance (CMA) on class II patients.

Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, ScienceDirect, ProQuest (dissertation and thesis), Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov. Read More

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Broad Spectrum Polyphenol Supplementation from Tart Cherry Extract on Markers of Recovery from Intense Resistance Exercise.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jun 14;18(1):47. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Health and Human Performance, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, USA.

Background: Tart cherry supplementation has been shown to enhance recovery from strenuous exercise due to its antioxidant properties. The majority of these studies used tart cherry juice, with a significant calorie content. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether powdered tart cherry extract with minimal calorie content reduces oxidative stress and enhances recovery following intense resistance exercise. Read More

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Effects of bisphenol A exposure during cardiac cell differentiation.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 9;286:117567. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Animal Reproduction, INIA, Av. Puerta de Hierro, 18, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Heart development requires a precise temporal regulation of gene expression in cardiomyoblasts. Therefore, the transcriptional changes in differentiating cells can lead to congenital heart diseases. Although the genetic mutations underlie most of these alterations, exposure to environmental contaminants, such as bisphenol A (BPA), has been recently considered as a risk factor as well. Read More

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The sympathetic/beta-adrenergic pathway mediates irisin regulation of cardiac functions in zebrafish.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jun 11:111016. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Integrative Neuroendocrinology, Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada. Electronic address:

Irisin is a 23 kDa myokine encoded in its precursor, fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). The exercise-induced increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1-α) promotes FNDC5 mRNA, followed by the proteolytic cleavage of FNDC5 to release irisin from the skeletal or cardiac muscle into blood. Irisin is abundantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle and plays an important role in feeding, modulates appetite regulatory peptides, and regulates cardiovascular functions in zebrafish. Read More

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Capmatinib improves insulin sensitivity and inflammation in palmitate-treated C2C12 myocytes through the PPARδ/p38-dependent pathway.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Jun 11:111364. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Global Innovative Drugs, Graduate School of Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Capmatinib (CAP) has been used to treat metastatic non-small lung cancer (NSCL) and suppress inflammation. It causes hypoglycemia in NSCL patients. Therefore, it is expected that CAP improves inflammation-mediated insulin resistance due to its anti-inflammatory effect. Read More

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A colossal, enigmatic, and long-lasting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T elevation.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc and Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Pôle de recherche en Endocrinologie, Diabète et Nutrition, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc and Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

This case describes the incidental finding of a massive and persistent elevation of troponin T in a patient with end-stage renal disease. This high troponin T value was not consistent with the patient's clinical condition and the laboratory was called in to investigate this discrepancy. After exclusion of analytical interference and discovery of a discordance between troponin T and troponin I, a clinical investigation including cardiac and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Read More

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Hand grip strength before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection in community-dwelling older adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: To assess the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased hand grip strength (HGS).

Design: Longitudinal population-based study.

Setting: Community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in a rural Ecuadorian village struck by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Read More

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A Novel Stable Isotope Approach Demonstrates Surprising Degree of Age-Related Decline in Skeletal Muscle Collagen Proteostasis.

Function (Oxf) 2021 10;2(4):zqab028. Epub 2021 May 10.

Aging and Metabolism Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Age-related deterioration in turnover of collagen proteins accelerates extracellular matrix fibrosis and hinders adaptation to external stimuli. This project sought to understand factors that increase skeletal muscle fibrosis with age by studying what we term the dynamic protein pool. We hypothesized that the dynamic protein pool size of muscle collagen decreases with age, thus indicating a decrease in proteostatic maintenance (ie, ability to maintain proteostasis), and that failure to account for these changes impacts the interpretation of tracer-measured synthesis rates. Read More

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Endurance Is Improved in Female Rats After Living High-Training High Despite Alterations in Skeletal Muscle.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 28;3:663857. Epub 2021 May 28.

Département des Environnements Opérationnels, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

Altitude camps are used during the preparation of endurance athletes to improve performance based on the stimulation of erythropoiesis by living at high altitude. In addition to such whole-body adaptations, studies have suggested that high-altitude training increases mitochondrial mass, but this has been challenged by later studies. Here, we hypothesized that living and training at high altitude (LHTH) improves mitochondrial efficiency and/or substrate utilization. Read More

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Taurine Protects C2C12 Myoblasts From Impaired Cell Proliferation and Myotube Differentiation Under Cisplatin-Induced ROS Exposure.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:685362. Epub 2021 May 26.

Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

In cancer patients, chemotherapeutic medication induces aberrant ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation in skeletal muscles, resulting in myofiber degradation, muscle weakness, and even cachexia, which further leads to poor therapeutic outcomes. Acting as an antioxidant, taurine is extensively used to accelerate postexercise muscle recovery in athletes. The antioxidant effects of taurine have been shown in mature myotubes and myofibers but not yet in myoblasts, the myotube precursor. Read More

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Exogenous Biological Renal Support Improves Kidney Function in Mice With Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:655787. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, Department of Nephrology, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) Institute of Nephrology, Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Rhabdomyolysis (RM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers and release of their contents into the circulation. Myoglobin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most severe complications of RM. Based on our previous research, exogenous biological renal support alleviates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in elderly mice. Read More

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PERK Signaling Controls Myoblast Differentiation by Regulating MicroRNA Networks.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:670435. Epub 2021 May 28.

MOE Key Laboratory of Gene Function and Regulation, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays important roles in various cells that have a high demand for protein folding, which are involved in the process of cell differentiation and development. Here, we separately knocked down the three sensors of the UPR in myoblasts and found that PERK knockdown led to a marked transformation in myoblasts from a fusiform to a rounded morphology, which suggests that PERK is required for early myoblast differentiation. Interestingly, knocking down PERK induced reprogramming of C2C12 myoblasts into stem-like cells by altering the miRNA networks associated with differentiation and stemness maintenance, and the PERK-ATF4 signaling pathway transactivated muscle differentiation-associated miRNAs in the early stage of myoblast differentiation. Read More

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Mitochondrial DNA Depletion in Granulosa Cell Derived Nuclear Transfer Tissues.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:664099. Epub 2021 May 14.

Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Gene Center and Department of Veterinary Science, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a key technology with broad applications that range from production of cloned farm animals to derivation of patient-matched stem cells or production of humanized animal organs for xenotransplantation. However, effects of aberrant epigenetic reprogramming on gene expression compromise cell and organ phenotype, resulting in low success rate of SCNT. Standard SCNT procedures include enucleation of recipient oocytes before the nuclear donor cell is introduced. Read More

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An Immune-Related Long Non-Coding RNA Signature to Predict the Prognosis of Ewing's Sarcoma Based on a Machine Learning Iterative Lasso Regression.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:651593. Epub 2021 May 26.

Breast Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Qinghai University, Xining, China.

The aim of this study was to construct a new immune-associated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) signature to predict the prognosis of Ewing sarcoma (ES) and explore its molecular mechanisms. We downloaded transcriptome and clinical prognosis data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE17679, which included 88 ES samples and 18 matched normal skeletal muscle samples), and used it as a training set to identify immune-related lncRNAs with different expression levels in ES. Univariable Cox regression was used to screen immune-related lncRNAs related to ES prognosis, and an immune-related lncRNA signature was constructed based on machine learning iterative lasso regression. Read More

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Prognostic Immune-Related Genes of Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma.

Front Genet 2021 28;12:669549. Epub 2021 May 28.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is an extremely aggressive malignant bone tumor with a high incidence among children and adolescents. The immune microenvironment plays an important role in ES development. The aim of the current study was to investigate the immune microenvironment in ES patients to identify immune-related gene signatures. Read More

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Explorations of Sarcopenia via a Dynamic Model.

Front Physiol 2021 28;12:670381. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Sport Medicine and Physical Therapy, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.

The cause of sarcopenia has been observed over decades by clinical trials, which, however, are still insufficient to systematically unravel the enigma of how resistance exercise mediates skeletal muscle mass. Here, we proposed a minimal regulatory network and developed a dynamic model to rigorously investigate the mechanism of sarcopenia. Our model is consisted of eight ordinary differential equations and incorporates linear and Hill-function terms to describe positive and negative feedbacks between protein species, respectively. Read More

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Myosin-based regulation of twitch and tetanic contractions in mammalian skeletal muscle.

Elife 2021 Jun 14;10. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Time-resolved X-ray diffraction from isolated fast-twitch muscles of the mouse was used to show how structural changes in the myosin-containing thick filaments contribute to the regulation of muscle contraction, extending the previous focus on regulation by the actin-containing thin filaments. This study shows that muscle activation involves the following sequence of structural changes: thin filament activation, disruption of the helical array of myosin motors characteristic of resting muscle, release of myosin motor domains from the folded conformation on the filament backbone, and actin attachment. Physiological force generation in the 'twitch' response of skeletal muscle to single action potential stimulation is limited by incomplete activation of the thick filament and the rapid inactivation of both filaments. Read More

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