319,957 results match your criteria skeletal muscle-specific

Dermatomyositis: Patterns of MRI findings in muscles, fascia and skin of pelvis and thigh.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jun 6;141:109812. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Purpose: This review discusses characteristic, subtle, and florid changes in muscle, fascia, skin, and subcutaneous tissue of the lower limbs in MR imaging in patients with dermatomyositis.

Material And Methods: This review is based on the analysis of 43 patients with dermatomyositis who were imaged from January 2014 to March 2021 in our institute as well a critical review of literature of MRI in dermatomyositis.

Results: Muscle involvement is predominantly bilaterally symmetric and involves anterior, posterior as well as medial compartments of the thigh. Read More

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Impact of environmental chemicals on craniofacial skeletal development: Insights from investigations using zebrafish embryos.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 7;286:117541. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Craniofacial skeletal anomalies are among the most common structural birth defects around the world. Various studies using human populations and experimental animals have shown that genetic and environmental factors play significant roles in the causation and progression of these anomalies. Environmental factors, such as teratogens and toxin mixtures, induce craniofacial anomalies are gaining heightened attention. Read More

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Clonal osteoblastic cell lines with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation of Pit1 or Pit2 show enhanced mineralization despite reduced osteogenic gene expression.

Bone 2021 Jun 9;151:116036. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Bone and Mineral Research, Research Institute, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization, Izumi, Osaka 594-1101, Japan. Electronic address:

Multiple actions of extracellular Pi on the skeletal cells are likely to be partly mediated by type III sodium/phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporters Pit1 and Pit2, although the details are not fully understood. In the current study, to determine the roles of Pit1 and Pit2 in osteoblasts, we generated Pit1-knockout (KO) and Pit2-KO osteoblastic cells by applying CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to an osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4. The extracellular Pi level was increased in the Pit1-KO and Pit2-KO clones due to the reduced Pi uptake. Read More

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The miRNA expression profile directly reflects the energy metabolic differences between slow and fast muscle with nutritional regulation of the Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jun 9:111003. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Quality Control of Aquatic Animals, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, China. Electronic address:

Fish skeletal muscles are composed of two distinct types, slow and fast muscles, and they play important roles in maintaining the body's movement and energy metabolism. The two types of muscle are easy to separate, so they are often used as the model system for studies on their physiological and functional characteristics. In this study, we revealed that the carbohydrate and lipid metabolic KEGG pathways are different between slow and fast muscles of Chinese perch with transcriptome analysis. Read More

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Beneficial effect of the methanolic leaf extract of Allium hookeri on stimulating glutathione biosynthesis and preventing impaired glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 9:108961. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chemical Biology Lab, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST) Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati, 35, India; Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Assam, 781068, India. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress resulting from the depletion of glutathione (GSH) level plays a vital role in generating various degenerative diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). We tested the hypothesis that depleted glutathione levels can be enhanced and the impaired glucose metabolism can be prevented by supplementing Allium hookeri, a herb rich in organosulfur compounds, in a High Fat (HF) diet-induced T2D Male Sprague Dawley rat model. The experimental rats were divided into three groups (n = 6), namely normal diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet treated with A. Read More

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Utility of preoperative CT-based body metrics in relation to postoperative complications in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

Liver Transpl 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Computed tomography (CT) derived body metrics such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), psoas muscle index (PMI), and subcutaneous fat index (ScFI) are measurable components of sarcopenia, frailty, and nutrition. While these body metrics are advocated in adults for predicting postoperative outcomes after liver transplantation (LT), little is known about the value in pediatric populations. This study assessed the relation between preoperative CT-based body metrics and postoperative short-term outcomes in pediatric LT recipients. Read More

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Cancer-induced muscle atrophy is determined by intrinsic muscle oxidative capacity.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21714

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

We tested the hypothesis that cancer cachexia progression would induce oxidative post-translational modifications (Ox-PTMs) associated with skeletal muscle wasting, with different responses in muscles with the prevalence of glycolytic and oxidative fibers. We used cysteine-specific isotopic coded affinity tags (OxICAT) and gel-free mass spectrometry analysis to investigate the cysteine Ox-PTMs profile in the proteome of both plantaris (glycolytic) and soleus (oxidative) muscles in tumor-bearing and control rats. Histological analysis revealed muscle atrophy in type II fibers in plantaris muscle, with no changes in plantaris type I fibers and no differences in both soleus type I and II fibers in tumor-bearing rats when compared to healthy controls. Read More

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Systemic Jak1 activation causes extrarenal calcitriol production and skeletal alterations provoking stunted growth.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21721

Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Mineral homeostasis is regulated by a complex network involving endocrine actions by calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and FGF23 on several organs including kidney, intestine, and bone. Alterations of mineral homeostasis are found in chronic kidney disease and other systemic disorders. The interplay between the immune system and the skeletal system is not fully understood, but cytokines play a major role in modulating calcitriol production and function. Read More

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Appendicular skeletal muscle mass and quality estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the assessment of frailty syndrome risk in older individuals.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Al. I. J. Paderewskiego 35, 51-612, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background And Aim: The rising aging index of many populations necessitates the continuous evolution of geriatric assessment methods, especially the ones used to identify frailty and the risk of frailty. An appropriately early diagnosis of adverse changes in skeletal muscles can reduce the risk of functional limitations in elderly persons. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the appendicular skeletal muscle mass and quality, estimated by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the risk of prevalence of the pre-frailty state in elderly persons. Read More

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Deletion of Coagulation Factor IX Compromises Bone Mass and Strength: Murine Model of Hemophilia B (Christmas Disease).

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Medical Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Osteopenia and osteoporosis have increasingly become a recognized morbidity in those persons with hemophilia (PwH) receiving inadequate prophylactic clotting factor replacement. Animal models can control or eliminate genetic and environmental factors and allow for invasive testing not clinically permissible. Here, we describe the skeletal phenotype of juvenile and adult male mice with a genetically engineered deficiency in coagulation factor IX (FIX KO). Read More

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Thermal sensitivity of Axolotl feeding behaviors.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of Massachusetts Lowell.

Musculoskeletal movement results from muscle contractions, recoil of elastic tendons, aponeuroses, and ligaments, or combinations thereof. Muscular and elastic contributions can vary both across behaviors and with changes in temperature. Skeletal muscles reach peak contraction speed at a temperature optimum with performance declining away from that optimum by approximately 50% per 10 °C, following the Q10 principle. Read More

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Likelihood-based tests for detecting circadian rhythmicity and differential circadian patterns in transcriptomic applications.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biostatistics at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32608, USA.

Circadian rhythmicity in transcriptomic profiles has been shown in many physiological processes, and the disruption of circadian patterns has been found to associate with several diseases. In this paper, we developed a series of likelihood-based methods to detect (i) circadian rhythmicity (denoted as LR_rhythmicity) and (ii) differential circadian patterns comparing two experimental conditions (denoted as LR_diff). In terms of circadian rhythmicity detection, we demonstrated that our proposed LR_rhythmicity could better control the type I error rate compared to existing methods under a wide variety of simulation settings. Read More

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Arothron: An R package for geometric morphometric methods and virtual anthropology applications.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Objectives: The statistical analysis of fossil remains is essential to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. Unfortunately, the human fossil record is straight away scarce and plagued with severe loss of information caused by taphonomic processes. The recently developed field of Virtual Anthropology helps to ameliorate this situation by using digital techniques to restore damaged and incomplete fossils. Read More

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Energy Metabolism of Osteocytes.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME, 04074, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In this review, we provide a recent update on bioenergetic pathways in osteocytes and identify potential future areas of research interest. Studies have identified a role for regulation of bone formation and bone resorption through osteocyte mechanosensing and osteocyte secreted factors. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies on the bioenergetics and energy metabolism of osteocytes, which are required for the regulation of bone remodeling. Read More

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Environmental and diagenetic controls on the morphology and calcification of the Ediacaran metazoan Cloudina.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12341. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, James Hutton Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FE, UK.

Cloudina is a globally distributed Ediacaran metazoan, with a tubular, funnel-in-funnel form built of thin laminae (ca. 1-10 μm). To what degree local environmental controlled morphology, and whether early diagenesis controlled the degree of calcification of Cloudina, is debated. Read More

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Avian extremity reconstruction via osseointegrated leg-prosthesis for intuitive embodiment.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12360. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

For large avians such as vultures, limb loss leads to loss of ambulation and eventually death from malnutrition. Prosthetic devices may replace the limb, however, conventional prosthetic sockets are not feasible in feathered limbs and the extreme stress and strain of unreflected daily use in animals. Osseointegration is a novel technique, where external prosthetic parts are connected directly to a bone anchor to provide a solid skeletal-attachment. Read More

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Senolytics improve bone forming potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from aged mice.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Jun 11;6(1):34. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

UConn Center on Aging, Farmington, CT, USA.

The osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) declines dramatically with aging. By using a calvarial defect model, we showed that a senolytic cocktail (dasatinib+quercetin; D + Q) improved osteogenic capacity of aged BMSC both in vitro and in vivo. The study presented a model to assess strategies to improve bone-forming potential on aged BMSCs. Read More

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Muscle Deteriorations Become Prominent within 24 Hours after Admission in Severely Burned Adults.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Ft Sam Houston, TX 78234 Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814.

Background: Severe burn injury results in profound catabolic deterioration. Although burn related catabolism have been well stated, it is unclear when the catabolic response begins. This study characterized acute changes of muscle protein breakdown at the admission and the day after in severely burned adults. Read More

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Impact of skeletal muscle mass in patients with recurrent gastric cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 11;19(1):170. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago, 683-8504, Japan.

Background: We retrospectively examined the relationship among skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), prognosis, and chemotherapy side effects in patients with recurrent gastric cancer (RGC).

Methods: Sixty-seven patients who developed recurrence after undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Tottori University Hospital and received palliative chemotherapy were included in this study. Pretreatment computed tomography was performed to measure the skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and cross-sectional SMM at the third lumbar vertebra. Read More

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Study of the correlation between the noncanonical pathway of pyroptosis and idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;98:107810. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Qinghai University, 251 Ningda Road, Chengbei District, Xining City, Qinghai Province 810000, China.

Background: The pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is complex and unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the noncanonical pathway of pyroptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of IIM, and the intervention effect of drugs glyburide and bright blue G (BBG).

Methods: After the drug intervention, we detected the expression of the caspase-4, caspase-5, caspase-11, GSDMD, pannexin-1, NLRP3 and P2X7R proteins in skeletal muscle tissues from the six groups using Western blotting. Read More

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Exercise attenuates angiotensinⅡ-induced muscle atrophy by targeting PPARγ/miR-29b.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Cardiac Regeneration and Ageing Lab, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Organ Repair, School of Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. Electronic address:

Background: Exercise is beneficial for muscle atrophy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and microRNA-29b (miR-29b) have been reported to be responsible for angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ)-induced muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether exercise can protect AngⅡ-induced muscle atrophy by targeting PPARγ/miR-29b. Read More

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Oxylipin profiles and levels vary by skeletal muscle type, dietary fat and sex in young rats.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Manitoba Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, 98691, Human Nutritional Sciences, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

PUFA-derived bioactive lipid mediators called oxylipins have been shown to influence muscle growth, inflammation and repair in select muscles. Since individual oxylipins have varying effects and potencies, broad profiling in differing muscle types is required to further understand their overall effects. In addition, diet and sex are key determinants of oxylipin levels. Read More

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Proteomic Characterization of Senescent Laryngeal Adductor and Plantaris Hindlimb Muscles.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Objectives: The goals of this study were to 1) compare global protein expression in muscles of the larynx and hindlimb and 2) investigate differences in protein expression between aged and nonaged muscle using label-free global proteomic profiling methods.

Methods: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed on thyroarytenoid intrinsic laryngeal muscle and plantaris hindlimb muscle from 10 F344xBN F1 male rats (5 old and 5 young). Protein expression was compared and pathway enrichment analysis performed for each muscle type (larynx and limb) and age group (old and young muscle). Read More

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Identification of novel pleiotropic gene for bone mineral density and lean mass using the cFDR method.

Ann Hum Genet 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Bone mineral density (BMD) and whole-body lean mass (WBLM) are two important phenotypes of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Previous studies have shown that BMD and lean mass were phenotypically and genetically correlated. To identify the novel common genetic factors shared between BMD and WBLM, we performed the conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) analysis using summary data of the genome-wide association study of femoral neck BMD (n = 53,236) and WBLM (n = 38,292) from the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis Consortium (GEFOS). Read More

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Methadone, Buprenorphine, Oxycodone, Fentanyl, and Tramadol in Multiple Postmortem Matrices.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital.

Peripheral blood concentrations are generally preferred for postmortem toxicological interpretation, but some autopsy cases may lack blood for sampling due to decomposition or large traumas etc. In such cases, other tissues or bodily fluids must be sampled; however, limited information exists on postmortem concentrations in matrices other than blood. Pericardial fluid, muscle, and vitreous humor have been suggested as alternatives to blood, but only a few studies have investigated the detection of opioids in these matrices. Read More

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Downhill Running Decreases the Acetylation of Tubulins and Impairs Autophagosome Degradation in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Sports Science, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, CHINA College of Rehabilitation, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, CHINA.

Purpose: This study was designed to probe the effect of downhill running on microtubule acetylation and autophagic flux in rat skeletal muscle.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an exercise protocol of a 90-min downhill run with a slope of -16° and a speed of 16 m/min, and then the soleus was sampled at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after exercise. Protein expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), p62/sequestosome 1 (p62), α-tubulin and acetylated α-tubulin (AcK40 α-tubulin) were detected by Western blotting. Read More

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Repurposing of Clinically Approved Poly-(Adp-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors For The Therapy of Sepsis.

Shock 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo - Brazil Laboratory of Medical Research - Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, Brazil Chair of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Abstract: Sepsis' pathogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that lead to a dysregulation of the host's response. Significant efforts have been made in search of interventions that can reverse this situation and increase patient survival. Poly (ADP-polymerase) (PARP) is a constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial enzyme, which functions as a co-activator and co-repressor of gene transcription, thus regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. Read More

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Survival motor neuron deficiency slows myoblast fusion through reduced myomaker and myomixer expression.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Recently approved treatments aimed at increasing SMN protein levels have dramatically improved patient survival and have altered the disease landscape. While restoring SMN levels slows motor neuron loss, many patients continue to have smaller muscles and do not achieve normal motor milestones. Read More

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Test Yourself Answer: right knee pain following prolonged standing.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, Clínica de Diagnóstico Por Imagem (CDPI)/DASA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Association Between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Immune-Mediated Myopathy in Patients Who Have Died.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Importance: Myalgia, increased levels of creatine kinase, and persistent muscle weakness have been reported in patients with COVID-19.

Objective: To study skeletal muscle and myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 who had died.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control autopsy series was conducted in a university hospital as a multidisciplinary postmortem investigation. Read More

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