N Engl J Med 2021 Jun;384(25):2406-2417
From the Wellcome Centre for Mitochondrial Research, (J.J.C., M.O., N.M.-L., A.M.S., A.P., R.M., R.W.T.), the Translational and Clinical Research Institute (J.J.C, M.O., T.M.P., A.M.S., A.P., R.M., R.W.T.), and the NHS Highly Specialised Service for Rare Mitochondrial Disorders of Adults and Children (A.M.S., R.M., R.W.T.), Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, and the Institute of Child Health, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, University College London Institute of Neurology (D.Z., M.R.), the Division of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Guy's Hospital, King's College London School of Medicine (I.A.B.), and the Clinical Genetics Unit, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (C.D.), London - all in the United Kingdom; Institut Universitaire de Recherche Clinique and Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire, University of Montpellier and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Montpellier (C.G., S.S., L.L., M.K.), Departments of Neuroradiology (N.L.) and Pediatric Neurology (P.M., F.R.) and Reference Center for Neuromuscular Diseases Atlantic-Occitania-Caribbean (AOC) (P.M., F.R.), CHU de Montpellier, and Laboratoire de Physiologie et Médecine Expérimentale du Cœur et des Muscles (PhyMedExp), INSERM, CNRS, University of Montpellier (P.M., F.R.), Montpellier, and the Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), Université Paris-Saclay, Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), CNRS Gif-sur-Yvette (F.P.-P., A.D.) - all in France; the Translational Stem Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Research Programs Unit, and the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (F.S., T.G.M.); Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York (N.M.-L.); the Institute of Medical Genetics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (A.B., S.A.-B., A.R.); Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and Center of Neurology, and the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (S.R., L.S., M.S.); the Departments of Genetics (H.S.A., F.S.A.) and Neuroscience (S.A.), King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and the Dr. John T. Macdonald Foundation, Department of Human Genetics, and John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (S.Z.).
Background: Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation route in mammalian cells. Systemic ablation of core autophagy-related () genes in mice leads to embryonic or perinatal lethality, and conditional models show neurodegeneration. Impaired autophagy has been associated with a range of complex human diseases, yet congenital autophagy disorders are rare. Read More