49 results match your criteria sjnnv rgnnv


Immunogene expression analysis in betanodavirus infected-Senegalese sole using an OpenArray® platform.

Gene 2021 Mar 11;774:145430. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Universidad de Málaga, Instituto de Biotecnología y Desarrollo Azul, IBYDA, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

The transcriptomic response of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) triggered by two betanodaviruses with different virulence to that fish species has been assessed using an OpenArray® platform based on TaqMan™ quantitative PCR. The transcription of 112 genes per sample has been evaluated at two sampling times in two organs (head kidney and eye/brain-pooled samples). Those genes were involved in several roles or pathways, such as viral recognition, regulation of type I (IFN-1)-dependent immune responses, JAK-STAT cascade, interferon stimulated genes, protein ubiquitination, virus responsive genes, complement system, inflammatory response, other immune system effectors, regulation of T-cell proliferation, and proteolysis and apoptosis. Read More

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Role of rotifer () and () nauplii in the horizontal transmission of a natural nervous necrosis virus (NNV) reassortant strain to Senegalese sole () larvae.

Vet Q 2020 Dec;40(1):205-214

Instituto de Acuicultura, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: Marine invertebrates are provided as a first feed for marine fish larvae because of their strict nutritional requirements, despite also being a potential source of infectious agents.

Aim: To assess horizontal transmission of a nervous necrosis virus reassortant strain (NNV) to sole larvae via and rotifers.

Materials And Methods: Rotifer () and () nauplii cultures were bath infected with a reassortant (RGNNV/SJNNV) NNV strain isolated from gilthead sea bream and viral internalisation was confirmed by IFA. Read More

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December 2020

Differential immunogene expression profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) in response to highly and low virulent NNV.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Nov 20;106:56-70. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Universidad de Málaga, Instituto de Biotecnología y Desarrollo Azul, IBYDA, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, 29071, Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

European sea bass is highly susceptible to the nervous necrosis virus, RGNNV genotype, whereas natural outbreaks caused by the SJNNV genotype have not been recorded. The onset and severity of an infectious disease depend on pathogen virulence factors and the host immune response. The importance of RGNNV capsid protein amino acids 247 and 270 as virulence factors has been previously demonstrated in European sea bass; however, sea bass immune response against nodaviruses with different levels of virulence has been poorly characterized. Read More

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November 2020

Nanostructured recombinant protein particles raise specific antibodies against the nodavirus NNV coat protein in sole.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Apr 24;99:578-586. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (IBB), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Cell Biology, Animal Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV have emerged as a potent threat to the Mediterranean marine aquaculture industry, causing viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). In this study, a cheap and practical vaccine strategy using bacterial inclusion bodies made of the coat protein of a virulent reassortant strain of this betanodavirus was devised. The nanostructured recombinant protein nanoparticles, VNNV-C, were administered without adjuvant to two groups of juvenile sole, one by intraperitoneal injection and the other by oral intubation. Read More

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Susceptibility of betanodavirus in a newly established vertebra-derived cell line from Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

J Fish Dis 2020 Feb 16;43(2):263-273. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Centre for Ocean Research, Col. Dr Jeppiaar Research Park, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.

In the present study, a new cell line from the vertebra of mosquitofish Gambusia affinis was successfully established and characterized. The cell line is named as bone Gambusia affinis (BGA) and subcultured for more than 55 passages in Leibovitz's/L15 medium supplemented with 15% FBS at 28°C. The cell line has a modal chromosome number of 48. Read More

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February 2020

Risk factors associated with viral nervous necrosis in hybrid groupers in Malaysia and the high similarity of its causative agent nervous necrosis virus to reassortant red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus/striped jack nervous necrosis virus strains.

Vet World 2019 Aug 21;12(8):1273-1284. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Food Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Background And Aim: Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a serious disease of several marine fish species. VNN causes 100% mortality in the larval stages, while lower losses have been reported in juvenile and adult fish. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of VNN while identifying its associated risk factors and the genotypes of its causative agent in a hybrid grouper hatchery in Malaysia. Read More

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Occurrence and molecular characterization of betanodaviruses in fish and invertebrates of the Greek territorial waters.

J Fish Dis 2019 Dec 21;42(12):1773-1783. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Betanodaviruses are small ssRNA viruses that cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, a severe neuropathological infectious disease in marine fish species worldwide. In the present study, the occurrence of betanodaviruses was investigated in wild and cultured populations of fishes and invertebrates of the Greek territorial waters. Betanodaviruses were detected in 35 species belonging to 21 families and 12 orders. Read More

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December 2019

Capsid amino acids at positions 247 and 270 are involved in the virulence of betanodaviruses to European sea bass.

Sci Rep 2019 Oct 1;9(1):14068. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Málaga, Spain.

European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is severely affected by nervous necrosis disease, caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV). Two out of the four genotypes of this virus (red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, RGNNV; and striped jack nervous necrosis virus, SJNNV) have been detected in sea bass, although showing different levels of virulence to this fish species. Thus, sea bass is highly susceptible to RGNNV, whereas outbreaks caused by SJNNV have not been reported in this fish species. Read More

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October 2019

Amino acidic substitutions in the polymerase N-terminal region of a reassortant betanodavirus strain causing poor adaptation to temperature increase.

Vet Res 2019 Jun 21;50(1):50. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Instituto de Acuicultura, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología-Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), Genus Betanodavirus, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neuropathological disease that causes fish mortalities worldwide. The NNV genome is composed of two single-stranded RNA molecules, RNA1 and RNA2, encoding the RNA polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Betanodaviruses are classified into four genotypes: red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV). Read More

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Amino acid changes in the capsid protein of a reassortant betanodavirus strain: Effect on viral replication in vitro and in vivo.

J Fish Dis 2019 Feb 3;42(2):221-227. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Betanodavirus reassortant strains (RGNNV/SJNNV) isolated from Senegalese sole harbour an SJNNV capsid featuring several changes with respect to the SJNNV-type strain, sharing three hallmark substitutions. Here, we have employed recombinant strains harbouring mutations in these positions (r20 and r20 + 247 + 270) and have demonstrated that the three substitutions affect different steps of the viral replication process. Adsorption ability and efficiency of viral attachment were only affected by substitutions in the C-terminal side of the capsid. Read More

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February 2019

Differential antiviral activity of European sea bass interferon-stimulated 15 protein (ISG15) against RGNNV and SJNNV betanodaviruses.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 7;83:148-157. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, 29071, Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

ISG15 is an antiviral protein acting intracellularly, by conjugation to viral or cellular proteins, or extracellularly, as cytokine. In this work, an in vitro system, consisting of E-11 cells over-expressing European sea bass ISG15 (Dl_ISG15_E11 cells), has been developed to evaluate the European sea bass ISG15 protein activity against RGNNV and SJNNV isolates. Regarding RGNNV, RNA2 copy number and viral titres were similar in E-11 and Dl_ISG15_E11 cells, and the cellular survival analyses demonstrated that Dl_ISG15_E11 cells were not protected from this virus. Read More

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December 2018

Betanodavirus infection in primary neuron cultures from sole.

Vet Res 2018 Sep 5;49(1):86. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), G. Betanodavirus, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, a disease that causes mass mortalities in a wide range of fish species. Betanodaviruses are neurotropic viruses and their replication in the susceptible fish species seems to be almost entirely restricted to nerve tissue. Read More

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September 2018

Transcriptomic Profiles of Senegalese Sole Infected With Nervous Necrosis Virus Reassortants Presenting Different Degree of Virulence.

Front Immunol 2018 17;9:1626. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Betanodaviruses [nervous necrosis virus (NNV)] are the causative agent of the viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, a disease that affects cultured Senegalese sole (). NNV reassortants, combining genomic segments from redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) and striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) genotypes, have been previously isolated from several fish species. The wild-type reassortant wSs160. Read More

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Modification of betanodavirus virulence by substitutions in the 3' terminal region of RNA2.

J Gen Virol 2018 09 24;99(9):1210-1220. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

1​Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Betanodaviruses have bi-segmented positive-sense RNA genomes, consisting of RNAs 1 and 2. For some members of the related genus alphanodavirus, the 3' terminal 50 nucleotides (nt) of RNA2, including a predicted stem-loop structure (3'SL), are essential for replication. We investigate the possible existence and role of a similar structure in a reassortant betanodavirus strain (RGNNV/SJNNV). Read More

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September 2018

Betanodavirus infection in bath-challenged Solea senegalensis juveniles: A comparative analysis of RGNNV, SJNNV and reassortant strains.

J Fish Dis 2018 Oct 20;41(10):1571-1578. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Senegalese sole has been shown to be highly susceptible to betanodavirus infection, although virulence differences were observed between strains. To study the mechanisms involved in these differences, we have analysed the replication in brain tissue of three strains with different genotypes during 15 days after bath infection. In addition, possible portals of entry for betanodavirus into sole were investigated. Read More

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October 2018

Immuno-related gene transcription and antibody response in nodavirus (RGNNV and SJNNV)-infected European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Jul 25;78:270-278. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, 29071 Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

The immune response of European sea bass to RGNNV and SJNNV infections has been evaluated by quantifying the transcription of some genes involved in the IFN I system, as well as in the inflammatory and adaptive immune mechanisms. The transcription of IFN-I, ISG-12, ISG-15 and MxA genes has been analyzed in brain and head kidney, showing that RGNNV genotype induces a more intense response of the IFN I system than SJNNV in both organs. In addition, the results obtained indicate the importance of the inflammatory response in nodavirus pathogenesis, with the transcription of IL-8 and TNF-α significantly higher in brain than in head kidney, being RGNNV the strongest inductor. Read More

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Towards a Dual Lateral Flow Nanobiosensor for Simultaneous Detection of Virus Genotype-Specific PCR Products.

J Anal Methods Chem 2018 20;2018:7691014. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vas. Sofias Ave., 11521 Athens, Greece.

Nervous necrosis virus (nodavirus) has been responsible for mass mortalities in aquaculture industry worldwide, with great economic and environmental impact. A rapid low-cost test to identify nodavirus genotype could have important benefits for vaccine and diagnostic applications in small- and medium-scale laboratories in both academia and fish farming industry. A dual lateral flow biosensor for simultaneous detection of the most prevalent nodavirus genotypes (RGNNV and SJNNV) was developed and optimized. Read More

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February 2018

Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Fish Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from a Clinical Disease Outbreak in Farm-Reared Bream in Spain.

Genome Announc 2018 Jan 4;6(1). Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, Agrinio, Greece

larvae infected by viral nervous necrosis were collected from an aquaculture fish farm. The isolated viral genome, composed of two segments (RNA1 and RNA2), was sequenced and analyzed comparatively. Phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that the isolated strain is a reassortant, exhibiting a red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV)-type RNA1 and a striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV)-type RNA2. Read More

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January 2018

Lack of in vivo cross-protection of two different betanodavirus species RGNNV and SJNNV in European sea bass Dicentrachus labrax.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Feb 19;85:85-89. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Diseases of Fish, Mollusk and Crustacean, Legnaro, PD, Italy.

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) is a severe infective disease characterized by neuropathological changes in several fish species associated with high mortality. The etiological agent is a virus belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. To date, four different betanodavirus species have been officially recognized by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), namely the red-spotted grouper- (RGNNV), the striped jack- (SJNNV), the barfin flounder- (BFNNV) and the tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV). Read More

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February 2019

Molecular characterization and expression analyses of the Solea senegalensis interferon-stimulated gene 15 (isg15) following NNV infections.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 17;66:423-432. Epub 2017 May 17.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

Interferons are essential in fish resistance to viral infections. They induce interferon-stimulated genes, such as isg15. In this study, the Senegalese sole isg15 gene (ssisg15) has been characterized. Read More

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Viral nervous necrosis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) caused by reassortant betanodavirus RGNNV/SJNNV: an emerging threat for Mediterranean aquaculture.

Sci Rep 2017 05 2;7:46755. Epub 2017 May 2.

Fish Diseases Diagnostic Service, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) certainly represents the biggest challenge for the sustainability and the development of aquaculture. A large number of economically relevant fish species have proven to be susceptible to the disease. Conversely, gilthead sea bream has generally been considered resistant to VNN, although it has been possible to isolate the virus from apparently healthy sea bream and sporadically from affected larvae and postlarvae. Read More

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Genotype-specific real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting analysis for rapid identification of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

Arch Virol 2017 Aug 27;162(8):2315-2328. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vasilissis Sofias Avenue, 11521, Athens, Greece.

A real-time genotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to assess the most common genotypes of nervous necrosis viruses or nodaviruses. Nodaviruses are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis infections, which have been wreaking havoc in the aquaculture industry worldwide, with fish mortality up to 100%. The four different genotypes of nodaviruses correlate with differences in viral pathogenicity. Read More

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Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(7):e0158814. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. Read More

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Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

Dis Aquat Organ 2016 May;119(3):231-8

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, National Reference Centre for Fish, Mollusk and Crustacean Diseases, Viale dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. Read More

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Reassortant betanodavirus infection in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

J Fish Dis 2016 Nov 2;39(11):1347-1356. Epub 2016 May 2.

Unidad de Ictiopatología-Patología Viral, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

In this study, the susceptibility of turbot juveniles to two betanodavirus strains was assessed, a RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant (Ss160.03) and a SJNNV strain. The reassortant isolate exhibits a slightly modified SJNNV CP, with two amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal domain (positions 247 and 270). Read More

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November 2016

Understanding the interaction between Betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2016 Jun 17;53:35-49. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, EH26 0PZ, United Kingdom.

Over the last three decades, the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease has become a serious problem of marine finfish aquaculture, and more recently the disease has also been associated with farmed freshwater fish. The virus has been classified as a Betanodavirus within the family Nodaviridae, and the fact that Betanodaviruses are known to affect more than 120 different farmed and wild fish and invertebrate species, highlights the risk that Betanodaviruses pose to global aquaculture production. Betanodaviruses have been clustered into four genotypes, based on the RNA sequence of the T4 variable region of their capsid protein, and are named after the fish species from which they were first derived i. Read More

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SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system.

Vet Res 2016 Jan 8;47. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071, Málaga, Spain.

European sea bass is highly susceptible to the betanodavirus RGNNV genotype, although the SJNNV genotype has also been detected in this fish species. The coexistence of both genotypes may affect the replication of both viruses by viral interaction or by stimulation of the host antiviral defense system in which the IFN I system plays a key role. IFN I triggers the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes, including Mx genes, whose expression has been used as a reporter of IFN I activity. Read More

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January 2016

Establishment and application of cross-priming isothermal amplification coupled with lateral flow dipstick (CPA-LFD) for rapid and specific detection of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

Virol J 2015 Sep 26;12:149. Epub 2015 Sep 26.

Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Qingdao, P. R. China.

Background: Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is an important pathogen that causes diseases in many species of fish in marine aquaculture. The larvae and juveniles are more easily infected by RGNNV and the cumulative mortality is as high as 100 % after being infected with RGNNV. This virus imposes a serious threat to aquaculture of grouper fry. Read More

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September 2015

Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

Arch Virol 2015 Dec 9;160(12):2979-89. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, 510300, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84. Read More

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December 2015

Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection.

PLoS One 2015 4;10(5):e0126121. Epub 2015 May 4.

Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Fisheries Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. Read More

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