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The effect of Ditylum brightwellii (Bacillariophyceae) on colony development of bloom forming species Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) under nutrient-replete condition.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 14;167:112336. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China. Electronic address:

To improve our knowledge of the factors regulating Phaeocystis globosa colony formation, the effects of the diatom Ditylum brightwellii on P. globosa colony development were investigated using co-culture and cell-free filtrate approaches. The co-culture experiments showed the moderate abundance of D. Read More

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Transition from growth to decay of an epidemic due to lockdown.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

We study the transition of an epidemic from growth phase to decay of the active infections in a population when lockdown health measures are introduced to reduce the probability of disease transmission. While in the case of uniform lockdown a simple compartmental model would indicate instantaneous transition to decay of the epidemic, this is not the case when partially isolated active clusters remain with the potential to create a series of small outbreaks. We model this using the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm based on a connected set of stochastic susceptible-infected-removed/recovered (SIR) networks representing the locked-down majority population (where the reproduction number is less than one) weakly coupled to a large set of small clusters where the infection may propagate. Read More

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Preoperative 2-[F]FDG PET-CT aids in the prognostic stratification for patients with primary ampullary carcinoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No.7, Chung-Shan South Road, Chung-Cheng District, Taipei, 100, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Objectives: We sought to investigate whether preoperative dual-phase 2-[F]FDG PET-CT identify predictors for poor survival in patients with ampullary carcinoma receiving pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Methods: The preoperative PET-CT images of patients with resected ampullary carcinoma from June 2007 to July 2017 were analyzed. Survival curves were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Read More

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A probabilistic approach for modelling bone fracture healing under Ilizarov circular fixator.

Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 17:e3466. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Bone fracture treatments using Ilizarov circular fixator (ICF) involve dealing with uncertainties about a range of critical factors that control the mechanical microenvironment of the fracture site such as ICF configuration, fracture gap size, physiological loading etc. To date, the effects of the uncertainties about these critical factors on the mechanical microenvironment of the fracture site have not been fully understood. The purpose of this study is to tackle this challenge by using computational modelling in conjunction with engineering reliability analysis. Read More

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Measuring sleep regularity: Theoretical properties and practical usage of existing metrics.

Sleep 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Study Objectives: Sleep regularity predicts many health-related outcomes. Currently, however, there is no systematic approach to measuring sleep regularity. Traditionally, metrics have assessed deviations in sleep patterns from an individual's average. Read More

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Impurity-driven transitions in frustrated quantum Ising rings.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032129

College of Physics and Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

We study the quantum phase transition driven by a point impurity in a chain seamed with ring frustration. With strong coupling and light impurity, the system is in a topological extended-kink (TEK) phase, which exhibits gapless excitations in the bulk. With strong coupling and heavy impurity, the system is in a gapped kink bound state (KBS) phase. Read More

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Varied phenomenology of models displaying dynamical large-deviation singularities.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032152

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

Singularities of dynamical large-deviation functions are often interpreted as the signal of a dynamical phase transition and the coexistence of distinct dynamical phases, by analogy with the correspondence between singularities of free energies and equilibrium phase behavior. Here we study models of driven random walkers on a lattice. These models display large-deviation singularities in the limit of large lattice size, but the extent to which each model's phenomenology resembles a phase transition depends on the details of the driving. Read More

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Coupling of multiscale lattice Boltzmann discrete-element method for reactive particle fluid flows.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):033306

Institute for Mechanical Process Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.

Reactive particulate systems are of prime importance in varieties of practical applications in process engineering. As an example this study considers extraction of phosphorous from waste water by calcium silicate hydrate particles in the P-RoC process. For such systems modeling has a large potential to help to optimize process conditions, e. Read More

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Lattice Monte Carlo study of orientational order in a confined system of biaxial particles: Effect of an external electric field.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032701

Centre for Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials and Physics Department, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais,1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal.

In this work we have used lattice Monte Carlo to determine the orientational order of a system of biaxial particles confined between two walls inducing perfect order and subjected to an electric field perpendicular to the walls. The particles are set to interact with their nearest neighbors through a biaxial version of the Lebwohl-Lasher potential. A particular set of values for the molecular reduced polarizabilities defining the potential used was considered; the Metropolis sampling algorithm was used in the Monte Carlo simulations. Read More

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Power laws and phase transitions in heterogenous car following with reaction times.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032202

New York University Abu Dhabi, Saadiyat Island, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates and New York University Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn, New York 11201, USA.

We study the effect of reaction times on the kinetics of relaxation to stationary states and on congestion transitions in heterogeneous traffic using simulations of Newell's model on a ring. Heterogeneity is modeled as quenched disorders in the parameters of Newell's model and in the reaction time of the drivers. We observed that at low densities, the relaxation to stationary state from a homogeneous initial state is governed by the same power laws as derived by E. Read More

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Corners in phase-field theory.

Authors:
Thomas Philippe

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032801

Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, IP Paris, 91128 Palaiseau, France.

Phase-field models for strongly anisotropic surface energy need to be regularized to remove the ill posedness of the dynamic equations. Regularization introduces a new length scale, the corner size, also called the bending length. For large corner size, with respect to interface thickness, the phase-field method is known to converge asymptotically toward the sharp-interface theory when the appropriate approximation of the Willmore energy is used. Read More

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Master equation analysis of mesoscopic localization in contagion dynamics on higher-order networks.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032301

Département de physique, de génie physique et d'optique, Université Laval, Québec (Québec), Canada G1V 0A6.

Simple models of infectious diseases tend to assume random mixing of individuals, but real interactions are not random pairwise encounters: they occur within various types of gatherings such as workplaces, households, schools, and concerts, best described by a higher-order network structure. We model contagions on higher-order networks using group-based approximate master equations, in which we track all states and interactions within a group of nodes and assume a mean-field coupling between them. Using the susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics, our approach reveals the existence of a mesoscopic localization regime, where a disease can concentrate and self-sustain only around large groups in the network overall organization. Read More

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Phase synchronization in the two-dimensional Kuramoto model: Vortices and duality.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032204

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India.

We study a system of Kuramoto oscillators arranged on a two-dimensional periodic lattice where the oscillators interact with their nearest neighbors, and all oscillators have the same natural frequency. The initial phases of the oscillators are chosen to be distributed uniformly between (-π,π]. During the relaxation process to the final stationary phase, we observe different features in the phase field of the oscillators: initially, the state is randomly oriented, then clusters form. Read More

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Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Phase I Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial.

Neurosurgery 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Otolaryngology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a dystonia of the vocal folds causing difficulty with speech. The current standard of care is repeated botulinum toxin injections to weaken the adductor muscles. We sought to ameliorate the underlying neurological cause of SD with a novel therapy-deep brain stimulation (DBS). Read More

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Goodbye fouling: a unique coaxial lamination mixer (CLM) enabled by two-photon polymerization for the stable production of monodisperse drug carrier nanoparticles.

Lab Chip 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Mikrotechnik, Alte Salzdahlumer Str. 203, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. and Technische Universität Braunschweig, Zentrum für Pharmaverfahrenstechnik (PVZ), Franz-Liszt-Str. 35a, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.

Poorly soluble drugs can be incorporated in lipid carrier nanoparticles to achieve sufficient bioavailability and open up diverse routes of administration. Preparation by antisolvent precipitation in microfluidic systems enables excellent control of lipid nanoparticle size. However, particle-containing flows bear the risk of material deposition on microchannel surfaces, limiting reproducibility, prolonged continuous processing and scale-up by parallelization as required for practical use. Read More

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Transverse Beam Emittance Measurement by Undulator Radiation Power Noise.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(13):134802

Argonne National Accelerator Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA.

Generally, turn-to-turn power fluctuations of incoherent spontaneous synchrotron radiation in a storage ring depend on the 6D phase-space distribution of the electron bunch. In some cases, if only one parameter of the distribution is unknown, this parameter can be determined from the measured magnitude of these power fluctuations. In this Letter, we report an absolute measurement (no free parameters or calibration) of a small vertical emittance (5-15 nm rms) of a flat beam by this method, under conditions, when it is unresolvable by a conventional synchrotron light beam size monitor. Read More

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Preoperative prediction of pathologic grade of HCC on gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Liver Disease, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600, Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510630, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To evaluate the value of gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in predicting the pathologic grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials And Methods: Patients with pathologically proven HCC who underwent preoperative gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI were included. Two radiologists blinded to pathology results evaluated images in consensus. Read More

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Identification of Star Defects in Gallium Nitride with HREBSD and ECCI.

Microsc Microanal 2021 Apr;27(2):257-265

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87123, NM, USA.

This paper characterizes novel “star” defects in GaN films grown with metal–organic vapor phase deposition (MOVPE) on GaN substrates with electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HREBSD). These defects are hundreds of microns in size and tend to aggregate threading dislocations at their centers. They are the intersection of six nearly ideal low-angle tilt boundaries composed of $\langle a\rangle$-type pyramidal edge dislocations, each on a unique slip system. Read More

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A salt resistant biosurfactant produced by moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AHV-KH10) and its application for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated sediment in saline environment.

Biodegradation 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

A halotolerant bacterial strain was isolated from oily-contaminated sites of Persian Gulf, which characterized as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AHV-KH10) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This strain was used for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated sediments. Biosurfactant production was initially screened by using oil displacement test and drop-collapse method, followed by measurement of surface tension (ST) of growth medium. Read More

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ANETT: PhAse II trial of NEoadjuvant TAK-228 plus Tamoxifen in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Houston Methodist Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is often utilized to downstage Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer prior to surgery. However, this approach is sometimes met with endocrine resistance mechanisms within the tumor. This trial examines the safety and efficacy of tamoxifen in combination with an mTORC1/2 inhibitor, TAK-228, in the neoadjuvant treatment of ER+ breast cancer. Read More

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Effect of parental and ART treatment characteristics on perinatal outcomes.

Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Study Question: Do parental characteristics and treatment with ART affect perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies?

Summary Answer: Both parental and ART treatment characteristics affect perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies.

What Is Known Already: Previous studies have shown that singleton pregnancies resulting from ART are at risk of preterm birth. ART children are lighter at birth after correction for duration of gestation and at increased risk of congenital abnormalities compared to naturally conceived children. Read More

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Gas-phase studies of chemically synthesized Au and Ag clusters.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(14):140901

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

Atomically precise Au and Ag clusters protected by monolayers of organic ligands have attracted growing interests as promising building units of functional materials and ideal platforms to study size-dependent evolution of structures and physicochemical properties. The use of gas-phase methods including mass spectrometry, ion mobility mass spectrometry, collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry, photoelectron spectroscopy, and photodissociation spectroscopy will reveal novel and complementary information on their intrinsic geometric and electronic structures that cannot be obtained by conventional characterization methods. This Perspective surveys the recent progress and outlook of gas-phase studies on chemically synthesized Au/Ag clusters. Read More

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The degradation performance of different microplastics and their effect on microbial community during composting process.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 7;332:125133. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

The objectives of this study were to investigate the degradation characteristics of different microplastics (polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) and their effect on the bacterial community during composting. In this study, 0.5% PE, 0. Read More

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Oxygenated carbon nanotubes cages coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for selective extraction of migrated aromatic amines from food contact materials.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 3;1646:462031. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Analytical Science of Food Safety and Biology, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350116, China. Electronic address:

In this study, an oxygenated carbon nanotubes cages (OCNTCs) material was prepared by calcinating zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) and then oxidizing the resulting material. The OCNTCs was used as a high efficient solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating to extract aromatic amines (AAs). The obtained fiber exhibited high selectivity for AAs over other organic compounds in food contact materials (FCMs) due to matched pore size and abundant oxygen-containing groups. Read More

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Induction chemotherapy with lobaplatin and fluorouracil versus cisplatin and fluorouracil followed by chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage III-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been recommended in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines. However, cisplatin is associated with poor patient compliance and has notable side-effects. Lobaplatin, a third-generation platinum drug, has shown promising antitumour activity against several malignancies with less toxicity. Read More

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Voltage tunable mid-wave infrared reflective varifocal metalens via an optomechanic cavity.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1930-1933

Metalenses enable the multifunctional control of light beams with an optically thin layer of nanoantennas. Efficient on-chip voltage tuning of the focal length is the crucial step toward the integration of metalenses into dynamically tunable optical systems. We propose and numerically investigate the on-chip electrical tuning of a reflective metalens via an optomechanic cavity. Read More

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Enhancing Top-Down Proteomics of Brain Tissue with FAIMS.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States.

Proteomic investigations of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease have provided valuable insights into neurodegenerative disorders. Thus far, these investigations have largely been restricted to bottom-up approaches, hindering the degree to which one can characterize a protein's "intact" state. Top-down proteomics (TDP) overcomes this limitation; however, it is typically limited to observing only the most abundant proteoforms and of a relatively small size. Read More

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Size-Sensitive Dynamic Catalysis of Subnanometer Cu Clusters in CO Dissociation.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 15:3891-3897. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Small cluster catalysts are highly size-dependent and exhibit complex structural dynamic effects during catalytic reactions. Understanding their structural dynamics is of great importance in tuning the catalytic performances of small clusters that widely exist in supported catalysts. However, very little is known about the size dependence of the dynamic effect of small clusters. Read More

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Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): subgroup analysis in Japanese patients.

Int J Hematol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

The global, randomized, open-label KEYNOTE-183 phase 3 study was closed early after an interim analysis showed unfavorable risk-benefit when pembrolizumab was added to pomalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). This subgroup analysis reported outcomes in 27 Japanese patients randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone (n = 15) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone (n = 12). Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Read More

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Kinetic Modeling of Small Intestinal Lipid Digestion as Affected by the Emulsion Interfacial Composition and Gastric Prelipolysis.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Food Technology, Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, PB 2457, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

This research evaluated the impact of the emulsion interfacial composition on small intestinal lipolysis kinetics with the inclusion of rabbit gastric lipase resulting in a gastric prelipolysis step. O/w emulsions contained 5% triolein (w/w) and 1% (w/w) of the following emulsifiers: sodium taurodeoxycholate, citrus pectin, soy protein isolate, soy lecithin, and tween 80. Emulsions were subjected to static digestion and diverse lipolysis species quantified via a HPLC-charged aerosol detector. Read More

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