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Tuning Organic Microcrystal Morphologies through Crystal Engineering Strategies toward Anisotropic Optical Waveguide.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 10:4585-4592. Epub 2021 May 10.

Engineering Research Center of Organic and Polymer Optoelectronic Materials, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China.

The construction of organic optoelectronic materials with desirable size and morphology remains a challenge now. Crystal engineering strategies (polymorphs and cocrystals) provide convenience for tailoring molecular packing and further controlling the growth morphology and photofunctionality of materials. Herein, we prepare polymorphic 2D plate crystals and 3D microhelixes by assembly of a cyanostilbene derivative (2-(3',5'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-biphenyl-4-yl)-3-(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acrylonitrile, CF-CN-Py). Read More

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Tails of reproduction: Regeneration leads to increased reproductive investment.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Trade-offs between life-history traits are due to limited resources or constraints in the regulation of genetic and physiological networks. Tail autotomy, with subsequent regeneration, is a common anti-predation mechanism in lizards and is predicted to trade-off with life-history traits, such as reproduction. We utilize the brown anole lizard with its unusual reproductive pattern of single-egg clutches every 7-10 days to test for a trade-off in reproductive investment over 8 weeks of tail regeneration on a limited diet. Read More

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The Influence of Polysaccharides-Based Material on Macrophage Phenotypes.

Macromol Biosci 2021 May 10:e2100031. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Macrophage polarization is a key factor in determining the success of implanted tissue engineering scaffolds. Polysaccharides (derived from plants, animals, and microorganisms) are known to modulate macrophage phenotypes by recognizing cell membrane receptors. Numerous studies have developed polysaccharide-based materials into functional biomaterial substrates for tissue regeneration and pharmaceutical application due to their immunostimulatory activities and anti-inflammatory response. Read More

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Ward staffing guided by a patient classification system: A multi-criteria analysis of "fit" in three acute hospitals.

J Nurs Manag 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

NIHR ARC Wessex, Southampton, UK.

Aims: To assess how well the Safer Nursing Care Tool (SNCT) predicts staffing requirements on hospital wards, and to use professional judgement to generate hypotheses about factors associated with a "poor fit".

Background: The SNCT is widely used in the UK, but there is scant evidence about factors that influence the quality of staffing decisions based upon such patient classification systems.

Methods: Secondary analysis of data from 69 wards in three acute hospitals to assess the precision of the estimated staffing requirement, variation of estimates, correspondence with professional judgement and achieved staffing levels. Read More

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Small molecule QF84139 ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy via activating the AMPK signaling pathway.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tissue Microenvironment and Tumor, Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Cardiac hypertrophy is a common adaptive response to a variety of stimuli, but prolonged hypertrophy leads to heart failure. Hence, discovery of agents treating cardiac hypertrophy is urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of QF84139, a newly synthesized pyrazine derivative, on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Postsurgical Size-Changing Temporal Lobe Arachnoid Cysts in Patients with Trigonocephaly Who Underwent Reconstructive Surgery: A Two-Case Report.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Gaziosmanpaşa Hospital, Istanbul Yeni Yüzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Trigonocephaly (TC), the tapering of the metopic suture toward the anterior, lateral inadequacy of supraorbital bar, hypoplasia of the ethmoid bone, and hypotelorism due to orbital medialization leads to a triangular shape in the head together with frontotemporal stenosis and widening of the biparietal diameter. Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are benign cysts, which are formed by cerebrospinal-fluid entrapment into the arachnoid membrane due to duplication or separation of the arachnoid membrane layers. ACs are typically located in the middle cranial fossa and Sylvian fissure region. Read More

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Pulsed Laser-Induced Dewetting and Thermal Dewetting of Ag Thin Films for the Fabrication of Ag Nanoparticles.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, N W, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, CANADA.

Two different dewetting methods, namely pulsed laser-induced dewetting (PLiD) - a liquid-state dewetting process and thermal dewetting (TD) - a solid-state dewetting process, have been systematically explored for Ag thin films (1.9 - 19.8 nm) on Si substrates for the fabrication of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and the understanding of dewetting mechanisms. Read More

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Increased myocellular lipid and IGFBP-3 expression in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic cancer-related skeletal muscle wasting.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting (SMW) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, treatment intolerance and discontinuation, and poor quality of life. This is particularly true for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as over 85% experience SMW, which is responsible for ~30% of patient deaths. While the established paradigm to explain SMW posits that muscle catabolism from systemic inflammation and nutritional deficiencies, the cause of death, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Read More

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Fibroblast Growth Factor Type 2 (FGF2) Administration Attenuated the Clinical Manifestations of Preeclampsia in a Murine Model Induced by L-NAME.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:663044. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Unidad Academica de Medicina Humana y C.S, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

In preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, the poor remodeling of spiral arteries leads to placental hypoperfusion and ischemia, provoking generalized maternal endothelial dysfunction and, in severe cases, death. Endothelial and placental remodeling is important for correct pregnancy evolution and is mediated by cytokines and growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF2). In this study, we evaluated the effect of human recombinant FGF2 (rhFGF2) administration in a murine model of PE induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to test if rhFGF2 administration can lessen the clinical manifestations of PE. Read More

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Deep learning methods allow fully automated segmentation of metacarpal bones to quantify volumetric bone mineral density.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9697. Epub 2021 May 6.

Pattern Recognition Lab-Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Arthritis patients develop hand bone loss, which leads to destruction and functional impairment of the affected joints. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows the quantification of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microstructure in vivo with an isotropic voxel size of 82 micrometres. However, image-processing to obtain bone characteristics is a time-consuming process as it requires semi-automatic segmentation of the bone. Read More

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-palmitoleic Acid Reduces Adiposity via Increased Lipolysis in a Rodent Model of Diet-Induced Obesity.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 7:1-24. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratorio de Enfermedades Metabólicas: Obesidad y Diabetes, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico City, Mexico.

Obesity is defined as increased adiposity, which leads to metabolic disease. The growth of adipose tissue depends on its capacity to expand, through hyperplasia or hypertrophy, in order to buffer energy surplus. Also, during the establishment of obesity, adipose tissue expansion reflects adipose lipid metabolism (lipogenesis and/or lipolysis). Read More

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Formation and growth mechanism for niobium oxide nanoparticles: atomistic insight from in situ X-ray total scattering.

Nanoscale 2021 May 23;13(17):8087-8097. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry and Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Understanding the mechanisms for nanoparticle nucleation and growth is crucial for the development of tailormade nanomaterials. Here, we use X-ray total scattering and Pair Distribution Function analysis to follow the formation and growth of niobium oxide nanoparticles. We study the solvothermal synthesis from niobium chloride in benzyl alcohol, and through investigations of the influence of reaction temperature, a formation pathway can be suggested. Read More

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Dendritic Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres: Toward the Ultimate Minimum Particle Size for Ultraefficient Liquid Chromatographic Separation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China.

Use of smaller particle size of packing materials in liquid chromatography leads to faster separation and higher efficiency. This basic law has driven the evolution of packing materials for several generations. However, the use of nanoscale packing materials has been severely hampered by extremely high back pressure. Read More

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Syntactic- and morphology-based text augmentation framework for Arabic sentiment analysis.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 5;7:e469. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Computer Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Arabic language is a challenging language for automatic processing. This is due to several intrinsic reasons such as Arabic multi-dialects, ambiguous syntax, syntactical flexibility and diacritics. Machine learning and deep learning frameworks require big datasets for training to ensure accurate predictions. Read More

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MRI of Capn15 Knockout Mice and Analysis of Capn 15 Distribution Reveal Possible Roles in Brain Development and Plasticity.

Neuroscience 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada. Electronic address:

The Small Optic Lobe (SOL) family of calpains are intracellular cysteine proteases that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in neuronal development in both Drosophila, where loss of this calpain leads to the eponymous SOLs, and in mouse and human, where loss of this calpain leads to eye anomalies. Some human individuals with biallelic variants in CAPN15 also have developmental delay and autism. However, neither the specific effect of the loss of the Capn15 protein on brain development nor the brain regions where this calpain is expressed in the adult is known. Read More

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On the use of multiple-time-step algorithms to save computing effort in molecular dynamics simulations of proteins.

J Comput Chem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland.

Computer simulation of proteins in aqueous solution at the atomic level of resolution is still limited in time span and system size due to limited computing power available and thus employs a variety of time-saving techniques that trade some accuracy against computational effort. Examples of such time-saving techniques are the application of constraints to particular degrees of freedom or the use of a multiple-time-step (MTS) algorithm distinguishing between particular forces when integrating Newton's equations of motion. The application of two types of MTS algorithms to bond-stretching forces versus the remaining forces in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a protein in aqueous solution or of liquid water is investigated and the results in terms of total energy conservation and the influence on various other properties are compared to those of MD simulations of the same systems using bond-length, and for water bond-angle, constraints. Read More

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Identifying the fouling behavior of forward osmosis membranes exposed to different inorganic components with high ionic strength.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Research Institute of Membrane Separation Technology of Shaanxi Province, Key Laboratory of Membrane Separation of Shaanxi Province, Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resources, Environmental and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Shaanxi Province, School of Environmental & Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Yan Ta Road. No.13, Xi'an, 710055, China.

Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) mixed matrix forward osmosis (FO) membranes were fabricated by phase inversion, and the mechanism of sodium alginate (SA) membrane fouling in the presence of various inorganic components with high ionic strength was thoroughly investigated. The membrane incorporated with 0.5% f-MWCNTs (M-0. Read More

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Apoptosis induction by siRNA targeting integrin-β1 and regorafenib/DDAB-mPEG-PCL hybrid nanoparticles in regorafenib-resistant colon cancer cells.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1170-1184. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences Zanjan, Iran.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as the third most common cancer worldwide. Although Regorafenib as a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) disrupts tumor growth and angiogenesis in metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients, drug resistance leads to poor prognosis and survival. Integrin-β1 overexpression has been proposed to be the major player in this regard. Read More

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Explosive fragmentation of Prince Rupert's drops leads to well-defined fragment sizes.

Nat Commun 2021 May 4;12(1):2521. Epub 2021 May 4.

Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Anyone who has ever broken a dish or a glass knows that the resulting fragments range from roughly the size of the object all the way down to indiscernibly small pieces: typical fragment size distributions of broken brittle materials follow a power law, and therefore lack a characteristic length scale. The origin of this power-law behavior is still unclear, especially why it is such an universal feature. Here we study the explosive fragmentation of glass Prince Rupert's drops, and uncover a fundamentally different breakup mechanism. Read More

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Cervical ripening at home or in-hospital-prospective cohort study and process evaluation (CHOICE) study: a protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 May 4;11(5):e050452. Epub 2021 May 4.

Edinburgh Clinical Trials Unit (ECTU) Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Introduction: The aim of the cervical ripening at home or in-hospital-prospective cohort study and process evaluation (CHOICE) study is to compare home versus in-hospital cervical ripening to determine whether home cervical ripening is safe (for the primary outcome of neonatal unit (NNU) admission), acceptable to women and cost-effective from the perspective of both women and the National Health Service (NHS).

Methods And Analysis: We will perform a prospective multicentre observational cohort study with an internal pilot phase. We will obtain data from electronic health records from at least 14 maternity units offering only in-hospital cervical ripening and 12 offering dinoprostone home cervical ripening. Read More

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A ruptured seventeen weeks' ectopic pregnancy: A case report.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):763-765

Department of North Surgery, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Ectopic pregnancy is a common condition with a prevalence of 2% in all pregnancies. Implantation of the developing blastocyst outside the uterine cavity leads to ectopic pregnancy. About 95% of ectopic pregnancies occur in the different segments of the fallopian tubes. Read More

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February 2021

Repulsive and attractive depletion forces mediated by nonadsorbing polyelectrolytes in the Donnan limit.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):164904

Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

In mixtures of colloids and nonadsorbing polyelectrolytes, a Donnan potential arises across the region between surfaces that are depleted of the polyelectrolyte and the rest of the system. This Donnan potential tends to shift the polyelectrolyte density profile toward the colloidal surface and leads to the local accumulation of polyelectrolytes. We derive a zero-field theory for the disjoining pressure between two parallel flat plates. Read More

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ComplexFinder: A software package for the analysis of native protein complex fractionation experiments.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Apr 30:148444. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Max-Planck-Institute for Biology of Ageing, Joseph-Stelzmann Str. 9b, 50931 Cologne, Germany; Institute of Genetics and Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Identification of protein complexes and quantitative distribution of a single protein across different complexes are fundamental to unravel cellular mechanisms and of biological and clinical relevance. A recently introduced method, complexome profiling, combines fractionation techniques to separate native protein complexes with high-resolution mass spectrometry and allows to identify protein complexes in an unbiased manner. Due to recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation, the analysis time can be reduced dramatically while the coverage of thousands of proteins remains constant, which leads to an increased data acquisition rate and reduces the burden to initiate such complex experiments. Read More

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Numerical analysis of the impact of cytoskeletal actin filament density alterations onto the diffusive vesicle-mediated cell transport.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 3;17(5):e1008784. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Biomechanics, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.

The interior of a eukaryotic cell is a highly complex composite material which consists of water, structural scaffoldings, organelles, and various biomolecular solutes. All these components serve as obstacles that impede the motion of vesicles. Hence, it is hypothesized that any alteration of the cytoskeletal network may directly impact or even disrupt the vesicle transport. Read More

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Willingness to pay for improvements in rural sanitation: Evidence from a cross-sectional survey of three rural counties in Kenya.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0248223. Epub 2021 May 3.

USAID/Kenya Integrated Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Project, Nairobi, Kenya.

Poor sanitation worldwide leads to an annual loss of approximately $222.9 billion and is the second leading cause of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY's) lost due to diarrhoea. Yet in Kenya, the slow rate and levels at which the household's access improved sanitation facilities remain a concern, and it is unknown if the cost of new technologies is a barrier to access. Read More

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Embryonic ethanol exposure on zebrafish early development.

Brain Behav 2021 May 3:e02062. Epub 2021 May 3.

Physiology and Behavior Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Introduction: Embryonic exposure to ethanol leads to a condition of physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficiencies named fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The most severe variations are in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is easier to diagnose and not studied in animal models. On the other side, the pFAS (partial fetal alcohol syndrome) includes cases of alcohol-related congenital disabilities and neurodevelopmental disorder with an inconclusive diagnosis. Read More

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Transient dynamics during kelp forest recovery from fishing across multiple trophic levels.

Ecol Appl 2021 May 3:e2367. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis, Davis.

Outcomes of management efforts to recover or restore populations of harvested species can be highly dependent on environmental and community context. Predator-prey interactions can alter recovery trajectories, and the timing of management actions within multi-trophic level harvest scenarios may influence the dynamics of recovery and lead to management trade-offs. Recent work using a generalist predator-prey model suggests that management promoting synchronized recovery of predators and prey leads to faster and less variable recovery trajectories than sequential recovery (predator- or prey-first). Read More

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Vacuolar occupancy is crucial for cell elongation and growth regardless of the underlying mechanism.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 May 3:1922796. Epub 2021 May 3.

Plant Pathology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

In the physiological range, the phytohormone auxin inhibits the growth of underground tissues. In the roots of , cell size inhibition has been shown to be accompanied by auxin-mediated reduction of vacuole size. A tonoplast-localized protein family (Networked 4) with actin-binding capacity was demonstrated to modulate the compactness of the vacuole. Read More

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Expression of human-specific ARHGAP11B in mice leads to neocortex expansion and increased memory flexibility.

EMBO J 2021 May 3:e107093. Epub 2021 May 3.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

Neocortex expansion during human evolution provides a basis for our enhanced cognitive abilities. Yet, which genes implicated in neocortex expansion are actually responsible for higher cognitive abilities is unknown. The expression of human-specific ARHGAP11B in embryonic/foetal mouse, ferret and marmoset neocortex was previously found to promote basal progenitor proliferation, upper-layer neuron generation and neocortex expansion during development, features commonly thought to contribute to increased cognitive abilities. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing arthroplasty and internal fixation in the treatment of elderly displaced femoral neck fractures.

OTA Int 2021 Mar 22;4(1):e087. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Orthopaedics.

Background: Currently, there are 2 mainstream treatments for displaced femoral neck fracture, including internal fixation and arthroplasty. However, there are still some controversial problems as to which treatment should be primarily chosen.

Methods: The relevant studies comparing arthroplasty with internal fixation were searched in the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Read More

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