23,467 results match your criteria size estimates

Meta-Analysis of Adherence Promotion Interventions in Pediatric Asthma.

J Pediatr Psychol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Clinical & Health Psychology, University of Florida.

Background: Youth with asthma commonly have suboptimal adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). It is critical to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ICS adherence promotion interventions and discern which techniques are most effective.

Objective: This study aims to (1) quantify the extent to which interventions improve ICS adherence in pediatric asthma, (2) explore differences in effect size estimates based on intervention and study characteristics, and (3) characterize the risk of bias across interventions. Read More

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Imaging Infection Across Scales of Size: From Whole Animals to Single Molecules.

Eric P Skaar

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation, Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA; email:

Infectious diseases are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, and the threat of infectious diseases to human health is steadily increasing as new diseases emerge, existing diseases reemerge, and antimicrobial resistance expands. The application of imaging technology to the study of infection biology has the potential to uncover new factors that are critical to the outcome of host-pathogen interactions and to lead to innovations in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. This article reviews current and future opportunities for the application of imaging to the study of infectious diseases, with a particular focus on the power of imaging objects across a broad range of sizes to expand the utility of these approaches. Read More

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Quantifying risk of injury from usual alcohol consumption: An instrumental variable analysis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, Emeryville.

Background: There have been numerous studies of roadside accidents among emergency room patients showing elevated risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption, i.e. recent drinking prior to the injury event, with large effect size and a dose-response relationship observed. Read More

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Recurrence and disease-free survival outcomes after computed tomography-guided needle biopsy in stage IA non-small cell lung cancer patients in China: a propensity score matching analysis.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Aug;11(8):3472-3480

Treatment Center of Minimally Invasive Intervention and Radioactive Particles, First Affiliated Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Whether preoperative biopsy before radical resection can lead to recurrence and impact patient survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. In this study, we carried out a retrospective analysis to determine whether preoperative biopsy can cause disease recurrence and influence disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with stage IA NSCLC.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with stage IA NSCLC (solid nodule) between January 2010 and December 2014 were identified from the databases of 7 Chinese medical centers and divided into two groups: a preoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy (CTNB) plus radical resection group, and a non-CTNB group. Read More

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Physician induced demand for knee replacement surgery in Iran.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Aug 2;21(1):763. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Health Equity Research Center (HERC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The structure of the Iranian health system has raised this hypothesis that a part of the Knee Replacement Surgery (KRS) services are provided due to Physician-Induced Demand (PID).

Methods: This paper used an unbalanced individual panel data covering the steady-state 15,729 KRSs performed by 995 surgeons provided by the Armed Forces Insurance Organization at the provincial level over the 60 months (2014-2018). We use a generalized method of moment's system (GMM-SYS) to obtain consistent and asymptotically efficient estimates, which provide a vital instrument for our dynamic panel data. Read More

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Mind's eye: The impact of spider presence and cognitive therapy on size estimation biases in spider phobia.

J Anxiety Disord 2021 Jul 29;83:102456. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

The present study assessed the circumstances under which size estimation biases in spider phobia occur, and whether such biases are modifiable by treatment. Women with (n = 67) and without (n = 33) spider phobia approached a spider during a behavioral approach test (BAT). They provided size estimates of the spider both during and shortly after the BAT (with the spider in view, or not in view, respectively). Read More

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Epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus infection and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 29 900 men according to HIV status, sexuality, and age: a collaborative pooled analysis of 64 studies.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Robust age-specific estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in men can inform anal cancer prevention efforts. We aimed to evaluate the age-specific prevalence of anal HPV, HSIL, and their combination, in men, stratified by HIV status and sexuality.

Methods: We did a systematic review for studies on anal HPV infection in men and a pooled analysis of individual-level data from eligible studies across four groups: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive men who have sex with women (MSW), and HIV-negative MSW. Read More

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Data Smoothing, Extrapolation, and Triangulation.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1333:61-72

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

While population size data at the national and subnational levels are critical for planning and resource allocation, most PSE studies are conducted in a few selected cities and towns due to resource and time constraints. Extrapolation methods to estimate the population size for locations not included in the PSE exercise are critical to providing data for all subnational jurisdictions and the entire country as a whole. The decision on how to select cities or towns that reflect best the national picture is a critical first step. Read More

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January 2021

Review of Size Estimation Methods.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1333:1-15

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Understanding and measuring the burden of HIV faces several remaining challenges around the globe. HIV prevention, care, and treatment efforts, including advocacy for populations at risk of HIV, the design and implementation of national guidelines, monitoring the coverage of HIV programs and evaluating their impact, are not feasible without relatively precise estimates of the impact and magnitude of HIV among different subpopulations. Read More

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January 2021

Causal Datasheet for Datasets: An Evaluation Guide for Real-World Data Analysis and Data Collection Design Using Bayesian Networks.

Front Artif Intell 2021 14;4:612551. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Informatics, Predictive Analytics Lab (PAL), University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

Developing data-driven solutions that address real-world problems requires understanding of these problems' causes and how their interaction affects the outcome-often with only observational data. Causal Bayesian Networks (BN) have been proposed as a powerful method for discovering and representing the causal relationships from observational data as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). BNs could be especially useful for research in global health in Lower and Middle Income Countries, where there is an increasing abundance of observational data that could be harnessed for policy making, program evaluation, and intervention design. Read More

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Using infrared geostationary remote sensing to determine particulate matter ground-level composition and concentration.

M Sowden D Blake

Air Qual Atmos Health 2021 Jul 28:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA Australia.

Speciated ground-level aerosol concentrations are required to understand and mitigate health impacts from dust storms, wildfires, and other aerosol emissions. Globally, surface monitoring is limited due to cost and infrastructure demands. While remote sensing can help estimate respirable (i. Read More

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Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:665019. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

To synthesize the prevalence of mental and substance use disorders in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization. The literature search was conducted across several databases in two phases. First, we searched for systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses published before 2014, reporting prevalence estimates for mental disorders in the EMR. Read More

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How CO emissions respond to changes in government size and level of digitalization? Evidence from the BRICS countries.

Lijuan Chen

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

China Center for Special Economic Zone Research, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

The role of government size and digitization in the process of environmental quality is a matter of considerable debate in the field of environmental economics. BRICS economies have suffered from environmental pollution. This paper scrutinizes that how CO emissions respond to government size and digitization in BRICS economies. Read More

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Optimisation of CT protocols in PET-CT across different scanner models using different automatic exposure control methods and iterative reconstruction algorithms.

EJNMMI Phys 2021 Jul 31;8(1):58. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

King's College London & Guy's and St Thomas' PET Centre, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Background: A significant proportion of the radiation dose from a PET-CT examination is dependent on the CT protocol, which should be optimised for clinical purposes. Matching protocols on different scanners within an imaging centre is important for the consistency of image quality and dose. This paper describes our experience translating low-dose CT protocols between scanner models utilising different automatic exposure control (AEC) methods and reconstruction algorithms. Read More

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Prediction intervals reporting in orthodontic meta-analyses.

Eur J Orthod 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Dental School/Medical Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Background: A prediction interval represents a clinical interpretation of heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of prediction interval reporting in orthodontic random effect meta-analyses. The corroboration between effect size estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and prediction intervals were also explored. Read More

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Distributional consequences of including survivor costs in economic evaluations distributional consequences of survivor costs in economic evaluations.

Health Econ 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Medical interventions that increase life expectancy of patients result in additional consumption of non-medical goods and services in 'added life years'. This paper focuses on the distributional consequences across socio-economic groups of including these costs in cost effectiveness analysis. In that context, it also highlights the role of remaining quality of life and household economies of scale. Read More

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Evaluating real-world national and regional trends in definitive closure in US burn care: A survey of US Burn Centers.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Avita Medical, Valencia, CA.

To better understand trends in burn treatment patterns related to definitive closure, this study sought benchmark real-world survey data with national data contained within the National Burn Repository version 8.0 (NBR v8.0) across key burn center practice patterns, resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Read More

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Interaction of cesium bound fission product compounds (CsI and CsOH) with abundant inorganic compounds of atmosphere: Effect on hygroscopic growth properties.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126356. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, India.

Cesium compounds if present in atmosphere, can affect human health as well as the ecosystem due to their highly hazardous nature. Interaction of cesium compounds with abundantly available atmospheric salts can modify the hygroscopic behavior in sub-saturation relative humidity (RH) domain. Any marked modification in growth factor (GF) for the mixed particle state in comparison to the single particles ultimately affects the settling rates and hence the deposition flux. Read More

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Two-level moderated mediation models with single-level data and new measures of effect sizes.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Center for Studies of Psychological Application / School of Psychology, South China Normal University, No.55, West of Zhongshan Avenue, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510631, People's Republic of China.

This article proposes a two-level moderated mediation (2moME) model with single level data, and develops measures to quantify the moderated mediation (moME) effect sizes for both the conventional moME model and the 2moME model. A Bayesian approach is developed to estimate and test moME effects and the corresponding effect sizes (ES). Monte Carlo results indicate that (1) the 2moME model yields more accurate estimates of the parameters than the conventional moME model; (2) the 95% credibility interval following the 2moME model covers the moME effects and the ESs more accurately than that following the conventional moME model; and (3) statistical tests for the existence of the moME effects with the 2moME model are more reliable in controlling type I errors than those with the conventional moME model, especially under heteroscedasticity conditions. Read More

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Evaluation of Arm Length as a New Upper Limb Anthropometric Method for Preoperative Estimation of Tibial Intramedullary Nail Length.

Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2021 Jan-Apr;16(1):20-26

Department of Orthopaedics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Aim And Objective: To assess the use of arm length (AL) for the estimation of tibial nail length preoperatively and compare its accuracy to various established upper and lower limb anthropometric parameters.

Material And Methods: This prospective study of 54 patients assessed upper limb parameters as a possible alternative for intraoperatively measured tibial nail length. The anthropometric parameters measured independently by two observers were AL, olecranon to fifth metacarpal head (OMD), tibial tuberosity to medial malleolus (TT-MM), tibial tuberosity to medial malleolus minus 20 mm (TT-MM-20 mm) and knee joint line to medial malleolus minus 40 mm (KJL-MM-40) and compared to final nail size used intraoperatively. Read More

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The distribution of common-variant effect sizes.

Luke J O'Connor

Nat Genet 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The genetic effect-size distribution of a disease describes the number of risk variants, the range of their effect sizes and sample sizes that will be required to discover them. Accurate estimation has been a challenge. Here I propose Fourier Mixture Regression (FMR), validating that it accurately estimates real and simulated effect-size distributions. Read More

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Body size and composition and risk of site-specific cancers in the UK Biobank and large international consortia: A mendelian randomisation study.

PLoS Med 2021 Jul 29;18(7):e1003706. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Unit of Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Evidence for the impact of body size and composition on cancer risk is limited. This mendelian randomisation (MR) study investigates evidence supporting causal relationships of body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and height with cancer risk.

Methods And Findings: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used as instrumental variables for BMI (312 SNPs), FMI (577 SNPs), FFMI (577 SNPs), and height (293 SNPs). Read More

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Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective MRA Accurately Estimates Intravascular Stent Dimensions Prior to Intervention in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Background: Quiescent-interval slice-selective (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a non-contrast alternative for the pre-procedural assessment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, the feasibility of pre-procedural stent size estimation using QISS MRA would merit investigation.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of QISS MRA for pre-procedural stent size estimation in PAD patients compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). Read More

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Is resistance training alone an antihypertensive therapy? A meta-analysis.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Universidade Federal do Pará-UFPA, Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Belém, PA, Brazil.

Evidence concerning the prescription of isolated resistance training (RT) to hypertensive individuals is limited. Guidelines are divergent concerning RT inclusion for prehypertensive and hypertensive persons. A meta-analysis investigating data with larger sample sizes provides more robust effect size estimates and allows for inferences on clinical choices concerning the effectiveness of RT alone. Read More

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Impact of scaling up prenatal nutrition interventions on human capital outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a modeling analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Prenatal nutrition interventions can lead to improved birth outcomes, which in turn are associated with better education and human capital outcomes later in life.

Objective: We estimated the impact of scaling up iron-folic acid (IFA), calcium, multiple micronutrient (MMS), and balanced energy protein (BEP) supplementation for pregnant women, on human capital outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Methods: We used mathematical modeling with proportional reductions in adverse birth outcomes to estimate the potential gains in school years and lifetime income due to scaling up each prenatal nutrition intervention. Read More

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The effects of resveratrol supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Uncertainty remains about the estimates of the effects for resveratrol supplementation, including the certainty of the evidence for each estimate and the magnitude of the observed impact based on the minimal important difference.

Objective: We aimed to provide an overview of the effects of resveratrol supplementation, in comparison to control groups, for the management of cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2021. Read More

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Age, size and body condition do not equally reflect population response to habitat change in the common spadefoot toad .

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e11678. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Asociația Chelonia Romania, Bucharest, Romania.

Urbanization impacts biodiversity both directly through physical expansion over land, and indirectly due to land use conversion and human behaviors associated with urban areas. We assessed the response of a common spadefoot toad population () to habitat loss and fragmentation resulting from urban development by studying changes in size, body condition and age parameters. We compared samples collected in the early 2000s (sample A) and later on during 2012-2014 (sample B). Read More

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Environmental and political implications of underestimated cropland burning in Ukraine.

Environ Res Lett 2021 Jun 21;16(6):064019. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Space Information Technologies and Systems, Space Research Institute NAS Ukraine & SSA Ukraine, Kyiv 03680, Ukraine.

Open burning is illegal in Ukraine, yet Ukraine has, on average, 300 times more fire activity per year (2001-2019) than most European countries. In 2016 and 2017, 47% of Ukraine was identified as cultivated area, with a total of 70% of land area dedicated to agricultural use. Over 57% of all active fires in Ukraine detected using space-borne Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) during 2016 and 2017 were associated with pre-planting field clearing and post-harvest crop residue removal, meaning that the majority of these fires are preventable. Read More

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The safety and efficacy of botanicals with nootropic effects.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Personal Healthcare Division, The Procter & Gamble Company, 8700 Mason-Montgomery Road, Mason, OH, 45040, United States.

Recent estimates for the global brain health supplement category, i.e. nootropic market size, will grow to nearly $5. Read More

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INR and COVID-19 severity and mortality: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Adv Med Sci 2021 Jul 21;66(2):372-380. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Flinders Medical Centre, Southern Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: D-dimer elevations, suggesting a pro-thrombotic state and coagulopathy, predict adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical significance of other coagulation markers, particularly the international normalized ratio (INR), is not well established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the INR in COVID-19. Read More

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