1,062 results match your criteria sites herbivores

Multi-scale mosaics in top-down pest control by ants from natural coffee forests to plantations.

Ecology 2021 May 3:e03376. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

While top-down control plays an important role in shaping both natural and agricultural food webs, we lack insights into how top-down control effects vary across spatial scales. We used a multi-scale survey of top-down control of coffee pests and diseases by arboreal ants to examine if colony location creates a small-scale mosaic in top-down control around trees and if the strength of that control varies between sites at the landscape scale. We investigated pest and disease levels on coffee shrubs at different distances from shade trees with and without a Crematogaster spp. Read More

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Fire and herbivory drive fungal and bacterial communities through distinct above- and belowground mechanisms.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 19;785:147189. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Conservation South Africa, 301 Heritage House, Claremont 7375, South Africa.

Fire and herbivory are important natural disturbances in grassy biomes. Both drivers are likely to influence belowground microbial communities but no studies have unravelled the long-term impact of both fire and herbivory on bacterial and fungal communities. We hypothesized that soil bacterial communities change through disturbance-induced shifts in soil properties (e. Read More

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Broomrape Species Parasitizing (Brassicaceae) Individuals Act as Nickel Hyperaccumulators.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Community Ecology Division, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

The elemental defense hypothesis supports that metal hyperaccumulation in plant tissues serves as a mechanism underpinning plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens. In this study, we investigate the interaction between and broomrape parasitic species, in the light of the defense hypothesis of metal hyperaccumulation. Plant and soil samples collected from three serpentine sites in Lesbos, Greece were analyzed for Ni concentrations. Read More

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Are Marbling and the Prediction of Beef Eating Quality Affected by Different Grading Sites?

Front Vet Sci 2021 29;8:611153. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

INRAE, Université Clermont Auvergne, VetAgro Sup, UMR1213, Recherches sur les Herbivores, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

For the European abattoirs, the preferred carcass grading site is at the fifth rib, and cutting at the tenth rib as in Australia could lead to a lower economic value of the carcass. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the grading scores of marbling and the meat and fat color on (LTL) at the fifth and the tenth thoracic vertebrae. The consequences on the prediction of beef eating quality using the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme were also evaluated for cull cows, which produce the majority of beef consumed in France. Read More

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Seasonality and forest edge as drivers of Tradescantia zebrina Hort. ex Bosse invasion in the Atlantic Forest.

Braz J Biol 2021 2;82:e238403. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana - UNILA, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil.

As a result of biodiversity and ecosystem service losses associated with biological invasions, there has been growing interest in basic and applied research on invasive species aiming to improve management strategies. Tradescantia zebrina is a herbaceous species increasingly reported as invasive in the understory of disturbed forest ecosystems. In this study, we assess the effect of spatial and seasonal variation on biological attributes of this species in the Atlantic Forest. Read More

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Interactive effects of biological, human and environmental factors on tick loads in Boran cattle in tropical drylands.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 6;14(1):188. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a serious threat to humans, wildlife and livestock, and cause severe economic losses in many tropical drylands. The effective control of TBDs has been constrained by limited understanding of what determines tick loads in animals. We tested interactive effects of several biological factors (sex, age and body condition), one environmental factor (rainfall) and one human factor (management type) on tick loads in animals. Read More

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Increasing shrub damage by invertebrate herbivores in the warming and drying tundra of West Greenland.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 31;195(4):995-1005. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Ecology, Evolution, Ecosystems and Society Graduate Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

Rapid warming is predicted to increase insect herbivory across the tundra biome, yet how this will impact the community and ecosystem dynamics remains poorly understood. Increasing background invertebrate herbivory could impede Arctic greening, by serving as a top-down control on tundra vegetation. Many tundra ecosystems are also susceptible to severe insect herbivory outbreaks which can have lasting effects on vegetation communities. Read More

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Insecticide exposure affects intergenerational patterns of DNA methylation in the Colorado potato beetle, .

Evol Appl 2021 Mar 25;14(3):746-757. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Plant and Soil Science University of Vermont Burlington VT USA.

Insecticide use is pervasive as a selective force in modern agroecosystems. Insect herbivores exposed to these insecticides have been able to rapidly evolve resistance to them, but how they are able to do so is poorly understood. One possible but largely unexplored explanation is that exposure to sublethal doses of insecticides may alter epigenetic patterns that are heritable. Read More

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Recent climate change is creating hotspots of butterfly increase and decline across North America.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Some insect populations are experiencing dramatic declines, endangering the crucial ecosystem services they provide. Yet, other populations appear robust, highlighting the need to better define patterns and underlying drivers of recent change in insect numbers. We examined abundance and biodiversity trends for North American butterflies using a unique citizen-science dataset that has recorded observations of over 8 million butterflies across 456 species, 503 sites, nine ecoregions, and 26 years. Read More

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Epicormic bud protection traits vary along a latitudinal gradient in a neotropical savanna.

Naturwissenschaften 2021 Mar 19;108(2):11. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Regrowth via production of epicormic shoots is an important strategy for many woody plants after environmental disturbances such as fire, drought, and herbivory. Populations spreading across a broad latitudinal gradient offer opportunities to investigate if essential traits vary with heterogenous environmental conditions, such as in savanna ecosystems. This information can help us predict plant responses to climate change. Read More

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In silico approach on sequential and structural variability in oryzacystatin and its interaction with cysteine protease enzymes of insect.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jun 13;186:112728. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Centre for Molecular and Nanomedical Sciences, Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, 600119, Tamil Nadu, India.

Phytoprotease inhibitors (PI) are important defence compounds produced by plants against microbes and insect herbivory. Oryzacystatins (OCs) are a group of protease inhibitors from Oryza sativa L. that are specific against cysteine protease enzymes. Read More

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Trace mineral supplies for populations of little and large herbivores.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(3):e0248204. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Rangeland, Wildlife and Fisheries Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) are essential trace minerals for the reproduction, growth, and immunity of mammalian herbivore populations. We examined the relationships between Cu, Fe, and Zn in soils, common plants, and hepatic stores of two wild herbivores to assess the effects of weather, sex, and population density on the transfer of trace minerals from soils to mammals during the growing season. Soils, grasses, woody browse, hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were sampled across 19 sites. Read More

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Trophic niche differentiation and utilisation of food resources in Collembola is altered by rainforest conversion to plantation systems.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e10971. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

J.F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Intensively managed monoculture plantations are increasingly replacing natural forests across the tropics resulting in changes in ecological niches of species and communities, and in ecosystem functioning. Collembola are among the most abundant arthropods inhabiting the belowground system sensitively responding to changes in vegetation and soil conditions. However, most studies on the response of Collembola to land-use change were conducted in temperate ecosystems and focused on shifts in community composition or morphological traits, while parameters more closely linked to ecosystem functioning, such as trophic niches, received little attention. Read More

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Effects of experimental watering but not warming on herbivory vary across a gradient of precipitation.

Ecol Evol 2021 Mar 27;11(5):2299-2306. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Entomology and Nematology University of California Davis CA USA.

Climate change can affect biotic interactions, and the impacts of climate on biotic interactions may vary across climate gradients. Climate affects biotic interactions through multiple drivers, although few studies have investigated multiple climate drivers in experiments. We examined the effects of experimental watering, warming, and predator access on leaf water content and herbivory rates of woolly bear caterpillars () on a native perennial plant, pacific silverweed (), at two sites across a gradient of precipitation in coastal California. Read More

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Seasonal upwelling reduces herbivore control of tropical rocky intertidal algal communities.

Ecology 2021 Mar 11:e03335. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Republic of Panama.

Communities are shaped by a variety of ecological and environmental processes, each acting at different spatial scales. Seminal research on rocky shores highlighted the effects of consumers as local determinants of primary productivity and community assembly. However, it is now clear that the species interactions shaping communities at local scales are themselves regulated by large-scale oceanographic processes that generate regional variation in resource availability. Read More

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Invasive earthworms reduce chemical defense and increase herbivory and pathogen infection in native trees.

J Ecol 2021 Feb 9;109(2):763-775. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig Leipzig Germany.

Recent research shows that earthworms can alter defense traits of plants against herbivores and pathogens by affecting soil biochemistry. Yet, the effects of invasive earthworms on defense traits of native plants from previously earthworm-free ecosystems as well as the consequences for multitrophic interactions are virtually unknown.Here we use a combination of an observational study and a complementary experimental study to investigate the effects of invasive earthworms on leaf defense traits, herbivore damage and pathogen infection in two poplar tree species ( and ) native to North American boreal forests. Read More

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February 2021

Top-down and sideways: Herbivory and cross-ecosystem connectivity shape restoration success at the salt marsh-upland ecotone.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(2):e0247374. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America.

Wetland restoration provides remarkable opportunities to understand vegetation dynamics and to inform success of future projects through rigorous restoration experiments. Salt marsh restoration typically focuses on physical factors such as sediment dynamics and elevation. Despite many demonstrations of strong top-down effects on salt marshes, the potential for consumers to affect salt marsh restoration projects has rarely been quantified. Read More

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February 2021

How much leaf area do insects eat? A data set of insect herbivory sampled globally with a standardized protocol.

Ecology 2021 04 21;102(4):e03301. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Av. Perimetral 2-224, Belém, Pará, 66077-830, Brazil.

Herbivory is ubiquitous. Despite being a potential driver of plant distribution and performance, herbivory remains largely undocumented. Some early attempts have been made to review, globally, how much leaf area is removed through insect feeding. Read More

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Boosted fish abundance associated with Posidonia oceanica meadows in temperate shallow CO vents.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 28;771:145438. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Department of Integrative Marine Ecology, Ischia Marine Centre, Punta San Pietro, 80077 Ischia, Naples, Italy; Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, 181 chemin du Lazaret, Villefranche-sur-mer 06230, France.

Ocean acidification (OA) may induce major shifts in the structure and function of coastal marine ecosystems. Studies in volcanic CO vents, where seawater is naturally acidified, have reported an overall simplification of fish assemblages structure, while some primary producers are likely to increase their biomass under elevated concentration of CO. Here we used temperate shallow CO vents located around the coast of Ischia island (Italy) to assess the effects of OA on necto-benthic fish assemblages associated with the foundation seagrass species Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea. Read More

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Are arthropod communities in grassland ecosystems affected by the abundance of an invasive plant?

Oecologia 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 805 TRU Way, Kamloops, BC, V2C 0C8, Canada.

Invasive plants cause changes to native plant communities and nutrient cycling, and by doing so, may alter the amount and quality of habitat available for animals at multiple trophic levels, including arthropods. Arthropods are generally abundant, diverse, and contribute to energy flow and nutrient cycling and are, therefore, an important group to study as a way of determining the effects of changes to ecosystem functioning. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. Read More

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January 2021

The risk assessment of inorganic and organic pollutant levels in an urban area affected by intensive industry.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 18;193(2):68. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

The city of Litvínov (North Bohemia, Czech Republic) is seriously affected by coal mining, coal processing, and intensive industrial activities. Within the urban area, the potential environmental hazard of risk elements (in soil and vegetation) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, in soils) was estimated using selected environmental and human health hazard indices. In total, 24 sites were sampled, including the city center, residential areas, industrialized zone, and areas close to operating and/or abandoned coal mines. Read More

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January 2021

Mid-elevational Peaks in Diversity of Ground-dwelling Arthropods with High Species Turnover on the Colorado Plateau.

Environ Entomol 2021 04;50(2):337-347

School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, 200 E. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ.

Patterns of biodiversity along elevational gradients elucidate how climate shapes biological communities and help predict ecosystem responses to environmental change. Arid elevational gradients are particularly interesting because temperature limitations at high elevations and precipitation limitations at low elevations cause mid-elevation peaks in diversity. Ground-dwelling arthropods form highly diverse communities but few studies document elevational patterns of their full diversity. Read More

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Microclimate structures communities, predation and herbivory in the High Arctic.

J Anim Ecol 2021 04 13;90(4):859-874. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

In a warming world, changes in climate may result in species-level responses as well as changes in community structure through knock-on effects on ecological interactions such as predation and herbivory. Yet, the links between these responses at different levels are still inadequately understood. Assessing how microclimatic conditions affect each of them at local scales provides information essential for understanding the consequences of macroclimatic changes projected in the future. Read More

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De novo assembly, annotation, marker discovery, and genetic diversity of the Stipa breviflora Griseb. (Poaceae) response to grazing.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(12):e0244222. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

School of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, People's Republic of China.

Grassland is one of the most widely-distributed ecosystems on Earth and provides a variety of ecosystem services. Grasslands, however, currently suffer from severe degradation induced by human activities, overgrazing pressure and climate change. In the present study, we explored the transcriptome response of Stipa breviflora, a dominant species in the desert steppe, to grazing through transcriptome sequencing, the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and analysis of genetic diversity. Read More

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Sedimentation and overfishing drive changes in early succession and coral recruitment.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 12 16;287(1941):20202575. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Sedimentation and overfishing are important local stressors on coral reefs that can independently result in declines in coral recruitment and shifts to algal-dominated states. However, the role of herbivory in driving recovery across environmental gradients is often unclear. Here we investigate early successional benthic communities and coral recruitment across a sediment gradient in Palau, Micronesia over a 12-month period. Read More

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December 2020

Nonadaptive host-use specificity in tropical armored scale insects.

Ecol Evol 2020 Dec 4;10(23):12910-12919. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology University of Massachusetts Amherst MA USA.

Most herbivorous insects are diet specialists in spite of the apparent advantages of being a generalist. This conundrum might be explained by fitness trade-offs on alternative host plants, yet the evidence of such trade-offs has been elusive. Another hypothesis is that specialization is nonadaptive, evolving through neutral population-genetic processes and within the bounds of historical constraints. Read More

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December 2020

Terrestrial ecological risk analysis via dietary exposure at uranium mine sites in the Grand Canyon watershed (Arizona, USA).

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 20;265:129049. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Ecological Risk, Inc. 15036 Magno Ct., Rancho Murieta, CA, 95683, USA.

The U.S. Department of the Interior recently included uranium (U) on a list of mineral commodities that are considered critical to economic and national security. Read More

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February 2021

Nutrients cause grassland biomass to outpace herbivory.

Nat Commun 2020 11 27;11(1):6036. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Human activities are transforming grassland biomass via changing climate, elemental nutrients, and herbivory. Theory predicts that food-limited herbivores will consume any additional biomass stimulated by nutrient inputs ('consumer-controlled'). Alternatively, nutrient supply is predicted to increase biomass where herbivores alter community composition or are limited by factors other than food ('resource-controlled'). Read More

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November 2020

The Denser Canopy of Mangrove Drives the Structure of Insect Communities.

Trop Life Sci Res 2020 Oct 15;31(3):77-90. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Malang, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia.

Mangrove restoration in Trenggalek, East Java has resulted an age variation of mangrove ecosystem. Diverse species of insects predominantly found in mangroves were collected using yellow pan traps, swipe nets and by direct picking from three different sites. This research was conducted from April until August 2015. Read More

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October 2020

Ungulate use of locally infectious zones in a re-emerging anthrax risk area.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Oct 21;7(10):200246. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Environmentally mediated indirect pathogen transmission is linked to host movement and foraging in areas where pathogens are maintained in the environment. In the case of anthrax, spores of the causative bacterium are released into the environment following host death and create locally infectious zones (LIZs) around carcass sites; by grazing at LIZs, herbivores are potentially exposed to spores. Here, we used camera traps to assess how ungulate species use carcass sites in southwestern Montana and evaluated how these behaviours may promote indirect anthrax transmission, thus providing, to our knowledge, the first detailed documentation and study of the fine-scale mechanisms underlying foraging-based disease transmission in this ecosystem. Read More

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October 2020