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Estuarine tidal range dynamics under rising sea levels.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(9):e0257538. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

How an estuary responds to sea level rise (SLR) is complex and depends on energy drivers (e.g., tides and river inflows), estuarine geometry (e. Read More

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September 2021

Improving Targeted Delivery and Antitumor Efficacy with Engineered Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Ligand-Affibody Fusion Protein.

Mol Pharm 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is a promising protein candidate for selective apoptosis of a variety of cancer cells. However, the short half-life and a lack of targeted delivery are major obstacles for its application in cancer therapy. Here, we propose a simple strategy to solve the targeting problem by genetically fusing an anti-HER2 affibody to the C-terminus of the TRAIL. Read More

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September 2021

Photodissociation dynamics of halogenated aromatic molecules: the case of core-ionized tetrabromothiophene.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

We studied the gas-phase photodissociation of a fully halogenated aromatic molecule, tetrabromothiophene, upon core-shell ionization by using synchrotron radiation and energy-resolved multiparticle coincidence spectroscopy. Photodynamics was initiated by the selective soft X-ray ionization of three elements - C, S, and Br - leading to the formation of dicationic states by Auger decay. From a detailed study of photodissociation upon Br 3d ionization, we formulate a general fragmentation scheme, where dissociation into neutral fragments and a pair of cations prevails, but dicationic species are also produced. Read More

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September 2021

Both-In-One Hybrid Bacteria Suppress the Tumor Metastasis and Relapse via Tandem-Amplifying Reactive Oxygen Species-Immunity Responses.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Sep 20:e2100950. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110016, China.

Bacterial therapy, which targets the tumor site and aims at exerting an antitumor immune response, has displayed a great potential against malignant tumors. However, failure of the phase I clinical trial of Salmonella strain VNP20009 alone demonstrates that bacterial treatment alone can unsatisfy the requirements of high efficiency and biosafety. Herein, a strategy of both-in-one hybrid bacteria is proposed, wherein the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) is integrated onto the surface of glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-overexpressed non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Read More

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September 2021

Nano-in-Micro-Particles Consisting of PLGA Nanoparticles Embedded in Chitosan Microparticles via Spray-Drying Enhances Their Uptake in the Olfactory Mucosa.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:732954. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Innovation Field Functional Surfaces and Materials, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart, Germany.

Intranasal delivery has gained prominence since 1990, when the olfactory mucosa was recognized as the window to the brain and the central nervous system (CNS); this has enabled the direct site specific targeting of neurological diseases for the first time. Intranasal delivery is a promising route because general limitations, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are circumvented. In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) or Alzheimer's disease, for example, future treatment prospects include specialized particles as delivery vehicles. Read More

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September 2021

Exchange of a single amino acid residue in the cryptophyte phycobiliprotein lyase GtCPES expands its substrate specificity.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Sep 16:148493. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Microbiology, Faculty for Biology, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (TUK), Germany. Electronic address:

Cryptophytes are among the few eukaryotes employing phycobiliproteins (PBP) for light harvesting during oxygenic photosynthesis. In contrast to cyanobacterial PBP that are organized in membrane-associated phycobilisomes, those from cryptophytes are soluble within the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. Their light-harvesting capacity is due to covalent linkage of several open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores (phycobilins). Read More

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September 2021

Plants are a natural source of nitrous oxide even in field conditions as explained by N site preference.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 11;805:150262. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Hebei Key Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Plants are either recognized to produce nitrous oxide (NO) or considered as a medium to transport soil-produced NO. To date, it is not clear whether in their habitat plants conduit NO produced in soil or are a natural source. We aimed to understand role of plants in NO emissions in field conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Impacts of environmental conditions, and allelic variation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase on maize hybrid kernel production.

Commun Biol 2021 09 17;4(1):1095. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, Institut national de la Recherche Agronomique et de l'Environnement (INRAE), Centre de Versailles-Grignon, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1318, RD10, Versailles, Cedex, France.

Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is the enzyme mainly responsible of ammonium assimilation and reassimilation in maize leaves. The agronomic potential of GS1 in maize kernel production was investigated by examining the impact of an overexpression of the enzyme in the leaf cells. Transgenic hybrids exhibiting a three-fold increase in leaf GS activity were produced and characterized using plants grown in the field. Read More

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September 2021

Decreased attractivity in female garter snakes treated with an aromatase inhibitor.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA.

Most experimental studies on sexual signal regulation via hormone manipulation have focused on male signals, yet female signals demonstrate substantial phenotypic variation and hormone-dependent expression. Female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) produce a skin-based sex pheromone used by males in mate selection. The principle female sex steroid, 17 β-estradiol, controls pheromone production in snakes, but studies manipulating female garter snakes have produced conflicting results, relied on behavioral tests with males in the laboratory, and did not quantify pheromone expression. Read More

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September 2021

Sound frequency spectra of snore in relation to the site of obstruction among snorers.

Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2021 Aug;41(4):348-355

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: This study aimed to describe the sound frequency of snoring in relation to the site of upper airway vibration among snorers.

Methods: 383 snores from 40 participants who complained of snoring were digitally recorded during natural and induced sleep using a level III polysomnography monitor with a built-in microphone. During drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), the real-time site of upper airway obstruction was assessed, and the sound frequency of snoring was recorded synchronously. Read More

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First report of Fusarium cf. longipes associated with maize stalk rot in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12661, Institue of Crop Scienses, Haidian District, Beijing, China;

In a field survey from 2017 to 2019, Fusarium stalk rot symptoms including discolored, disintegrated stalk pith tissues and lodged plants were observed in maize hybrid lines Fuyu1611, Jidan66, and Danyu8439 grown in fields in Anshan (4049'39''N, 122 34'6''E), Liaoning province. Its incidence ranged from 15% to 20% and caused a yield loss of up to 30%. Infected pieces of stem tissues were dissected and then sterilized with 1% NaOCl for 1 min, 70% ethanol for 1 min, rinsed 3 times with sterilized ddH2O, and dried with filter paper in hood. Read More

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September 2021

Engineering the substrate binding site of the hyperthermostable archaeal endo-β-1,4-galactanase from Ignisphaera aggregans.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Sep 16;14(1):183. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Endo-β-1,4-galactanases are glycoside hydrolases (GH) from the GH53 family belonging to the largest clan of GHs, clan GH-A. GHs are ubiquitous and involved in a myriad of biological functions as well as being widely used industrially. Endo-β-1,4-galactanases, in particular hydrolyse galactan and arabinogalactan in pectin, a major component of the primary plant cell wall, with important functions in plant defence and application in the food and other industries. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of early-developmental stage embryos and blastocysts produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer in Camelus dromedarius.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Sep 8;233:106842. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

UAE Biotech Research Center, P.O. Box 30310, Al Wathba South, Al Wathba, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

The embryonic stage, site of embryo transfer in the reproductive tract of the surrogate, and embryo transfer method are important for the successful production of offspring. In the present study, there was comparison of pregnancy rates in camels following the surgical transfer of early-developmental stage embryos at Day 2 and transvaginal transfer of blastocysts at Day 7. Embryos were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using in vivo-matured oocytes and ear fibroblasts as donor cells. Read More

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September 2021

Gas-filled Protein Nanostructures as Cavitation Nuclei for Molecule-Specific Sonodynamic Therapy.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong SAR, PR China. Electronic address:

Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a promising alternative for cancer therapy, understood to exert cytotoxicity through cavitation and subsequent production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Gas-filled protein nanostructures (gas vesicles or GVs) produced by cyanobacteria have a hollow structure similar to microbubbles and have demonstrated comparable enhancement of ultrasound imaging contrast. We thus hypothesized that GVs may act as stable nuclei for inertial cavitation to enhance SDT with improved enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects due to their nanometer scale. Read More

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September 2021

Hypohydration produced by high-intensity intermittent running increases biomarkers of renal injury in males.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.

Purpose: Whilst there is evidence to suggest that hypohydration caused by physical work in the heat increases renal injury, whether this is the case during exercise in temperate conditions remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of manipulating hydration status during high-intensity intermittent running on biomarkers of renal injury.

Methods: After familiarisation, 14 males (age: 33 ± 7 years; V̇O: 57. Read More

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September 2021

Training Convolutional Networks for Prostate Segmentation With Limited Data.

IEEE Access 2021 27;9:109214-109223. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Multi-zonal segmentation is a critical component of computer-aided diagnostic systems for detecting and staging prostate cancer. Previously, convolutional neural networks such as the U-Net have been used to produce fully automatic multi-zonal prostate segmentation on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) with performance comparable to human experts, but these often require large amounts of manually segmented training data to produce acceptable results. For institutions that have limited amounts of labeled MRI exams, it is not clear how much data is needed to train a segmentation model, and which training strategy should be used to maximize the value of the available data. Read More

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Secondary metabolite biosynthetic diversity in the fungal family and .

Stud Mycol 2021 Jun 26;99:100118. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Centre of Biomolecular Drug Research (BMWZ), Institute for Organic Chemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Schneiderberg 38, 30167, Hannover, Germany.

To date little is known about the genetic background that drives the production and diversification of secondary metabolites in the . With the recent availability of high-quality genome sequences for 13 representative species and one relative () we attempted to survey the diversity of biosynthetic pathways in these organisms to investigate their true potential as secondary metabolite producers. Manual search strategies based on the accumulated knowledge on biosynthesis in fungi enabled us to identify 783 biosynthetic pathways across 14 studied species, the majority of which were arranged in biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC). Read More

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm model in swine with bovine pericardium patch.

J Vasc Bras 2021 1;20:e20210080. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

Background: Aneurysm repair using endovascular techniques has grown in importance as materials have improved. Studies of endovascular prostheses require experimental models that reproduce anatomic and pathophysiological characteristics of human aneurysms.

Objectives: To describe a porcine model of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Read More

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September 2021

Stable isotope fractionation of thallium as novel evidence for its geochemical transfer during lead‑zinc smelting activities.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 2;803:150036. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic trace metal. Lead (Pb)‑zinc (Zn) smelting, which is a pillar industry in various countries, is regarded as one of the dominant anthropogenic sources of Tl contamination in the environment. In this study, thallium isotope data have been evaluated for raw material and a set of industrial wastes produced at different stages of Pb-Zn smelting in a representative large facility located by the North River, South China, in order to capture Tl isotope signatures of such typical anthropogenic origin for laying the foundation of tracking Tl pollution. Read More

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September 2021

Aconitate decarboxylase 1 participates in the control of pulmonary Brucella infection in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 15;17(9):e1009887. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Unité de Recherche en Biologie des Microorganismes (URBM), NARILIS, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.

Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Here, our aim was to identify the effector mechanisms controlling the early stages of intranasal infection with Brucella in C57BL/6 mice. During the first 48 hours of infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the main cells infected in the lungs. Read More

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September 2021

Viability-Resolved Metagenomics Reveals Antagonistic Colonization Dynamics of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains on Preterm Infant Skin.

mSphere 2021 Sep 15:e0053821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Centergrid.410721.1, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

Preterm infants are at increased risk of infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) that colonize skin. Technical barriers in sequencing low-microbial-biomass skin swabs from preterm infants hinder attempts to gain a strain-level understanding of CoNS colonization dynamics within their developing skin microbiome. Here, the microbiome of five skin sites and available stool was studied from four preterm infants hospitalized over their first 2 months of life. Read More

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September 2021

Moderate plant-soil feedbacks have small effects on the biodiversity-productivity relationship: A field experiment.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 10;11(17):11651-11663. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Plant, Soils and Climate Utah State University Logan UT USA.

Plant-soil feedback (PSF) has gained attention as a mechanism promoting plant growth and coexistence. However, most PSF research has measured monoculture growth in greenhouse conditions. Translating PSFs into effects on plant growth in field communities remains an important frontier for PSF research. Read More

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September 2021

S3QELs protect against diet-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction.

Aging Cell 2021 Sep 14:e13476. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

The Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, California, USA.

The underlying causes of aging remain elusive, but may include decreased intestinal homeostasis followed by disruption of the intestinal barrier, which can be mimicked by nutrient-rich diets. S3QELs are small-molecule suppressors of site III electron leak; they suppress superoxide generation at complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain without inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation. Here we show that feeding different S3QELs to Drosophila on a high-nutrient diet protects against greater intestinal permeability, greater enterocyte apoptotic cell number, and shorter median lifespan. Read More

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September 2021

Seed production and storage for endangered Morus boninensis using an ex-situ living collection.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Forest Tree Breeding Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan.

Meaningful conservation techniques for the endangered Morus boninensis require seed production and storage, since in situ purebred seed production is infrequent in Ogasawara Islands (World Natural Heritage Site) in Japan. Ex situ living M. boninensis specimens produced seeds by open- and artificial-pollination in a greenhouse. Read More

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September 2021

Preliminary Computed Tomography Radiomics Model for Predicting Pretreatment CD8+ T-Cell Infiltration Status for Primary Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2021 Jul-Aug 01;45(4):629-636

Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: Immunotherapy has emerged as a treatment option for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with tumor response being linked to the CD8+ T-cell inflammation. The purpose of this study is to assess whether computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis can predict CD8+ T-cell enrichment in HNSCC primary tumors.

Methods: This retrospective study included 71 patients from a head and neck cancer genomics cohort with CD8+ T-cell enrichment status. Read More

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September 2021

Protect Our Kids: a novel program bringing hemorrhage control to schools.

Inj Epidemiol 2021 Sep 13;8(Suppl 1):31. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Following the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, the Hartford Consensus produced the Stop the Bleed program to train bystanders in hemorrhage control. In our region, the police bureau delivers critical incident training to public schools, offering instruction in responding to violent or dangerous situations. Until now, widespread training in hemorrhage control has been lacking. Read More

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September 2021

Construction of a damage site-specific fluorescent biosensor for single-molecule detection of DNA damage.

Talanta 2021 Dec 14;235:122809. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clean Production of Fine Chemicals, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China. Electronic address:

The 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) represents the most common DNA damage type, and it has been regarded as the oxidative stress biomarker, but the reported 8-oxoguanine assays are limited by poor specificity and low sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate the construction of damage site-specific fluorescent biosensor for 8-oxoG assay by integrating single-molecule detection with hyperbranched signal amplification. In this assay, the 8-oxoG damages in DNA can generate free 3' OH with the assistance of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and polynucleotide kinase (PNK), which subsequently triggers the incorporation of abundant Cy5-labeled dUTPs via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT)-mediated site-specific hyperbranched nucleic acid amplification. Read More

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December 2021

Alterations to the urinary metabolome following semi-controlled short exposures to ultrafine particles at a major airport.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Aug 10;237:113803. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands; Institute for Risk Assessment Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Inflammation, oxidative stress and reduced cardiopulmonary function following exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) from airports has been reported but the biological pathways underlying these toxicological endpoints remain to be explored. Urinary metabolomics offers a robust method by which changes in cellular pathway activity can be characterised following environmental exposures.

Objective: We assessed the impact of short-term exposures to UFP from different sources at a major airport on the human urinary metabolome. Read More

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Native Structural and Functional Proteoform Characterization of the Prolyl-Alanyl-Specific Endoprotease EndoPro from .

J Proteome Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research and Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Utrecht, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The prolyl-alanyl-specific endoprotease (EndoPro) is an industrial enzyme produced in . EndoPro is mainly used for food applications but also as a protease in proteomics. In-depth characterization of this enzyme is essential to understand its structural features and functionality. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of COVID-19 studies registered in the clinical trial platforms: A research ethics analysis perspective.

Dev World Bioeth 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Cardiology Department, TOBB ETU Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) treatment must be based on scientific methods such as clinical trials. Trials involving human subjects and those requiring a risk-benefit analysis may occasionally face challenges owing to the time limitations in the pandemic.

Methodology: This study analyses the WHO's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and clinicaltrials. Read More

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September 2021