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Evaluation of an mHealth-enabled hierarchical diabetes management intervention in primary care in China (ROADMAP): A cluster randomized trial.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 21;18(9):e1003754. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Glycemic control remains suboptimal in developing countries due to critical system deficiencies. An innovative mobile health (mHealth)-enabled hierarchical diabetes management intervention was introduced and evaluated in China with the purpose of achieving better control of type 2 diabetes in primary care.

Methods And Findings: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among registered patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care from June 2017 to July 2019. Read More

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September 2021

A convolutional neural network for estimating cone-beam CT intensity deviations from virtual CT projections.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA.

Extending cone-beam CT (CBCT) use toward dose accumulation and adaptive radiotherapy necessitates more accurate HU reproduction since cone-beam geometries are heavily degraded by photon scatter. This study proposes a novel method that aims to demonstrate how deep learning based on phantom data can be used effectively for CBCT intensity correction in patient images. Four anthropomorphic phantoms were scanned on a CBCT and conventional fan-beam CT system. Read More

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September 2021

Changes of [F]FDG-PET/CT quantitative parameters in tumor lesions by the Bayesian penalized-likelihood PET reconstruction algorithm and its influencing factors.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Sep 16;21(1):133. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3 East Qingchun Rd, Jianggan District, Hangzhou, 310000, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: To compare the changes in quantitative parameters and the size and degree of F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG) uptake of malignant tumor lesions between Bayesian penalized-likelihood (BPL) and non-BPL reconstruction algorithms.

Methods: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography images of 86 malignant tumor lesions were reconstructed using the algorithms of ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), OSEM + time of flight (TOF), OSEM + TOF + point spread function (PSF), and BPL. [F]FDG parameters of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of these lesions were measured. Read More

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September 2021

Trends in incidence, risk factors, and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage in Denmark 2004-2017.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Danish Center for Clinical Health Services Research, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark.

Background: The distribution of major modifiable risk factors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) changes rapidly. These changes call for contemporary data from large-scale population-based studies.

Aims: To examine trends in incidence, risk factors, and mortality of ICH patients from 2004-2017. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of sleep restriction therapy for insomnia on sleep pressure and arousal: a randomised controlled mechanistic trial.

Sleep 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Study Objectives: Sleep restriction therapy (SRT) effectively treats insomnia but mechanisms are poorly understood. Theoretical models suggest that potentiation of sleep pressure and reduction of arousal are key mechanisms of action. To our knowledge this has never been directly tested. Read More

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Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Cancer in Patients with Diverticular Disease: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

Clin Epidemiol 2021 20;13:735-744. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, 8200, Denmark.

Purpose: Venous thromboembolism may be a harbinger of cancer. Patients with diverticular disease are suggested to have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism compared with the general population, but it remains unclear whether venous thromboembolism is also a marker of occult cancer in these patients. We investigated the risk of cancer after venous thromboembolism among patients with diverticular disease. Read More

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Increased Infections and Delayed CD4 T Cell but Faster B Cell Immune Reconstitution after Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide Compared to Conventional GVHD Prophylaxis in Allogeneic Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is being increasingly used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) across various donor types. However, immune reconstitution and infection incidence after PTCy-based versus conventional GVHD prophylaxis has not been well studied. We evaluated the infection density and immune reconstitution (ie, absolute CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, natural killer cell, and B cell counts) at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post-HCT in 583 consecutive adult patients undergoing allo-HCT with myeloablative (n = 223) or reduced-intensity (n = 360) conditioning between 2012 and 2018. Read More

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Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks for Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variant Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Background: Recent population-based female breast cancer and prostate cancer polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. We assessed the associations of these PRS with breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: 483 BRCA1 and 1,318 BRCA2 European ancestry male carriers were available from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Read More

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COVID-19'da İhmal Edilen Semptom: Ağrı.

Authors:
Ender Sir

Agri 2021 Jul;33(3):203-204

University Of Health Sciences, Gulhane School Of Medicine, Department Of Algology, Ankara, Turkey.

Pain is a common but often ignored symptom in COVID-19 patients. Early and adequate treatment with detailed pain assessment in these patients may reduce the risk of pain chronicization, and mood dysregulation. To provide analgesia, paracetamol can be listed as the first option in these patients, and then NSAIDs can also be reliably used for pain management in patients with COVID-19 if there are no absolute contraindications such as kidney failure or gastric bleeding. Read More

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A novel CT-based radiomic nomogram for predicting the recurrence and metastasis of gastric stromal tumors.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(6):3123-3134. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Our study aimed to explore the value of applying the CT-based radiomic nomogram for predicting recurrence and/or metastasis (RM) of gastric stromal tumors (GSTs). During the past ten years, a total of 236 patients with GST were analyzed retrospectively. According to the postoperative follow-up classification, the patients were divided into two groups, namely non-recurrence/metastasis group (non-RM) and RM group. Read More

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Changes to virus taxonomy and to the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2021).

Arch Virol 2021 Sep;166(9):2633-2648

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Institute for the Future, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

This article reports the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in March 2021. The entire ICTV was invited to vote on 290 taxonomic proposals approved by the ICTV Executive Committee at its meeting in October 2020, as well as on the proposed revision of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). All proposals and the revision were ratified by an absolute majority of the ICTV members. Read More

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September 2021

Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Cancer in Patients with Dementia: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;82(4):1601-1608

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University/Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be the first manifestation of occult cancer. Dementia has been linked to reduced cancer risk.

Objective: We examined the risk of cancer following VTE in people with dementia in comparison to the risk in the general population. Read More

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January 2021

Detection of cell-free microbial DNA using a contaminant-controlled analysis framework.

Genome Biol 2021 06 23;22(1):187. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: The human microbiome plays an important role in cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that commensal microbiome-derived DNA may be represented in minute quantities in the cell-free DNA of human blood and could possibly be harnessed as a new cancer biomarker. However, there has been limited use of rigorous experimental controls to account for contamination, which invariably affects low-biomass microbiome studies. Read More

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Detecting copy number alterations in RNA-Seq using SuperFreq.

Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, 3052, Australia.

Motivation: Calling copy number alterations (CNAs) from RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is challenging, because of the marked variability in coverage across genes and paucity of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We have adapted SuperFreq to call absolute and allele sensitive CNAs from RNA-Seq. SuperFreq uses an error-propagation framework to combine and maximise information from read counts and B-allele frequencies (BAFs). Read More

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A comparison of five epidemiological models for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in India.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 7;21(1):533. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: Many popular disease transmission models have helped nations respond to the COVID-19 pandemic by informing decisions about pandemic planning, resource allocation, implementation of social distancing measures, lockdowns, and other non-pharmaceutical interventions. We study how five epidemiological models forecast and assess the course of the pandemic in India: a baseline curve-fitting model, an extended SIR (eSIR) model, two extended SEIR (SAPHIRE and SEIR-fansy) models, and a semi-mechanistic Bayesian hierarchical model (ICM).

Methods: Using COVID-19 case-recovery-death count data reported in India from March 15 to October 15 to train the models, we generate predictions from each of the five models from October 16 to December 31. Read More

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Development and Interpretation of a Genomic Instability Derived lncRNAs Based Risk Signature as a Predictor of Prognosis for Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:678253. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a kind of frequently diagnosed cancer, leading to high death rate in patients. Genomic instability (GI) is regarded as playing indispensable roles in tumorigenesis and impacting the prognosis of patients. The aberrant regulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is a main cause of GI. Read More

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A clinical-radiomics model incorporating T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images predicts the existence of lymphovascular invasion / perineural invasion in patients with colorectal cancer.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 21;48(9):4872-4882. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Shaoxing University School of Medicine, Shaoxing, China.

Purpose: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion (PNI) are independent prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a preoperative predictive model based on high-throughput radiomic features and clinical factors for accurate prediction of LVI/PNI in these patients.

Methods: Two hundred and sixty-three patients who underwent colorectal resection for histologically confirmed CRC between 1 February 2011 and 30 June 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Internal Validation of a Prognostic Model for 4-Year Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 18;14:2229-2237. Epub 2021 May 18.

Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: A prognostic prediction model for metabolic syndrome can help nurses or physicians evaluate the future individual absolute risk of MetS in order to develop personalized care strategies. We aimed to derive and internally validate a prognostic prediction model for 4-year risk of metabolic syndrome in adults.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care setting, and the dataset was obtained from the Healthcare Information and Management Systems of a tertiary hospital. Read More

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A Deep Learning Model to Automate Skeletal Muscle Area Measurement on Computed Tomography Images.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:580806. Epub 2021 May 7.

Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Muscle wasting (Sarcopenia) is associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. Early identification of sarcopenia can facilitate nutritional and exercise intervention. Cross-sectional skeletal muscle (SM) area at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) slice of a computed tomography (CT) image is increasingly used to assess body composition and calculate SM index (SMI), a validated surrogate marker for sarcopenia in cancer. Read More

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Risks of subsequent primary cancers among breast cancer survivors according to hormone receptor status.

Cancer 2021 Sep 18;127(18):3310-3324. Epub 2021 May 18.

Surveillance and Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: This study was aimed at examining the risks of subsequent primary cancers (SPCs) among breast cancer survivors by hormone receptor (HR) status and age at diagnosis.

Methods: Data from 12 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries were used to identify 431,222 breast cancer survivors (at least 1 year) diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 84 years from 1992 to 2015. Risks of SPCs were measured as the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and the excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10,000 person-years. Read More

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September 2021

Tranexamic Acid for Prevention of Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients With or Without Spot Sign.

Stroke 2021 08 18;52(8):2629-2636. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg Hospital (C.O., L.M.C., H.C.), Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background And Purpose: The computed tomography angiography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography based spot sign has been proposed as a biomarker for identifying on-going hematoma expansion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We investigated, if spot-sign positive participants benefit more from tranexamic acid versus placebo as compared to spot-sign negative participants.

Methods: TICH-2 trial (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage) was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial recruiting acutely hospitalized participants with intracerebral hemorrhage within 8 hours after symptom onset. Read More

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Visual-electromagnetic system: A novel fusion-based monocular localization, reconstruction, and measurement for flexible ureteroscopy.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Aug 20;17(4):e2274. Epub 2021 May 20.

Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: During flexible ureteroscopy (FURS), surgeons may lose orientation due to intrarenal structural similarities and complex shape of the pyelocaliceal cavity. Decision-making required after initially misjudging stone size will also increase the operative time and risk of severe complications.

Methods: A intraoperative navigation system based on electromagnetic tracking (EMT) and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) was proposed to track the tip of the ureteroscope and reconstruct a dense intrarenal three-dimensional (3D) map. Read More

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The relationship among primary anatomic subsite and risk and distribution of second malignant neoplasms in patients with stage I/II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: An analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 28;14(7):101106. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Hematology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Recent studies have reported that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving different primary extranodal sites have distinct clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis. However, the risk of secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in DLBCL survivors with different primary extranodal sites are unknown.

Methods: A total of 40,714 patients diagnosed with stage I/II DLBCL were included from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1983 to 2015. Read More

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Subsequent Primary Cancers of the Digestive System Among Childhood and Adolescent Cancer Survivors From 1975 to 2015 in the United States.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 05;116(5):1063-1071

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Among survivors from first primary cancers that occurred during childhood and adolescence, their risks of developing subsequent primary digestive system cancers are not well understood. Therefore, we conducted the largest and most comprehensive analysis examining risks for diverse types of digestive system cancers after survival from a wide variety of first primary childhood and adolescent cancers.

Methods: We identified 41,249 patients diagnosed with first primary cancer from 1975 to 2015 before 20 years of age from 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program registries. Read More

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A genomic-clinicopathologic Nomogram for the preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 23;21(1):455. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, East Qingchun Road 3, Zhejiang, 310016, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Preoperative evaluation of lymph node (LN) state is of pivotal significance for informing therapeutic decisions in gastric cancer (GC) patients. However, there are no non-invasive methods that can be used to preoperatively identify such status. We aimed at developing a genomic biosignature based model to predict the possibility of LN metastasis in GC patients. Read More

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A new antibacterial 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid-based meroterpene from the marine fungus Aspergillus sp. CSYZ-1.

Fitoterapia 2021 Jul 20;152:104908. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316021, China. Electronic address:

Chemical investigation of the extracts of Aspergillus sp. CSYZ-1 resulted in the identification of compound 1, aspergillactone, a new 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid-based meroterpenoid, together with four known metabolites (2-5). The structure and relative configuration of 1 were unambiguously determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry. Read More

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An International Expert Survey on the Indications and Practice of Radical Thoracic Reirradiation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2021 Mar-Apr;6(2):100653. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Institute of Cancer Sciences, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Purpose: Thoracic reirradiation for non-small cell lung cancer with curative intent is potentially associated with severe toxicity. There are limited prospective data on the best method to deliver this treatment. We sought to develop expert consensus guidance on the safe practice of treating non-small cell lung cancer with radiation therapy in the setting of prior thoracic irradiation. Read More

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January 2021

Simultaneous Detection of Six Isoforms of Tau Protein in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry-Based Targeted Proteomics.

J Proteome Res 2021 05 12;20(5):2299-2307. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

Abnormal expression of Tau protein can cause the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). So far, much evidence has demonstrated that Tau has multiple isoforms. These isoforms are suggested to have distinct physiological roles and contribute unequally to the progress of AD. Read More

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Development and validation of an individualized nomogram for early prediction of the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in COVID-19 patients with non-severe disease.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):318-329

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310016, China.

With the number of cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) increasing rapidly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that patients with mild or moderate symptoms could be released from quarantine without nucleic acid retesting, and self-isolate in the community. This may pose a potential virus transmission risk. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the duration of viral shedding for individual COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Second primary malignancies after ocular adnexal lymphoma diagnosis.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 7;21(1):162. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology-Cullen Eye Institute, 1977 Butler Boulevard, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Although studies have investigated the risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) associated with lymphoma of various sites, limited studies have investigated this risk in patients with lymphoma originating within the ocular adnexa. We conducted a retrospective study to assess incidence of secondary malignancies in patients with a prior diagnosis of ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) and to determine latency periods and age-groups at increased risk for SPM occurrence.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on data obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database. Read More

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