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Tethered spinal cord among individuals with myelomeningocele: an analysis of the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

8Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital and University of Washington College of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Objective: The aims of this study were to review the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR) data set to study the rates of tethered spinal cord release (TCR) among patients with myelomeningocele and variability between centers, to compare TCR rates between males and females, and to study the relationships between TCR rates and other condition-specific characteristics.

Methods: The NSBPR registry was queried to identify all patients with myelomeningocele. TCR rates were calculated over time using survival analyses; rates between centers and between males and females were compared. Read More

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The efficacy of combined bright light and melatonin therapies on sleep and circadian outcomes: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Apr 9;58:101491. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; CIRUS, Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of combined melatonin and bright light therapies on improved sleep and circadian outcomes. We conducted a systematic review that resulted in a total of eight papers meeting criteria. Four papers investigated the effectiveness of combined therapy in inducing a circadian phase shift on healthy participants. Read More

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Personalized combination nano-immunotherapy for robust induction and tumor infiltration of CD8 T cells.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 27;274:120844. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of tumor-specific mutations, called neoantigens, offers new exciting opportunities for personalized cancer immunotherapy. However, it remains challenging to achieve robust induction of neoantigen-specific T cells and drive their infiltration into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we have developed a novel polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based personalized vaccine platform carrying neoantigen peptides and CpG adjuvants in a compact nanoparticle (NP) for their spatio-temporally concerted delivery. Read More

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Development and validation of LC/MS/MS method for Triciribine and its monophosphate metabolite in plasma and RBC: Application to mice pharmacokinetic studies.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 20;1174:122714. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Ayma Therapeutics Incorporated, USA. Electronic address:

Triciribine (TCN) is a tricyclic nucleoside analog of adenosine and an inhibitor of Akt kinase. Triciribine 5'-monophosphate (TCNP) is a water-soluble analog of Triciribine and has progressed to Phase I and II clinical trials in oncology. TCNP is also an endogenous anabolite of TCN similar to other nucleoside phosphates. Read More

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Long term outcomes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: Observational study and literature review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jan 5;205:106463. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an unexplained increase in intracranial pressure often associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective observational study of the long term clinical, visual, and treatment outcomes in IIH patients.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with IIH over a 12-year period at a single centre was completed via database review. Read More

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January 2021

Natural history of EBV replication and viral load dynamics after alemtuzumab based allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Haematology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK; Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and is often used as a trigger for pre-emptive therapies aiming to reduce EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene solely based on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess if our strategy reduces over-treatment without compromising outcomes. Read More

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A survey of the mouse hindbrain in the fed and fasted state using single-nucleus RNA sequencing.

Mol Metab 2021 May 4:101240. Epub 2021 May 4.

MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitaris (NTS), located in the hindbrain, are key nuclei that sense and integrate peripheral nutritional signals and, consequently, regulate feeding behaviour. While single cell transcriptomics have been used in mice to reveal the gene expression profile and heterogeneity of key hypothalamic populations, similar in-depth studies have not yet been performed in the hindbrain.

Methods: Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we provide a detailed survey of 16,034 cells within the AP and NTS of the mouse, in the fed and fasted state. Read More

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Feasibility of reducing frailty components in older adults with Alzheimer's dementia: a randomized controlled home-based exercise trial (AD-HOMEX).

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 4:111390. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.

Objectives: There is a need for interventions to reduce frailty in older people with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a home-based multimodal exercise program for older adults with AD (AD-HOMEX) on frailty.

Design: A parallel single-blind randomized controlled trial comparing a home-based exercise program and usual care. Read More

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Multivariate approach for longitudinal analysis of brain metabolite levels from ages 5-11 years in children with perinatal HIV infection.

Neuroimage 2021 May 4:118101. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Treatment guidelines recommend that children with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in life and remain on it lifelong. As part of a longitudinal study examining the long-term consequences of PHIV and early ART on the developing brain, 89 PHIV children and a control group of 85 HIV uninfected children (HIV-) received neuroimaging at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 years, including single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in three brain regions, namely the basal ganglia (BG), midfrontal gray matter (MFGM) and peritrigonal white matter (PWM). We analysed age-related changes in absolute metabolite concentrations using a multivariate approach traditionally applied to ecological data, the Correlated Response Model (CRM) and compared these to results obtained from a multilevel mixed effect modelling (MMEM) approach. Read More

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Genicular artery embolization for refractory hemarthrosis following total knee arthroplasty: technique, safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, United States.

Purpose: This single institution study describes the technique, safety, and efficacy of genicular artery embolization (GAE) for treatment of refractory hemarthrosis following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a focus on patient-reported outcomes.

Material And Methods: Patients who underwent GAE between January 2010 and March 2020 at the authors' institution were included if they had undergone TKA and subsequently experienced recurrent hemarthrosis. Embolization was performed using spherical microparticles. Read More

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Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) enhances dietary carcinogen-induced DNA damage in colorectal cancer epithelial cells through activation of JNK signaling pathway.

Toxicology 2021 May 4:152806. Epub 2021 May 4.

Section of Biomolecular Medicine. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) present in cooked meat are pro-carcinogens and considered to be potential risk factors for CRC. Their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects require metabolic activation primarily by cytochrome P450 1 family enzymes (CYPs); the expression of these enzymes can be modulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and the tumour microenvironment, involving mediators of inflammation. Read More

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Electrospun fibers for vaginal administration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in the context of topical pre-exposure prophylaxis.

J Control Release 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Gandra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Women are particularly vulnerable to sexual HIV-1 transmission. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is highly effective in avoiding new infections in men, but protection has only been shown to be moderate in women. Such differences have been associated, at least partially, to poor drug penetration of the lower female genital tract and the need for strict adherence to continuous daily oral intake of TDF/FTC. Read More

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Light and electron microscopy imaging unveils new aspects of the antiviral capacity of silver nanoparticles in bunyavirus-infected cells.

Virus Res 2021 May 4:198444. Epub 2021 May 4.

Cell Structure Laboratory, National Center for Biotechnology, CNB-CSIC, campus UAM, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Drug repurposing is an important source of new antivirals because many compounds used to treat a variety of pathologies also hamper viral infections. Habitually, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used to treat bacterial and fungal infections and their antiviral properties have been also reported. In this work, we have studied the antiviral capacity of AgNPs in cells infected with Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), the prototype of the Bunyavirales order. Read More

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Suppression of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Mouse Lens by a Smad7-based Recombinant Protein.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 4:109495. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, 80045, United States; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, 80045, United States. Electronic address:

Cataracts, a clouding of the eye lens, are a leading cause of visual impairment and are responsible for one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide. Although generally safe and effective, cataract surgery can lead to a secondary lens abnormality due to transition of lens epithelial cells to a mesenchymal phenotype (EMT) and opacification of the posterior lens capsular bag. Occurring in up to 40% of cataract cases over time, posterior capsule opacification (PCO) introduces additional treatment costs and reduced quality of life for patients. Read More

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Impact of anatomic site of distant metastasis on survival in salivary gland cancers.

Head Neck 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: As exemplified in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), metastatic salivary gland cancers display heterogenous behavior. Although anatomic site of metastasis has been suggested to be prognostic for survival in this population, this is not adequately characterized in the current literature.

Methods: Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), patients with newly diagnosed metastatic salivary gland cancers with distant metastasis to a single organ were identified. Read More

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Tubular cell damage may be the earliest sign of renal extrahepatic manifestation caused by Hepatitis C.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251392. Epub 2021 May 7.

Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most well-known extrahepatic manifestations caused by hepatitis C infection (HCV). CKD is typically discovered at a late stage. HCV-nephropathy may show different histopathologic patterns, as both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage have been described. Read More

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Evaluation of a marker independent isolation method for circulating tumor cells in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251052. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Gastro-Intestinal Surgery, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: The enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood provides a minimally invasive method for biomarker discovery in cancer. Longitudinal interrogation allows monitoring or prediction of therapy response, detection of minimal residual disease or progression, and determination of prognosis. Despite inherent phenotypic heterogeneity and differences in cell surface marker expression, most CTC isolation technologies typically use positive selection. Read More

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Structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies with novel binding epitopes.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 7;19(5):e3001209. Epub 2021 May 7.

MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy unprecedentedly, requiring accelerating development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Molecular understanding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) would greatly help advance the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, as well as the design of next generation recombinant vaccines. Here, we applied H2L2 transgenic mice encoding the human immunoglobulin variable regions, together with a state-of-the-art antibody discovery platform to immunize and isolate NAbs. Read More

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Evolutionary Multiobjective Clustering Algorithms With Ensemble for Patient Stratification.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

Patient stratification has been studied widely to tackle subtype diagnosis problems for effective treatment. Due to the dimensionality curse and poor interpretability of data, there is always a long-lasting challenge in constructing a stratification model with high diagnostic ability and good generalization. To address these problems, this article proposes two novel evolutionary multiobjective clustering algorithms with ensemble (NSGA-II-ECFE and MOEA/D-ECFE) with four cluster validity indices used as the objective functions. Read More

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Red light emitting diode as an adjuvant treatment for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors-induced paronychia.

J Dermatolog Treat 2021 May 7:1-16. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Skin and Allergy Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

We evaluated the efficacy and safety of red light LED as an adjuvant treatment for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-induced paronychia. Eight patients were recruited in this randomized, single-blinded controlled trial. They were randomized to receive red-light on one hand or foot 2-3 times/week for 6 weeks while the contralateral side served as controls. Read More

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Adhesive small bowel obstruction in elderly patients: a single-center analysis of treatment strategies and clinical outcomes.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli IRCCS di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: The incidence of adhesive bowel obstruction (ASBO) progressively increases with age. Strong evidences on the influencing role of age on ASBO clinical course and management are still lacking. Aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of patients older than 65 years of age admitted to a tertiary referral Emergency Department with a diagnosis of ASBO. Read More

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Characterization of Blue Light Treatment for Infected Wounds: Antibacterial Efficacy of 420, 455, and 480 nm Light-Emitting Diode Arrays Against Common Skin Pathogens Versus Blue Light-Induced Skin Cell Toxicity.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2021 May;39(5):339-348

Chair, Department of Virology and Microbiology, Centre for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

To determine effective treatment strategies against bacterial infections of chronic wounds, we tested different blue light (BL)-emitting light-emitting diode arrays (420, 455, and 480 nm) against wound pathogens and investigated in parallel BL-induced toxic effects on human dermal fibroblasts. Wound infection is a major factor for delayed healing. Infections with and are clinically relevant caused by their ability of biofilm formation and their quickly growing antibiotics resistance. Read More

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Open-Label, Single-Arm, Multicenter, Phase II Trial of Lenvatinib for the Treatment of Patients With Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 7:JCO2003093. Epub 2021 May 7.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), an aggressive malignancy, is associated with a poor prognosis and an unmet need for effective treatment, especially for patients without mutations or or fusions. Lenvatinib is US Food and Drug Administration-approved for radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and has previously demonstrated activity in a small study of patients with ATC (n = 17). We aimed to further evaluate lenvatinib in ATC. Read More

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Supervised exercises versus telerehabilitation. Benefits for persons with multiple sclerosis.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ergotherapy, School of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of structured telerehabilitation on fatigue, health status, quality of life (QoL), and activities of daily living (ADL) and compare the possible effects with structured supervised exercise programs in patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

Materials And Methods: This study was a randomized, single-blind trial. Thirty patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups; structured supervised exercise group (Group 1) and telerehabilitation group (Group 2). Read More

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Non-additive effects of foundation species determine the response of aquatic ecosystems to nutrient perturbation.

Ecology 2021 May 7:e03371. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Aquatic Ecology, Seestr. 79, 6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.

Eutrophication is a persistent threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Foundation species, namely those that play a central role in the structuring of communities and functioning of ecosystems, are likely important for the resilience of aquatic ecosystems in the face of disturbance. However, little is known about how interactions among such species influence ecosystem responses to nutrient perturbation. Read More

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Ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to thymic neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Bellvitge University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute of Bellvitge (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Knowledge of ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) comes from short series or single cases. Our aim is to perform a systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Ovid Medline and Biosis Previews of all cases with ectopic CS due to thymic NETs reported in the last 40 years and describe one illustrative patient attended in our institution. Search of literature: From 162 patients, 58. Read More

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Identification and characterisation of maternal perivascular SUSD2 placental mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that meet the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria are obtained from placental tissue by plastic adherence. Historically, no known single marker was available for isolating placental MSCs (pMSCs) from the decidua basalis. As the decidua basalis is derived from the regenerative endometrium, we hypothesised that SUSD2, an endometrial perivascular MSC marker, would purify maternal perivascular pMSC. Read More

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The impact of loco-regional anaesthesia on postoperative opioid use in elderly hip fracture patients: an observational study.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Luzern, Switzerland.

Purpose: Hip fractures are a common health problem among the elderly with an increasing incidence. They are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Optimal pain management remains challenging and inadequate pain control is known for negatively affecting outcomes. Read More

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Endoscopic lung volume reduction coils for patients with severe emphysema-a single-centre retrospective analysis.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pneumology, Allergology and Critical Care Medicine, ECLS Center Saar, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg/Saar,Germany.

Objectives: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung emphysema may benefit from surgical or endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). Previously reported outcomes of nitinol coil-based ELVR techniques have been ambiguous. The analysis was done to analyse outcomes of ELVR with nitinol coils in patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. Read More

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[50 years of electrophysiology and cardiac pacing].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2021 May;22(5):341-351

U.O.C. Cardiologia, Ospedale G.B. Grassi, Ostia (RM).

During the last 50 years a continuous improvement was observed in the field of cardiac pacing and electrophysiology as for as both technological and clinical aspects were concerned. We moved from the first recording of the His bundle electrogram to the identification of the various mechanisms and sites of supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, to three-dimensional mapping and ablation of different reentry circuits and eventually to pulmonary vein isolation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. As far as cardiac pacing is concerned, we moved from single chamber to dual chamber pacing, to ventricular pacing and implantable automatic defibrillators provided by sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms and by remote control. Read More

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