3,738 results match your criteria simplex virus-1


Organoid modeling of Zika and herpes simplex virus 1 infections reveals virus-specific responses leading to microcephaly.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna BioCenter (VBC), Vienna 1030, Austria; Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1030, Austria. Electronic address:

Viral infection in early pregnancy is a major cause of microcephaly. However, how distinct viruses impair human brain development remains poorly understood. Here we use human brain organoids to study the mechanisms underlying microcephaly caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). Read More

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Oncolytic herpesvirus expressing PD-L1 BiTE for cancer therapy: exploiting tumor immune suppression as an opportunity for targeted immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Mar;9(4)

Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK

Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an important immune checkpoint protein that can be regarded as a pan-cancer antigen expressed by multiple different cell types within the tumor. While antagonizing PD-L1 is well known to relieve PD-1/PD-L1-mediated T cell suppression, here we have combined this approach with an immunotherapy strategy to target T cell cytotoxicity directly toward PD-L1-expressing cells. We developed a bi-specific T cell engager (BiTE) crosslinking PD-L1 and CD3ε and demonstrated targeted cytotoxicity using a clinically relevant patient-derived ascites model. Read More

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IFN-λ Regulates Neutrophil Biology to Suppress Inflammation in Herpes Simplex Virus-1-Induced Corneal Immunopathology.

J Immunol 2021 Apr;206(8):1866-1877

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849;

HSV-1 infection of the cornea causes a severe immunoinflammatory and vision-impairing condition called herpetic stromal keratitis (SK). The virus replication in corneal epithelium followed by neutrophil- and CD4 T cell-mediated inflammation plays a dominant role in SK. Although previous studies demonstrate critical functions of type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) in HSV-1 infection, the role of recently discovered IFN-λ (type III IFN), specifically at the corneal mucosa, is poorly defined. Read More

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Potent Antiviral Activity against HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 by Antimicrobial Peptoids.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;14(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Viral infections, such as those caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and SARS-CoV-2, affect millions of people each year. However, there are few antiviral drugs that can effectively treat these infections. The standard approach in the development of antiviral drugs involves the identification of a unique viral target, followed by the design of an agent that addresses that target. Read More

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Species-Specific Deamidation of RIG-I Reveals Collaborative Action between Viral and Cellular Deamidases in HSV-1 Lytic Replication.

mBio 2021 03 30;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Section of Infection and Immunity, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a sensor that recognizes cytosolic double-stranded RNA derived from microbes to induce host immune response. Viruses, such as herpesviruses, deploy diverse mechanisms to derail RIG-I-dependent innate immune defense. In this study, we discovered that mouse RIG-I is intrinsically resistant to deamidation and evasion by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Read More

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TBK1 recruitment to STING activates both IRF3 and NF-κB that mediate immune defense against tumors and viral infections.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148;

The induction of type I interferons through the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is considered a major outcome of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) activation that drives immune responses against DNA viruses and tumors. However, STING activation can also trigger other downstream pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and autophagy, and the roles of interferon (IFN)-independent functions of STING in infectious diseases or cancer are not well understood. Here, we generated a STING mouse strain with a mutation (S365A) that disrupts IRF3 binding and therefore type I interferon induction but not NF-κB activation or autophagy induction. Read More

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Gastrodin Inhibits Virus Infection by Promoting the Production of Type I Interferon.

Front Pharmacol 2020 19;11:608707. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays a critical role in the antiviral immune response. However, viruses have developed different strategies to suppress the production of IFN-I for its own escape and amplification. Therefore, promoting the production of IFN-I is an effective strategy against virus infection. Read More

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February 2021

The herpesvirus accessory protein γ134.5 facilitates viral replication by disabling mitochondrial translocation of RIG-I.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 26;17(3):e1009446. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

RIG-I and MDA5 are cytoplasmic RNA sensors that mediate cell intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. While it has been well-established that RIG-I and MDA5 recognize RNA viruses, their interactive network with DNA viruses, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), remains less clear. Using a combination of RNA-deep sequencing and genetic studies, we show that the γ134. Read More

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Genome Sequence of the Virulent Model Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain McKrae Demonstrates the Presence of at Least Two Widely Used Variant Strains.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Mar 25;10(12). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain McKrae was isolated in 1965 and has been utilized by many laboratories. Three HSV-1 strain McKrae stocks have been sequenced previously, revealing discrepancies in key genes. We sequenced the genome of HSV-1 strain McKrae from the laboratory of James M. Read More

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Entry receptor bias in evolutionarily distant HSV-1 clinical strains drives divergent ocular and nervous system pathologies.

Ocul Surf 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection leads to varying pathologies including the development of ocular lesions, stromal keratitis and encephalitis. While the role for host immunity in disease progression is well understood, the contribution of genetic variances in generating preferential viral entry receptor usage and resulting immunopathogenesis in humans are not known.

Methods: Ocular cultures were obtained from patients presenting distinct pathologies of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). Read More

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Herpes simplex virus 1 proteins can induce skin inflammation in an atopic dermatitis-like mouse model.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can induce in certain individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) severe cutaneous infections that can spread throughout the entire body, a condition named as AD complicated by eczema herpeticum (ADEH). It has been recently found that ADEH patients can produce specific IgE against HSV-1 proteins, which may contribute to lower protection against HSV-1. However, little is known about the capacity of these HSV-1 proteins to produce an inflammatory response at the skin level. Read More

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Viral infection of human neurons triggers strain-specific differences in host neuronal and viral transcriptomes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 22;17(3):e1009441. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Departments of Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, and the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) occurs in over half the global population, causing recurrent orofacial and/or genital lesions. Individual strains of HSV-1 demonstrate differences in neurovirulence in vivo, suggesting that viral genetic differences may impact phenotype. Here differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells were infected with one of three HSV-1 strains known to differ in neurovirulence in vivo. Read More

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Oncolytic herpes simplex virus infects myeloma cells and .

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Mar 18;20:519-531. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Judy and Bernard Briskin Center for Multiple Myeloma Research, City of Hope, Monrovia, CA 91016, USA.

Because most patients with multiple myeloma (MM) develop resistance to current regimens, novel approaches are needed. Genetically modified, replication-competent oncolytic viruses exhibit high tropism for tumor cells regardless of cancer stage and prior treatment. Receptors of oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 (oHSV-1), NECTIN-1, and HVEM are expressed on MM cells, prompting us to investigate the use of oHSV-1 against MM. Read More

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[Brazilian Protocol for Sexually Transmitted Infections 2020: infections that cause genital ulcers].

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2021 15;30(spe1):e2020663. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Infections that cause genital ulcers are one of the themes comprising the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. The Protocol and Guidelines have been developed based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article addresses clinical genital ulcer syndrome caused by sexually transmitted infections, and its most common etiological agents: Treponema pallidum (syphilis), herpes simplex virus-2 (genital herpes) and herpes simplex virus-1 (perioral herpes), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid), Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3 (venereal lymphogranuloma), and Klebsiella granulomatis (donovanosis). Read More

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Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus-1 transcript in suspected viral keratitis corneal buttons and its clinical significance.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr;69(4):852-858

Ocular Microbiology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: The evaluation of Herpes Simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) transcript by different investigative methods (qPCR, PCR and IHC) in corneal buttons from suspected viral keratitis patients and the comparison of results with histopathological findings and clinical diagnosis.

Methods: Sixty corneal buttons, 30 suspected viral keratitis, and 30 controls (keratoconus and bullous keratopathy) obtained after primary penetrating keratoplasty, were included in the study. All the corneal buttons were subjected to reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene, conventional PCR for polymerase (pol) gene, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HSV-1 antigen respectively. Read More

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Cryo-Electron Tomography of the Herpesvirus Procapsid Reveals Interactions of the Portal with the Scaffold and a Shift on Maturation.

mBio 2021 03 16;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) requires seven proteins to package its genome through a vertex in its capsid, one of which is the portal protein, pUL6. The portal protein is also thought to facilitate assembly of the procapsid. While the portal has been visualized in mature capsids, we aimed to elucidate its role in the assembly and maturation of procapsids using cryo-electron tomography (cryoET). Read More

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Increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children during the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level.

Methods: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. Read More

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Evaluation of a Next-Generation Sequencing Metagenomics Assay to Detect and Quantify DNA Viruses in Plasma from Transplant Recipients.

J Mol Diagn 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Viral infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. This study evaluated the performance of the Galileo Pathogen Solution metagenomics Next-Generation sequencing assay to detect and quantify 11 DNA viruses (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, BK virus, human adenovirus, JC virus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, and parvovirus B19) and to qualitatively detect torque teno virus. DNA extracted from 47 plasma samples of viremic transplant recipients were subjected to DNA library preparation with pathogen enrichment/human background depletion, sequencing, and automated data analysis. Read More

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Antiviral activity of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles against HSV-1 in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

LAMCIFAR, Laboratório de Modelagem molecular e Pesquisa em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) affects a large part of the adult population. Anti-HSV-1 drugs, such as acyclovir, target thymidine kinase and viral DNA polymerase. However, the emerging of resistance of HSV-1 alerts for the urgency in developing new antivirals with other therapeutic targets. Read More

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Cohesin subunit Rad21 binds to the HSV-1 genome near CTCF insulator sites during latency .

J Virol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that has the ability to establish a lifelong infection in the host. During latency, HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized and are abundantly associated with histones in sensory neurons, yet the mechanisms that govern the latent-lytic transition remain unclear. We hypothesize that the latent-lytic switch is controlled by CTCF insulators, positioned within the HSV-1 latent genome. Read More

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Viral Involvement in Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 9;12(7):1049-1060. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Evolution and Genomic Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of β-amyloid plaques (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. The prevalence of the disease is increasing and is expected to reach 141 million cases by 2050. Despite the risk factors associated with the disease, there is no known causative agent for AD. Read More

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Mechanism and consequences of herpes simplex virus 1-mediated regulation of host mRNA alternative polyadenylation.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 8;17(3):e1009263. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, United States America.

Eukaryotic gene expression is extensively regulated by cellular stress and pathogen infections. We have previously shown that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several cellular stresses cause widespread disruption of transcription termination (DoTT) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in host genes and that the viral immediate early factor ICP27 plays an important role in HSV-1-induced DoTT. Here, we show that HSV-1 infection also leads to widespread changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA) of host mRNAs. Read More

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Characterization of an Antiviral Component in Human Seminal Plasma.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:580454. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Numerous types of viruses have been found in human semen, which raises concerns about the sexual transmission of these viruses. The overall effect of semen on viral infection and transmission have yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, we aimed at the effect of seminal plasma (SP) on viral infection by focusing on the mumps viral (MuV) infection of HeLa cells. Read More

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February 2021

CACO-2 cells: A Continuous Cell Line with Sensitive and Broad-Spectrum Utility for Respiratory Virus Culture.

J Virol Methods 2021 Mar 4:114120. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Primary rhesus monkey kidney cells (RhMK) can be used for the detection of respiratory viruses, including influenza and parainfluenza. The human colon adeno-carcinoma cell line, CACO-2, has been previously used for the growth of multiple influenza viruses, including seasonal, novel and avian lineages.

Objective: We compared CACO-2, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), and RhMK cells for the isolation of viruses from patients presenting with influenza like-illness (ILI). Read More

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Application of Environment-Friendly Rhamnolipids against Transmission of Enveloped Viruses Like SARS-CoV2.

Viruses 2021 02 20;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Electron Microscopy Facility, 145 Linus Pauling Science Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

In the face of new emerging respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, vaccines and drug therapies are not immediately available to curb the spread of infection. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as mask-wearing and social distance, can slow the transmission. However, both mask and social distance have not prevented the spread of respiratory viruses SARS-CoV2 within the US. Read More

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February 2021

Development of Genome Editing Approaches against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections.

Viruses 2021 02 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a herpesvirus that may cause cold sores or keratitis in healthy or immunocompetent individuals, but can lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications in immune-immature individuals, such as neonates or immune-compromised patients. Like all other herpesviruses, HSV-1 can engage in lytic infection as well as establish latent infection. Current anti-HSV-1 therapies effectively block viral replication and infection. Read More

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February 2021

APOBECs and Herpesviruses.

Viruses 2021 02 28;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The APOBEC family of DNA cytosine deaminases provides a broad and overlapping defense against viral infections. Successful viral pathogens, by definition, have evolved strategies to escape restriction by the APOBEC enzymes of their hosts. HIV-1 and related retroviruses are thought to be the predominant natural substrates of APOBEC enzymes due to obligate single-stranded DNA replication intermediates, abundant evidence for cDNA strand C-to-U editing (genomic strand G-to-A hypermutation), and a potent APOBEC degradation mechanism. Read More

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February 2021

In Vitro Analysis of the Antioxidant and Antiviral Activity of Embelin against Herpes Simplex Virus-1.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 19;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA.

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) causes a wide range of infections from mild to life-threatening in the human population. There are effective treatments for HSV-1 infections that are limited due HSV-1 latency and development of resistance to current therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antiviral effects of embelin on HSV-1 in cultured Vero cells. Read More

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February 2021

Infections in Children With Cancer: The Role of the Presence or Absence of Neutropenia.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Mar;37(3):155-160

Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital.

Background: Infections in patients with cancer are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In most cases, the presence of neutropenia renders them prone to infections to either common or opportunistic pathogens. A wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, or fungal agents is encountered in these patients. Read More

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Efficient establishment of reactivatable latency by an acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase substitution mutant with reduced neuronal replication.

Virology 2021 Apr 3;556:140-148. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, and Department of Infectious Diseases of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus 1 causes recurrent diseases by reactivating from latency, which requires the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene. An acyclovir-resistant mutation in TK, V204G, was previously repeatedly identified in a patient with recurrent herpetic keratitis. We found that compared with its parental strain KOS, a laboratory-derived V204G mutant virus was impaired in replication in cultured neurons despite little defect in non-neuronal cells. Read More

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