229 results match your criteria simple narratives


The medium and the message: Comparing the effectiveness of six methods of misinformation delivery in an eyewitness memory paradigm.

J Exp Psychol Appl 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Applied Psychology.

Studies of eyewitness memory commonly employ variations on a standard misinformation paradigm. Participants are (a) exposed to an event (e.g. Read More

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The Ambiguity Imperative: "Success" in a Maternal Health Program in Uganda.

Med Anthropol 2021 Jun 9:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Global health programs are compelled to demonstrate impact on their target populations. We study an example of social franchising - a popular healthcare delivery model in low/middle-income countries - in the Ugandan private maternal health sector. The discrepancies between the program's official profile and its actual operation reveal the franchise responded to its beneficiaries, but in a way incoherent with typical evidence production on social franchises, which privileges simple narratives blurring the details of program enactment. Read More

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Multicultural Adaptation of Mighty Girls for Widespread Dissemination: Pilot Study, App Development and Usability Testing, and Gauging Parent Support With Focus Groups.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Jun 2;5(6):e24937. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

REAL Prevention, LLC, Clifton, NJ, United States.

Background: Taking evidence-based interventions to scale is a challenge for prevention science. Mighty Girls is an evidence-based sexual health intervention program that combines classroom sessions with novel, cutting-edge technology (digital puppetry). The program was developed for 7th grade Latinas, but US school and community demographics rarely allow interventions targeting a single ethnic group. Read More

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Storytelling increases oxytocin and positive emotions and decreases cortisol and pain in hospitalized children.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro 22.281-100, Brazil.

Storytelling is a distinctive human characteristic that may have played a fundamental role in humans' ability to bond and navigate challenging social settings throughout our evolution. However, the potential impact of storytelling on regulating physiological and psychological functions has received little attention. We investigated whether listening to narratives from a storyteller can provide beneficial effects for children admitted to intensive care units. Read More

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The general fault in our fault lines.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, Columbia College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Pervading global narratives suggest that political polarization is increasing, yet the accuracy of such group meta-perceptions has been drawn into question. A recent US study suggests that these beliefs are inaccurate and drive polarized beliefs about out-groups. However, it also found that informing people of inaccuracies reduces those negative beliefs. Read More

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Learning to Use Narrative Function Words for the Organization and Communication of Experience.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:591703. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

INSERM UMR 1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences du Sport, Dijon, France.

How do people learn to talk about the causal and temporal relations between events, and the motivation behind why people do what they do? The narrative practice hypothesis of Hutto and Gallagher holds that children are exposed to narratives that provide training for understanding and expressing reasons for why people behave as they do. In this context, we have recently developed a model of narrative processing where a structured model of the developing situation (the situation model) is built up from experienced events, and enriched by sentences in a narrative that describe event meanings. The main interest is to develop a proof of concept for how narrative can be used to structure, organize and describe experience. Read More

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Existential aspects in the transition to parenthood based on interviews and a theatre workshop.

Sex Reprod Healthc 2021 Jun 12;28:100612. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsløwsvej 9A, 5000 Odense, Denmark.

Objectives: There are multitudes of existential feelings and considerations around childbirth, with both positive and negative sources of existential meaning; often they are mixed up, but they impact parents' ideas of meaning and purpose in life. The aim of this study was to explore existential aspects of parenthood transition among new fathers and mothers in view of a potential training programme for professionals in maternity services.

Study Design: Data were generated through a user-involving two-phase process inspired by action research consisting of first, four focus group-interviews (n = 10); and second, a theatre workshop for parents, health professionals, and researchers (n = 40). Read More

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Attributing social meaning to animated shapes: A new experimental study of apparent behavior.

Am J Psychol 2020 ;133(3):295-312

Geisinger Health System, Lewisburg, PA.

In 1944, Heider and Simmel reported that observers could perceive simple animated geometric shapes as characters with emotions, intentions, and other social attributes. This work has been cited over 3000 times and has had wide and ongoing influence on the study of social cognition and social intelligence. However, many researchers in this area have continued to use the original Heider and Simmel black-and-white video. Read More

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January 2020

Drama and Trauma: Unpacking Moral Distress in the Context of Discharge Planning.

Narrat Inq Bioeth 2020 ;10(3):223-230

This series of personal stories about hospital discharge experiences expose how fraught this transition can be. Not only do the authors reveal personal angst, feelings of endangerment, frank safety problems, lack of structural supports, but even more concerning are their perceptions of callous disregard, lack of adequate preparation and education, and unilateral decision-making by the health care teams. The "invisible hand" of our corporate health care system percolates, with some authors questioning whether the health professionals are advocating for their (i. Read More

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January 2020

How Small-Scale Farmers Understand Rain Water Harvesting Technology? Evidence from Northern Ethiopia.

ScientificWorldJournal 2021 28;2021:8617098. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Dry Land Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

The study examined farmers' perceptions and adoption of rain water harvesting technology in Raya-Alamata district of Ethiopia. Four kebeles were purposively selected from the 13 homogeneous kebeles (small administrative unit). During the survey, primary data were collected through a semistructured questionnaire distributed to 270 systematically selected sample respondents and through interview with key informants, development agents, and local administrators. Read More

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February 2021

The trajectory of counterfactual simulation in development.

Dev Psychol 2021 Feb;57(2):253-268

Department of Psychology.

Young children often struggle to answer the question "what would have happened?" particularly in cases where the adult-like "correct" answer has the same outcome as the event that actually occurred. Previous work has assumed that children fail because they cannot engage in accurate counterfactual simulations. Children have trouble considering what to change and what to keep fixed when comparing counterfactual alternatives to reality. Read More

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February 2021

An Interprofessional Pain Diary in Transitional Care: A Feasibility Project.

J Dr Nurs Pract 2020 11;13(3):195-201

St. Catherine University, St Paul, Minnesota.

Background: Understanding pain perceptions in older adults is important for pain management. An interprofessional team conducted a feasibility project to examine whether a pain diary designed for older adults in a transitional care unit offered a more holistic description of the pain experience.

Objectives: The project was designed to: (a) Develop a pain diary, (b) Examine patient usability, (c) Determine feasibility of the diary in workflow, and (d) Examine outcomes of diary entries and satisfaction surveys. Read More

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November 2020

Building Nurses' Resilience to Trauma Through Contemplative Practices.

Creat Nurs 2020 Nov;26(4):e90-e96

Nurses can benefit from strategies that build resilience to counterbalance trauma exposures. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adverse community environments are common; nurses frequently encounter trauma victims and hear trauma narratives in most care settings. Having skills to manage the triggers present in health-care environments is essential. Read More

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November 2020

Attitude of nurses and midwives towards collaborative care with physicians in Jimma University medical center, Jimma, South West Ethiopia.

Hum Resour Health 2020 12 2;18(1):94. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Good attitude on collaborative care between nurses and midwives with physicians is crucial for better team working. This further enables those vital health care professionals to provide quality and improved care for their clients.

Objective: To assess the attitude of nurses and midwives towards collaborative care with physicians in Jimma University medical center, Jimma, South West Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2020

Adjacent and Non-Adjacent Word Contexts Both Predict Age of Acquisition of English Words: A Distributional Corpus Analysis of Child-Directed Speech.

Cogn Sci 2020 11;44(11):e12899

University of California, San Diego.

Children show a remarkable degree of consistency in learning some words earlier than others. What patterns of word usage predict variations among words in age of acquisition? We use distributional analysis of a naturalistic corpus of child-directed speech to create quantitative features representing natural variability in word contexts. We evaluate two sets of features: One set is generated from the distribution of words into frames defined by the two adjacent words. Read More

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November 2020

"It Stays Between Us": Managing Comorbidities and Public/Private Dichotomies in HPTN071 (POPART) Trial Communities.

Med Anthropol 2021 04 1;40(3):280-293. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Stellenbosch University.

In contexts of scarcity, managing comorbidities is a complex process, shaped by divergent understandings of causes, prognoses, and social meanings of illness. Drawing on research with one young South African woman living with HIV and epilepsy, and 13 other people with comorbidities, we describe how concepts of "public" and "private" shape the management of co-morbid conditions. Despite narratives of HIV "normalization," participants labored to keep their HIV status private, while sharing other illness experiences more publicly. Read More

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Protecting memory from misinformation: Warnings modulate cortical reinstatement during memory retrieval.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 31;117(37):22771-22779. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155.

Exposure to even subtle forms of misleading information can significantly alter memory for past events. Memory distortion due to misinformation has been linked to faulty reconstructive processes during memory retrieval and the reactivation of brain regions involved in the initial encoding of misleading details (cortical reinstatement). The current study investigated whether warning participants about the threat of misinformation can modulate cortical reinstatement during memory retrieval and reduce misinformation errors. Read More

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September 2020

An Automated Approach for Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Seasonal Influenza in the United States: Algorithm Validation Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 09 4;6(3):e12842. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Background: Agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently release influenza-like illness incidence data, along with descriptive summaries of simple spatio-temporal patterns and trends. However, public health researchers, government agencies, as well as the general public, are often interested in deeper patterns and insights into how the disease is spreading, with additional context. Analysis by domain experts is needed for deriving such insights from incidence data. Read More

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September 2020

Improving the Primary Care Consultation for Diabetes and Depression Through Digital Medical Interview Assistant Systems: Narrative Review.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 28;22(8):e18109. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Centre for Population Health Sciences, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Background: Digital medical interview assistant (DMIA) systems, also known as computer-assisted history taking (CAHT) systems, have the potential to improve the quality of care and the medical consultation by exploring more patient-related aspects without time constraints and, therefore, acquiring more and better-quality information prior to the face-to-face consultation. The consultation in primary care is the broadest in terms of the amount of topics to be covered and, at the same time, the shortest in terms of time spent with the patient.

Objective: Our aim is to explore how DMIA systems may be used specifically in the context of primary care, to improve the consultations for diabetes and depression, as exemplars of chronic conditions. Read More

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Exploring the future of land use and food security: A new set of global scenarios.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(7):e0235597. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

DEPE, Institut national de recherche pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement (INRAE), Paris, France.

Facing a growing and more affluent world population, changing climate and finite natural resources, world food systems will have to change in the future. The aim of the Agrimonde-Terra foresight study was to build global scenarios linking land use and food security, with special attention paid to overlooked aspects such as nutrition and health, in order to help explore the possible future of the global food system. In this article, we seek to highlight how the resulting set of scenarios contributes to the debate on land use and food security and enlarges the range of possible futures for the global food system. Read More

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A unified model of post-stroke language deficits including discourse production and their neural correlates.

Brain 2020 05;143(5):1541-1554

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The clinical profiles of individuals with post-stroke aphasia demonstrate considerable variation in the presentation of symptoms. Recent aphasiological studies have attempted to account for this individual variability using a multivariate data-driven approach (principal component analysis) on an extensive neuropsychological and aphasiological battery, to identify fundamental domains of post-stroke aphasia. These domains mainly reflect phonology, semantics and fluency; however, these studies did not account for variability in response to different forms of connected speech, i. Read More

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[Narratives help disseminate medical technologies: the case of coronary interventions].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 May;63(5):521-526

Abteilung für Allgemeinmedizin, Präventive und Rehabilitative Medizin, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Str. 4, 35043, Marburg, Deutschland.

Medical technologies are often disseminated and used although evidence demonstrating their effectiveness and safety is missing. Percutaneous intervention (PCI) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is an example. This raises the question of how these technologies get disseminated and on which basis they are accepted by clinicians, patients, and the wider public. Read More

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A minimalistic model of bias, polarization and misinformation in social networks.

Sci Rep 2020 03 26;10(1):5493. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6EA, UK.

Online social networks provide users with unprecedented opportunities to engage with diverse opinions. At the same time, they enable confirmation bias on large scales by empowering individuals to self-select narratives they want to be exposed to. A precise understanding of such tradeoffs is still largely missing. Read More

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Doctors in Star Trek: Hugh Culber in Star Trek: Discovery.

Authors:
Victor Grech

Early Hum Dev 2020 05 22;144:104995. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Paediatric Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Electronic address:

Homophobia, prejudice against homosexuals, and heteronormativity the belief that heterosexuality is normative, have both decreased over the decades. Until recently, both were common in Star Trek. This is surprising since while ostensibly writing about the future, cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries were still imposed on these narratives. Read More

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A simple dose of antibiotics: qualitative analysis of sepsis reporting in UK newspapers.

BJGP Open 2020 1;4(1). Epub 2020 May 1.

Professor of Social Sciences and Health, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: A recent drive to improve sepsis awareness has been accompanied by prolific media reporting about its management in children. Media reporting is known to influence public understanding of health issues and subsequent health-seeking behaviour.

Aim: To examine UK newspaper representations of sepsis in children to better understand how the messages they convey may impact on parents' consulting behaviour and expectations about antimicrobial prescribing. Read More

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Contact burns: the influence of agents and mechanisms of injury on anatomical burn locations in children <5 years old and associations with child protection referrals.

Arch Dis Child 2020 06 23;105(6):580-586. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Population Health, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Objective: To identify how causative agents and mechanisms of injury influence the location of an accidental contact burn in children and whether these factors differ in cases referred for child protection (CP) assessment.

Design: Prospective multicentre cross-sectional study.

Setting: 20 hospital sites across England and Wales, including: emergency departments, minor injury units and regional burn units. Read More

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Systems approaches for localising the SDGs: co-production of place-based case studies.

Global Health 2019 12 18;15(1):85. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

Background: Localisation is a pervasive challenge in achieving sustainable development. Contextual particularities may render generalized strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) unfeasible, impractical, or ineffective. Furthermore, many localities are resource- and data-poor, limiting applicability of the global SDG indicator framework. Read More

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December 2019

Development of a checklist to validate the framework of a narrative medicine program based on Gagne's instructional design model in Iran through consensus of a multidisciplinary expert panel.

J Educ Eval Health Prof 2019 31;16:34. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Medical Education and Medical Education Research Center, Medical Education Development Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Narrative medicine is a patient-centered approach focusing on the development of narrative skills and self-awareness that incorporates "attending, representing, and affiliating" in clinical encounters. Acquiring narrative competency promotes clinical performance, and narratives can be used for teaching professionalism, empathy, multicultural education, and professional development. This study was conducted to develop a checklist to validate the framework of a narrative medicine program through consensus of a panel. Read More

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Modeling narrative structure and dynamics with networks, sentiment analysis, and topic modeling.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(12):e0226025. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Graduate School of Culture Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Human communication is invariably executed in the form of a narrative, an account of connected events comprising characters, actions, and settings. A coherent and well-structured narrative is therefore essential for effective communication, confusion caused by a haphazard attempt at storytelling being a common experience. This also suggests that a scientific understanding of how a narrative is formed and delivered is key to understanding human communication and dialog. Read More

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