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Autopsy-Based Pulmonary and Vascular Pathology: Pulmonary Endotheliitis and Multi-Organ Involvement in COVID-19 Associated Deaths.

Respiration 2021 Sep 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Findings from autopsies have provided evidence on systemic microvascular damage as one of the underlying mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19). The aim of this study was to correlate autopsy-based cause of death in SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients with chest imaging and severity grade of pulmonary and systemic morphological vascular pathology.

Methods: Fifteen SARS-CoV-2 positive autopsies with clinically distinct presentations (age 22-89 years) were retrospectively analyzed with focus on vascular, thromboembolic, and ischemic changes in pulmonary and in extrapulmonary sites. Read More

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September 2021

Basic concepts of radiation emergency medicine.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Health Division, IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92260, FRANCE.

Nuclear and radiological accidents are not frequent but may lead to major consequences in the population. For the health systems, the need to handle a large number of victims will probably remain as an exception. However, a high number of affected victims can be expected in some terrorist scenarios. Read More

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September 2021

Medical management of heavily exposed victims: An experience at the Tokaimura criticality accident.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Harada Hospital, Irima, Saitama, JAPAN.

A criticality accident occurred at the uranium conversion plant in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan on September 30, 1999. When uranyl nitrate was overloaded to a critical mass level, uncontrolled fission reaction occurred. A procedure was carried out according to the JCO manual, although not an officially approved manual. Read More

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September 2021

Rapid Risk Stratification of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients in the Emergency Department: The Incremental Prognostic Role of Left Atrial Reservoir Strain.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 12;30(11):106100. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiology, MultiMedica IRCCS, San Giuseppe Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To determine the prognostic value of positive global left atrial strain (LA-GSA+), measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in a population of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients without atrial fibrillation (AF), in the setting of Emergency Department (ED).

Methods: All consecutive AIS patients with sinus rhythm on ECG and without AF history entered this prospective study. All patients underwent complete blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography implemented with 2D-STE analysis of LA strain parameters within 6-12 h after symptoms onset. Read More

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September 2021

Sonographic and ophthalmic assessment of optic nerve in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A longitudinal study.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Sep 4;430:118069. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Neurology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany.

Background: To assess the validity of neurosonological parameters (transorbital sonography (TOS)) for detection and monitoring of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH).

Methods: Prospective, single-center, case-controlled study in 25 patients with IIH and 19 controls. Visual parameters of papilledema, visual acuity, computerized static threshold perimetry, fundus examination, and neurosonological parameters of papilledema/optic disc elevation (ODE), optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and optic nerve diameter (OND) were recorded at baseline and only for patients with IIH again within 6 months. Read More

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September 2021

An evaluation of interventions to improve outcomes for hospitalized patients in isolation: A systematic review.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research, Institute for Health Transformation, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia; Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research-Alfred Health Partnership, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Isolation is effective in preventing transmission of infectious disease. However, it has been shown to have negative effects including increased anxiety and poor physical outcomes.

Objectives: To summarize the effects of interventions to improve safety and outcomes for patients in isolation DESIGN: Systematic review (PROSPERO protocol registration-CD CRD42020222779). Read More

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September 2021

The mitochondria-targeting antioxidant MitoQ alleviated Lipopolysaccharide/ D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury in mice.

Immunol Lett 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Stem cell and Tissue Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Pathophysiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

The mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under pathological condition, but the significance of mitochondrial ROS in the development of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced acute liver injury remains unclear. In the present study, the level of mitochondrial ROS in LPS/D-Gal has been determined by MitoSox staining and the potential roles of mitochondrial ROS in LPS/D-Gal-induced liver injury have been investigated by using the mitochondria-targeting antioxidant MitoQ. The results indicated that LPS/D-Gal exposure induced the generation of mitochondrial ROS while treatment with MitoQ reduced the level of mitochondrial ROS. Read More

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September 2021

Antihypertensive drug treatment and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in human PSC-derived cardiomyocytes and primary endothelial cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Sarver Heart Center Molecular Cardiovascular Research Program, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; Department of Physiology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; BIO5 Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

The pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been attributed to its ability to enter through the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Therefore, it has been heavily speculated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy may modulate SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, exposure of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) and human endothelial cells (hECs) to SARS-CoV-2 identified significant differences in protein coding genes involved in immunity, viral response, and cardiomyocyte/endothelial structure. Read More

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September 2021

Harnessing features of adaptive NK cells to generate iPSC-derived NK cells for enhanced immunotherapy.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

University of Minnesota, Department of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Select subsets of immune effector cells have the greatest propensity to mediate antitumor responses. However, procuring these subsets is challenging, and cell-based immunotherapy is hampered by limited effector-cell persistence and lack of on-demand availability. To address these limitations, we generated a triple-gene-edited induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). Read More

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September 2021

Investigation of the dissipation behaviour and exposure of spitotetramat, flonicamid, imidacloprid and pymetrozine in open field strawberries in Egypt.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Sep 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Pesticide Residues and Environmental Pollution Department, Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

The dissipation behaviour and the consumer risk assessment of spitotetramat, flonicamid, imidacloprid and pymetrozine in open field strawberries were studied. Insecticides were applied at the authorised levels and the more critical good agricultural practice regimes (GAP). The initial concentrations varied from 0. Read More

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September 2021

Reprocessing of Covalent Adaptable Polyamide Networks through Internal Catalysis and Ring-Size Effects.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Polymer Chemistry Research Group, Centre of Macromolecular Chemistry (CMaC), Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S4, Ghent 9000, Belgium.

Here, we report the introduction of internally catalyzed amide bonds to obtain covalent adaptable polyamide networks that rely on the dissociation equilibrium between dicarboxamides and imides. While amide bonds are usually considered to be robust and thermally stable, the present study shows that their dynamic character can be activated by a smart choice of available building blocks without the addition of any external catalyst or other additives. Hence, a range of polyamide-based dynamic networks with variable mechanical and viscoelastic properties have been obtained in a systematic study, using a straightforward curing process of dibasic ester and amine compounds. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Appendicitis.

N Engl J Med 2021 09;385(12):1116-1123

From the Department of Emergency Medicine, UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center, and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA - both in Los Angeles (D.A.T.); and the Department of General Surgery, ASUR Marche, AV5, Hospital of San Benedetto del Tronto, San Benedetto del Tronto, Italy (S.D.S.).

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September 2021

Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine through 6 Months.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

From the State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., S.B., W.V.K., D.C., Q.Y., P.L., P.R.D., W.C.G., K.U.J.) - both in New York; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.) and Fundacion INFANT, Buenos Aires (F.P.P.) - all in Brazil; Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.); Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., X.X.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance, and Risk Management (D.B.T., S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (Ö.T., U.Ş.) and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance, and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T., S.M.).

Background: BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine encoding a prefusion-stabilized, membrane-anchored severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) full-length spike protein. BNT162b2 is highly efficacious against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and is currently approved, conditionally approved, or authorized for emergency use worldwide. At the time of initial authorization, data beyond 2 months after vaccination were unavailable. Read More

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September 2021

Cytomegalovirus mismatch after heart transplantation: Impact of antiviral prophylaxis and intravenous hyperimmune globulin.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are correlated with complications following heart transplantation (HTx) and impaired outcome. The impact of a serologic mismatch between donor and recipient and the necessity of prophylactic virostatic medication is still a matter of concern.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients that underwent HTx between 2010 and 2020 in our department. Read More

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September 2021

Early everolimus-facilitated reduced tacrolimus in liver transplantation: Results from the randomized HEPHAISTOS trial.

Liver Transpl 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany.

Background: Everolimus-facilitated reduced tacrolimus exposure (EVR+rTAC) at 30 days post-liver transplantation (LT) has shown advantages in renal preservation. This study evaluated the effects of early initiation of EVR+rTAC in de novo liver transplant recipients (LTR).

Methods: In HEPHAISTOS (NCT01551212, EudraCT 2011-003118-17), a 12-month (M), multicenter, controlled study, LTR were randomized at 7-21 days post-LT to receive EVR+rTAC or standard tacrolimus (sTAC), with steroids. Read More

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September 2021

The Bladder at Night during Hospitalisation: towards optimal care for elderly patients with nocturia.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 15:e14876. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Human Structure and Repair, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: This study aimed to describe the characteristics of nocturia in older hospitalised patients and to explore knowledge, beliefs, and experiences associated with night toileting while in hospital in order to identify unmet care needs.

Methods: A multisite mixed methods cross-sectional study of older hospitalised adults who were admitted for ≥ 2 days was conducted using a standardized researcher-administered questionnaire. An additional cohort 16 older hospitalised adults with nocturia > twice per night were interviewed to understand the experience and impact of nocturia during hospitalisation. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 among children seeking primary paediatric care with signs of an acute infection.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Medical Virology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Aim: It can be challenging to distinguish COVID-19 in children from other common infections. We set out to determine the rate at which children consulting a primary care paediatrician with an acute infection are infected with SARS-CoV-2, and to compare distinct findings.

Method: In seven out-patient clinics, children 0 to 13 years with any new respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and presumed infection, were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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September 2021

Observation of Unique Circulating miRNA Signatures in Non-Human Primates Exposed to Total-Body vs. Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation.

Radiat Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

ChromoLogic LLC, Monrovia, California 91016.

A radiological/nuclear (RAD-NUC) incident, especially in an urban setting, results in diverse radiation-induced injuries due to heterogeneities in dose, the extent of partial-body shielding, human biodiversity and pre-existing health conditions. For example, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) can result in death within days to weeks of exposure to 0.7-10 Gy doses and is associated with destruction of the bone marrow, known as hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS). Read More

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September 2021

Risk assessment of pesticide residues in Chinese litchis.

J Food Prot 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

CHINA.

The presence of pesticide residues in fruit has been of extensive concern worldwide. In this paper, pesticide residues in litchi samples in China and their dietary exposure risks were evaluated. Fifty-seven pesticides in 150 litchi samples were measured by GC and UPLC/MS-MS. Read More

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September 2021

Outcomes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement - The MD Anderson Experience.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23) - KMT2A-AFF1 is associated with a poor prognosis. The impact of KMT2A rearrangements other than t(4;11) is uncertain and the benefit of allogeneic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is unclear. We reviewed adult patients with ALL treated at our institution from 1984 to 2019 and identified 50/1102 (5%) with KMT2A rearrangement: 42 (84%) with t(4;11)/KMT2A-AFF1 and 8 (16%) with other gene partners. Read More

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September 2021

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in the molecular era: a clinician's guide to diagnosis, risk-stratification, and treatment.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Benioff Children's Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States.

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is an overlapping myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorder of early childhood. It is associated with a spectrum of diverse outcomes ranging from spontaneous resolution in rare patients to transformation to acute myeloid leukemia in others that is generally fatal. This unpredictable clinical course, along with initially descriptive diagnostic criteria, led to decades of productive international research. Read More

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September 2021

In-depth time-dependent analysis of the benefit of Allo-HSCT for elderly patients with CR1 AML: a FILO study.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

IUCT Oncopole, TOULOUSE, France.

The benefit of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients over 60 years remains a matter of debate, notably when performed in first complete remission (CR1). In order to clarify this issue, the French Innovative Leukemia Organization (FILO) performed a 10-year real-world time-dependent analysis. The study enrolled patients between 60 and 70 years of age with AML in CR1 after intensive chemotherapy with intermediate (IR) or unfavorable (UR) risk according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN)-2010. Read More

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September 2021

Portable Medical Orders and End of Life Measures in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, United States.

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) experience high rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital deaths at end of life (EOL). Early goals-of-care (GOC) discussions might reduce intensity of care at EOL. Portable Medical Order (POLST) forms, known as Medical Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) forms in New York State, allow patients to translate GOC discussions into specific medical orders that communicate their wishes during a medical emergency. Read More

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September 2021

Dexamethasone is associated with early deaths in light chain amyloidosis patients with severe cardiac involvement.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0257189. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The French Cardiac Amyloidosis Reference Center, GRC Amyloid Research Institute, Réseau amylose Mondor, and DHU A-TVB, Créteil, France.

Background: Cardiac light chain amyloidosis (AL-CA) patients often die within three months of starting chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for non-immunoglobulin M gammopathy with AL-CA frequently includes bortezomib (Bor), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and dexamethasone (D). We previously reported that NT-ProBNP levels can double within 24h of dexamethasone administration, suggesting a deleterious impact on cardiac function. Read More

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September 2021

Tracheostomy in Patients With Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Is It Really a Matter of Timing?

Anesth Analg 2021 Oct;133(4):e49-e50

Department of Neuroscience and Department of Anesthesia, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy

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October 2021

Essential role of IL-23 in the development of acute exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Technology, grid.261356.5Okayama University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a poor prognosis associated with neutrophilic inflammation. Interleukin-23 is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in neutrophilic inflammation. However, little is known about its role in acute exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis. Read More

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September 2021

Chronic binge alcohol and ovariectomy-mediated impaired insulin responsiveness in SIV-infected female rhesus macaques.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physiology, grid.279863.1Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.

Objective: Aging people living with HIV (PLWH), especially post-menopausal women may be at higher risk of comorbidities associated with HIV, ART, hypogonadism and at-risk alcohol use. Our studies in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male macaques demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) reduced acute insulin response to glucose (AIRG), and at-risk alcohol use decreased HOMA-β in PLWH. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of ovariectomy (OVX), on glucose-insulin dynamics and integrity of pancreatic endocrine function in CBA/SIV-infected female macaques. Read More

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September 2021