Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), a layer formed on the electrode surface, is essential for electrochemical reactions in batteries and critically governs the battery stability. Active materials, especially those with extremely high energy density, such as silicon (Si), often inevitably undergo a large volume swing upon ion insertion and extraction, raising a critical question as to how the SEI interactively responds to and evolves with the material and consequently controls the cycling stability of the battery. Here, by integrating sensitive elemental tomography, an advanced algorithm and cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy, we unveil, in three dimensions, a correlated structural and chemical evolution of Si and SEI. Read More