52,655 results match your criteria signals control

Photo-gated and self-powered three-dimensional DNA motors with boosted biostability for exceptionally precise and efficient tracing of intracellular survivin mRNA.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 16;190:113445. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, School of Public Health, Medical College, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Benefiting from the outstanding signal amplification effect and the admirable construction flexibility, the currently proposed DNA motors (particularly DNA walkers) based biosensing concepts have provided a forceful fluorescence imaging tool for intracellular detection. Even so, this promising sensing means is not only subject to poor controllability and prone to produce false signals but also requires exogenous powering forces owing to the common employment of DNAzyme. In response to these challenges, we are herein motivated to present some meaningful solving strategies. Read More

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Promoters and Antagonists of Phagocytosis: A Plastic and Tunable Response.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Program in Cell Biology, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G0A4, Canada; email:

Recent observations indicate that, rather than being an all-or-none response, phagocytosis is finely tuned by a host of developmental and environmental factors. The expression of key phagocytic determinants is regulated via transcriptional and epigenetic means that confer memory on the process. Membrane traffic, the cytoskeleton, and inside-out signaling control the activation of phagocytic receptors and their ability to access their targets. Read More

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Modulation of Intestinal ILC3 for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:653560. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković" - National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is crucial for the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis, but it is also the potential site of the activation of autoreactive cells and initiation/propagation of autoimmune diseases in the gut and in the distant organs. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) residing in the GALT integrate signals from food ingredients and gut microbiota metabolites in order to control local immunoreactivity. Notably, ILC3 secrete IL-17 and GM-CSF that activate immune cells in combating potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Read More

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Identification of Transient Noise to Reduce False Detections in Screening for Atrial Fibrillation.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:672875. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) with a handheld device for recording the ECG is becoming increasingly popular. The poorer signal quality of such ECGs may lead to false detection of AF, often caused by transient noise. Consequently, the need for expert review in AF screening can become extensive. Read More

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A Novel Technique to Reject Artifact Components for Surface EMG Signals Recorded During Walking With Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation: A Pilot Study.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 3;15:660583. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, IL, United States.

Transcutaneous spinal cord electrical stimulation (tSCS) is an emerging technology that targets to restore functionally integrated neuromuscular control of gait. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel filtering method, Artifact Component Specific Rejection (ACSR), for removing artifacts induced by tSCS from surface electromyogram (sEMG) data for investigation of muscle response during walking when applying spinal stimulation. Both simulated and real tSCS contaminated sEMG data from six stroke survivors were processed using ACSR and notch filtering, respectively. Read More

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Oxidative stress in neutrophils: Implications for diabetic cardiovascular complications.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 12306, Surgery, 473 W 12th Ave, DHLRI 611A, Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210-1240;

Significance: Neutrophil behavior and function is altered by hyperglycemia associated with diabetes. Aberrant activation by hyperglycemia causes neutrophils to respond with increased production of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Excess ROS, a signature of primed neutrophils, can intracellularly induce neutrophils to undergo NETosis, flooding surrounding tissues with ROS and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as S100 calcium binding proteins (S100A8/A9). Read More

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Nanoscale All-Oxide-Heterostructured Bio-inspired Optoresponsive Nociceptor.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Apr 1;12(1):83. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Centre for Environmental and Energy Research, Ghent University Global Campus, Incheon, South Korea.

Retina nociceptor, as a key sensory receptor, not only enables the transport of warning signals to the human central nervous system upon its exposure to noxious stimuli, but also triggers the motor response that minimizes potential sensitization. In this study, the capability of two-dimensional all-oxide-heterostructured artificial nociceptor as a single device with tunable properties was confirmed. Newly designed nociceptors utilize ultra-thin sub-stoichiometric TiO-GaO heterostructures, where the thermally annealed GaO films play the role of charge transfer controlling component. Read More

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CutCat: An augmentation method for EEG classification.

Neural Netw 2021 Jun 5;141:433-443. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Computer Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

The non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) signals enable humans to communicate with devices and have control over them, this process requires precise classification and identification of those signals. The recent revolution of deep learning has empowered both feature extraction and classification in a joint manner of different data types. However, deep learning is a data learning approach that demands a large number of training samples. Read More

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PKCε controls the fusion of secretory vesicles in mast cells in a phosphatidic acid-dependent mode.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology A, Veterinary School, Universidad de Murcia, IMIB, CEIR Campus Mare Notrum (CMN), Campus Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

PKCε is highly expressed in mast cells and plays a fundamental role in the antigen-triggered activation of the allergic reaction. Although its regulation by diacylglycerols has been described, its regulation by acidic phospholipids and how this regulation leads to the control of downstream vesicle secretion is barely known. Here, we used structural and evolutionary studies to find the molecular mechanism that explains the selectivity of the C1B domain of PKCε by Phosphatidic Acid (PA). Read More

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Exposure to the herbicide butachlor activates hepatic stress signals and disturbs lipid metabolism in mice.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 15;283:131226. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Butachlor is a systemic herbicide widely applied on wheat, rice, beans, and different other crops, and is frequently detected in groundwater, surface water, and soil. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the potential adverse health risks and the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by exposure to butachlor in invertebrates, other nontarget animals, and public health. For this reason, a total of 20 mice were obtained and randomly divided into two groups. Read More

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Viral footprints across Gulfs of Kathiawar Peninsula and Arabian Sea: unraveled from pelagic sediment metagenomic data.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 16:198485. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Marine Science, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364001, Gujarat India. Electronic address:

Marine biosphere is one of the largest, diverse and dynamic system hosting numerous of microorganisms. Viruses being the most abundant under explored lifeforms in ocean, represent a reservoir of great genetic diversity. We report the metagenomic insights on the viral communities in the deep sediments of the two Gulfs of Gujarat i. Read More

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Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. Read More

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Maladaptive avoidance learning in the orbitofrontal cortex in adolescents with major depression.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Understanding the mechanisms in the brain's incentive network that give rise to symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) during adolescence provides new perspectives to address MDD in early stages of development. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study determines whether instrumental vigor and brain responses to appetitive and aversive monetary incentives are altered in adolescent MDD and associated with symptom severity.

Methods: Adolescents with moderate to severe MDD (n=30, age=16. Read More

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U-Limb: A multi-modal, multi-center database on arm motion control in healthy and post-stroke conditions.

Gigascience 2021 Jun;10(6)

Research Center "Enrico Piaggio" and Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, University of Pisa Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56122 Pisa, Italy.

Background: Shedding light on the neuroscientific mechanisms of human upper limb motor control, in both healthy and disease conditions (e.g., after a stroke), can help to devise effective tools for a quantitative evaluation of the impaired conditions, and to properly inform the rehabilitative process. Read More

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Adaptive Finite-Time Command Filtered Controller Design for Nonlinear Systems With Output Constraints and Input Nonlinearities.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 18;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

This work addresses a finite-time tracking control issue for a class of nonlinear systems with asymmetric time-varying output constraints and input nonlinearities. To guarantee the finite-time convergence of tracking errors, a novel finite-time command filtered backstepping approach is presented by using the command filtered backstepping technique, finite-time theory, and barrier Lyapunov functions. The newly proposed method can not only reduce the complexity of computation of the conventional backstepping control and compensate filtered errors caused by dynamic surface control but also can ensure that the output variables are restricted in compact bounding sets. Read More

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Quantifying the impact of non-stationarity in reinforcement learning-based traffic signal control.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 27;7:e575. Epub 2021 May 27.

CICS, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.

In reinforcement learning (RL), dealing with non-stationarity is a challenging issue. However, some domains such as traffic optimization are inherently non-stationary. Causes for and effects of this are manifold. Read More

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as candidate against excitotoxicity in retinal ganglion cells.

Transl Neurosci 2021 Jan 4;12(1):247-259. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Central Laboratory, Female Centre for Scientific and Medical Studies, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Glutamate excitotoxicity is considered one of the major causes of retinal ganglion cell death in many retinal diseases. Retinal ganglion cell degeneration causes severe blindness since visual signals from the eye to the brain are conducted only through retinal ganglion cells.

Objective: We aimed to explore the potential ameliorative effects of against glutamate excitotoxicity-induced retinal ganglion cell damage. Read More

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January 2021

Dendritic calcium signals in rhesus macaque motor cortex drive an optical brain-computer interface.

Nat Commun 2021 06 17;12(1):3689. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Neurosciences Graduate Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Calcium imaging is a powerful tool for recording from large populations of neurons in vivo. Imaging in rhesus macaque motor cortex can enable the discovery of fundamental principles of motor cortical function and can inform the design of next generation brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Surface two-photon imaging, however, cannot presently access somatic calcium signals of neurons from all layers of macaque motor cortex due to photon scattering. Read More

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Patients with lesions to the intraparietal cortex show greater proprioceptive realignment after prism adaptation: Evidence from open-loop pointing and manual straight ahead.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Jun 14:107913. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Psychology, Brigantia Building, University of Bangor, Penrallt Rd, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2AS, UK. Electronic address:

Reaching toward a target viewed through laterally refracting prisms results in adaptation of both visual and (limb) proprioceptive spatial representations. Common ways to measure adaptation after-effect are to ask a person to point straight ahead with their eyes closed ("manual straight ahead", MSA), or to a seen target using their unseen hand ("open-loop pointing", OLP). MSA measures changes in proprioception only, whereas OLP measures the combined visual and proprioceptive shift. Read More

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Specific and behaviorally consequential astrocyte G GPCR signaling attenuation in vivo with iβARK.

Neuron 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA; Department of Neurobiology, University of California, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA. Electronic address:

Astrocytes respond to neurotransmitters and neuromodulators using G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to mediate physiological responses. Despite their importance, there has been no method to genetically, specifically, and effectively attenuate astrocyte G GPCR pathways to explore consequences of this prevalent signaling mechanism in vivo. We report a 122-residue inhibitory peptide from β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (iβARK; and inactive D110A control) to attenuate astrocyte G GPCR signaling. Read More

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Human ACE2-Functionalized Gold "Virus-Trap" Nanostructures for Accurate Capture of SARS-CoV-2 and Single-Virus SERS Detection.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Apr 13;13(1):109. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.

The current COVID-19 pandemic urges the extremely sensitive and prompt detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we present a Human Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2)-functionalized gold "virus traps" nanostructure as an extremely sensitive SERS biosensor, to selectively capture and rapidly detect S-protein expressed coronavirus, such as the current SARS-CoV-2 in the contaminated water, down to the single-virus level. Such a SERS sensor features extraordinary 10-fold virus enrichment originating from high-affinity of ACE2 with S protein as well as "virus-traps" composed of oblique gold nanoneedles, and 10-fold enhancement of Raman signals originating from multi-component SERS effects. Read More

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Cesium Lead Bromide (CsPbBr) Perovskite Quantum Dot-Based Photosensor for Chemiluminescence Immunoassays.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-Ro, Seo-dae-mun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

Chemiluminescence immunoassays have been widely employed for diagnosing various diseases. However, because of the extremely low intensity chemiluminescence signals, highly sensitive transducers, such as photomultiplier tubes and image sensors with cooling devices, are required to overcome this drawback. In this study, a hypersensitive photosensor was developed based on cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr) perovskite quantum dots (QDs) with sufficient high sensitivity for chemiluminescence immunoassays. Read More

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The theory of planned behaviour and sleep opportunity: An ecological momentary assessment.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jun 16:e13420. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.

Many American adolescents and adults report that they are not meeting sleep duration recommendations. Although insufficient sleep duration can occur due to factors outside an individual's direct control, many individuals choose to restrict their own sleep. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) offers a framework to study this phenomenon. Read More

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Hydrodynamic stress and phenotypic plasticity of the zebrafish regenerating fin.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 10, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Understanding how extrinsic factors modulate genetically encoded information to produce a specific phenotype is of prime scientific interest. In particular, the feedback mechanism between abiotic forces and locomotory organs during morphogenesis to achieve efficient movement is a highly relevant example of such modulation. The study of this developmental process can provide unique insights on the transduction of cues at the interface between physics and biology. Read More

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A Methylene Blue Assisted Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Drug Resistance of .

Front Chem 2021 31;9:689735. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Food and Drugs, Shandong Institute of Commerce and Technology, Jinan, China.

Due to the abuse of antibiotics in clinical, animal husbandry, and aquaculture, drug-resistant pathogens are produced, which poses a great threat to human and the public health. At present, a rapid and effective drug sensitivity test method is urgently needed to effectively control the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. Using methylene blue as a redox probe, the electrochemical signals of methylene blue in drug-resistant strains were analyzed by a CV method. Read More

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Transparent Touch: Insights From Model Systems on Epidermal Control of Somatosensory Innervation.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 31;15:680345. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Somatosensory neurons (SSNs) densely innervate our largest organ, the skin, and shape our experience of the world, mediating responses to sensory stimuli including touch, pressure, and temperature. Historically, epidermal contributions to somatosensation, including roles in shaping innervation patterns and responses to sensory stimuli, have been understudied. However, recent work demonstrates that epidermal signals dictate patterns of SSN skin innervation through a variety of mechanisms including targeting afferents to the epidermis, providing instructive cues for branching morphogenesis, growth control and structural stability of neurites, and facilitating neurite-neurite interactions. Read More

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GluD1 is a signal transduction device disguised as an ionotropic receptor.

Nature 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Ionotropic glutamate delta receptors 1 (GluD1) and 2 (GluD2) exhibit the molecular architecture of postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors, but assemble into trans-synaptic adhesion complexes by binding to secreted cerebellins that in turn interact with presynaptic neurexins. It is unclear whether neurexin-cerebellin-GluD1/2 assemblies serve an adhesive synapse-formation function or mediate trans-synaptic signalling. Here we show in hippocampal synapses, that binding of presynaptic neurexin-cerebellin complexes to postsynaptic GluD1 controls glutamate receptor activity without affecting synapse numbers. Read More

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Gut Microbiota Regulate Gut-Lung Axis Inflammatory Responses by Mediating ILC2 Compartmental Migration.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND;

Gut microbiota is increasingly linked to the development of various pulmonary diseases through a gut-lung axis. However, the mechanisms by which gut commensal microbes impact trafficking and functional transition of immune cells remain largely unknown. Using integrated microbiota dysbiosis approaches, we uncover that the gut microbiota directs the migration of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) from the gut to the lung through a gut-lung axis. Read More

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Targeting highly pathogenic coronavirus-induced apoptosis reduces viral pathogenesis and disease severity.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 16;7(25). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Infection by highly pathogenic coronaviruses results in substantial apoptosis. However, the physiological relevance of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of coronavirus infections is unknown. Here, with a combination of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, we demonstrated that protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling mediated the proapoptotic signals in Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, which converged in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Read More

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Cluster-based network modeling-From snapshots to complex dynamical systems.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 16;7(25). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institut für Strömungsmechanik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Hermann-Blenk-Str. 37, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany.

We propose a universal method for data-driven modeling of complex nonlinear dynamics from time-resolved snapshot data without prior knowledge. Complex nonlinear dynamics govern many fields of science and engineering. Data-driven dynamic modeling often assumes a low-dimensional subspace or manifold for the state. Read More

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