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Single-Anastomosis Duodenal Switch: Conceptual Difference between East and West.

Obes Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.

Single-anastomosis duodenal switch (SADS) has become increasingly popular. This review compared the conceptual difference between Eastern (SADS-E) and Western (SADS-W) countries. After searching for SADS through PubMed and high-impact journals, 19 articles with 2280 patients were included for analysis. Read More

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Gastrointestinal Physiology Before and After Duodenal Switch with Comparisons to Unoperated Lean Controls: Novel Use of the SmartPill Wireless Motility Capsule.

Obes Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.

Purpose: Bariatric surgery alters gastrointestinal anatomy. In this exploratory study, the SmartPill® wireless motility capsule (WMC) was used to study changes in gastrointestinal physiology following biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS).

Material And Methods: Twenty-eight BPD/DS patients (35 ± 11 years, 50% females, body mass index [BMI] 56 ± 5) were to be examined preoperatively and postoperatively. Read More

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EEG-based auditory attention decoding using speech-level-based segmented computational models.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southern University of Science and Technology, No.1088 Xueyuan Blvd., Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518055, CHINA.

Objective: Auditory attention in complex scenarios can be decoded by electroencephalography (EEG)-based cortical speech-envelope tracking. The relative root-mean-square (RMS) intensity is a valuable cue for the decomposition of speech into distinct characteristic segments. To improve auditory attention decoding (AAD) performance, this work proposed a novel segmented AAD approach to decode target speech envelopes from different RMS-level-based speech segments. Read More

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Maturation conditions, post-ovulatory age, medium pH, and ER stress affect [Ca]i oscillation patterns in mouse oocytes.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, 510000, China.

Insufficiency of oocyte activation impairs the subsequent embryo development in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca]i) oscillations switch the oocytes to resume the second meiosis and initiate embryonic development. However, the [Ca]i oscillation patterns in oocytes are poorly characterized. Read More

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Switching away from Cigarettes across 12 Months among Adult Smokers Purchasing the JUUL System.

Am J Health Behav 2021 May;45(3):443-463

Senior Director, Behavioral Affairs, Juul Labs Inc, Washington, DC, United States.

In this study, we assessed complete switching away from cigarette smoking among adult smokers who purchased a JUUL Starter Kit (JSK). Adult (age ≥ 21) established smokers (smoked ≥ 100 lifetime cigarettes) who purchased a JSK in 2018 were invited to complete online surveys 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after initial JSK purchase. Point prevalence of switching (no past 30-day smoking) was assessed at each follow-up. Read More

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Split-VMAT technique to control the deep inspiration breath hold time for breast cancer radiotherapy.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Apr 20;16(1):77. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Medical Physics Department, Institut Jules Bordet - Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: To improve split-VMAT technique by optimizing treatment delivery time for deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer patients, when automatic beam-interruption devices are not available.

Methods: Ten consecutive patients were treated with an eight partial arcs (8paVMAT) plan, standard of care in our center. A four partial arcs (4paVMAT) plan was also created and actual LINAC outputs were measured, to evaluate whether there was a dosimetric difference between both techniques and potential impact on the delivered dose. Read More

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The dystonia gene THAP1 controls DNA double-strand break repair choice.

Mol Cell 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Genome Integrity, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

The Shieldin complex shields double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) from nucleolytic resection. Curiously, the penultimate Shieldin component, SHLD1, is one of the least abundant mammalian proteins. Here, we report that the transcription factors THAP1, YY1, and HCF1 bind directly to the SHLD1 promoter, where they cooperatively maintain the low basal expression of SHLD1, thereby ensuring a proper balance between end protection and resection during DSB repair. Read More

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SMARCA4 and other SWI/SNF family genomic alterations in non-small cell lung cancer: Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibition.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The SWI/SNF (SWitch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable) chromatin remodeling complex acts as a regulatory component of transcription, and inactivating mutations within the complex are implicated in genomic instability, higher tumor mutational burden (TMB), and an aggressive cancer phenotype. Whether SMARCA4 and other SWI/SNF alterations are independent prognostic factors or associated with clinical outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in NSCLC remains unclear.

Methods: We collected clinicopathologic and genomic data from patients with NSCLC that underwent targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Read More

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Integration of Cell Growth and Asymmetric Division During Lateral Root Initiation In Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Lateral root formation determines to a large extent the ability of plants to forage their environment and thus their growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana and other angiosperms, lateral root initiation requires radial cell expansion and several rounds of anticlinal cell divisions that give rise to a central core of small cells, which express different markers than the larger surrounding cells. These small central cells then switch their plane of divisions to periclinal, and give rise to seemingly morphologically similar daughter cells that have different identities and establish the different cell types of the new root. Read More

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Metabolic efficacy following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with loop duodenal switch surgery for type 2 diabetes in Indian patients with severe obesity.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Mar-Apr;15(2):581-587. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiology, Pulse Heart Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Metabolic surgery improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and severe obesity. Sleeve gastrectomy with loop duodenal switch (SLDS), a loop modification of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, is aimed to reduce the malabsorption, without compromising the efficacy. This study was designed to analyze the metabolic efficacy following SLDS. Read More

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HPF1 and nucleosomes mediate a dramatic switch in activity of PARP1 from polymerase to hydrolase.

Elife 2021 Mar 8;10. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, United States.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is an important player in the response to DNA damage. Recently, Histone PARylation Factor (HPF1) was shown to be a critical modulator of the activity of PARP1 by facilitating PARylation of histones and redirecting the target amino acid specificity from acidic to serine residues. Here, we investigate the mechanism and specific consequences of HPF1-mediated PARylation using nucleosomes as both activators and substrates for PARP1. Read More

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Regional Differences in Height, Weight, and Body Composition may Result from Photoperiodic Responses: An Ecological Analysis of Japanese Children and Adolescents.

J Circadian Rhythms 2021 Feb 22;19. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Shimonoseki Junior College, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 750-8508, Japan.

This ecological study examined whether geographical differences in the physique of Japanese children and adolescents can be explained from the perspective of photoperiodicity induced by effective day length (light duration exceeding a certain threshold of illuminance) using prefecture-level anatomical data and Mesh Climatic Data. Multiple regression analysis for height prediction demonstrated that when controlled by weight, effective day lengths of the longest and shortest months were inversely correlated with height distribution. Conversely, for weight prediction, when controlled by height, the effective day lengths of the longest and shortest months were positively correlated with weight distribution. Read More

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February 2021

Bipolar radiofrequency ablation treatment of liver cancer employing monopolar needles: A comprehensive investigation on the efficacy of time-based switching.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;131:104273. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University, VIC, 3350, Australia.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablative treatment method that is commonly used to treat liver cancer. However, the thermal coagulation zone generated using the conventional RFA system can only successfully treat tumours up to 3 cm in diameter. Switching bipolar RFA has been proposed as a way to increase the thermal coagulation zone. Read More

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Intravenous to oral switch in complicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia without endovascular infection: a retrospective single-center cohort study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

In this retrospective cohort study, selected patients with disseminated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, but without endovascular infection on echocardiography and 18F-FDG-PET/CT, were free of relapse after iv-oral switch. Mortality was low and similar to patients who received prolonged intravenous treatment. Iv-oral switch was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay. Read More

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February 2021

Haploinsufficiency Ameliorates Renal Cysts and Cilia Abnormality in Adult Zebrafish Mutants.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

Background: Although zebrafish embryos have been used to study ciliogenesis and model polycystic kidney disease (PKD), adult zebrafish remain unexplored.

Methods: Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technology was used to generate mutant for , the homolog of the mammalian causative gene for Meckel syndrome type 3 (MKS3). Classic 2D and optical-clearing 3D imaging of an isolated adult zebrafish kidney were used to examine cystic and ciliary phenotypes. Read More

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February 2021

Early Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Change at Four Weeks of the First-Line Treatment Using Abiraterone and Enzalutamide Could Predict Early/Primary Resistance in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 30;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Urology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka 569-8686, Japan.

The identification of early or primary resistance to androgen signaling inhibitors (ASIs) is of great value for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study evaluates the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response at dour weeks of first-line ASIs treatment for mCRPC patients. A total of 254 patients treated with ASIs (abiraterone acetate: AA and enzalutamide: Enz) at the first-line treatment are retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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January 2021

Footstrike patterns and race performance in the 2017 IAAF World Championship men's 10,000 m final.

Sports Biomech 2021 Feb 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University Bloomington , Bloomington, IN, USA.

Midfoot- (MFS) and forefoot-striking (FFS) runners usually switch to rearfoot-striking (RFS) during marathons. However, world-class runners might resist modifications during shorter races. The purpose of this study was to analyse footstrike patterns, ground contact times and running speeds in a World Championship men's 10,000 m final. Read More

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February 2021

SAM68 promotes tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma by regulating metabolic conversion via PKM alternative splicing.

Theranostics 2021 19;11(7):3359-3375. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Respiratory, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Qingyuan People's Hospital, Qingyuan 511518, P. R. China.

A metabolic "switch" from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis provides tumor cells with energy and biosynthetic substrates, thereby promoting tumorigenesis and malignant progression. However, the mechanisms controlling this metabolic switch in tumors is not entirely clear. Clinical specimens were used to determine the effect of SAM68 on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tumorigenesis and metastasis, and mouse models and molecular biology assays were performed to elucidate the function and underlying mechanisms and . Read More

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January 2021

The role of mode switching in a population of actin polymers with constraints.

J Math Biol 2021 02 1;82(3):11. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

CMAP, CNRS, École Polytechnique, I.P. Paris, 91128, Palaiseau, France.

In this paper, we introduce a stochastic model for the dynamics of actin polymers and their interactions with other proteins in the cellular envelop. Each polymer elongates and shortens, and can switch between several modes depending on whether it is bound to accessory proteins that modulate its behaviour as, for example, elongation-promoting factors. Our main aim is to understand the dynamics of a large population of polymers, assuming that the only limiting quantity is the total amount of monomers, set to be constant to some large N. Read More

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February 2021

Lateral Force Microscopy Reveals the Energy Barrier of a Molecular Switch.

ACS Nano 2021 Feb 1;15(2):3264-3271. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

University of Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany.

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is a small molecule often used in organic light emitting diodes where it is deposited on a conducting electrode. Previous scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of CuPc on Cu(111) have shown that inelastic tunneling events can cause CuPc to switch between a ground state and two symmetrically equivalent metastable states in which the molecule is rotated. We investigated CuPc on Cu(111) and Ag(111) with STM and lateral force microscopy (LFM). Read More

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February 2021

Improving long-term health outcomes of preterm infants: how to implement the findings of nutritional intervention studies into daily clinical practice.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jun 30;180(6):1665-1673. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics/Neonatology, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Amsterdam, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Preterm-born children are at risk for later neurodevelopmental problems and cardiometabolic diseases; early-life growth restriction and suboptimal neonatal nutrition have been recognized as risk factors. Prevention of these long-term sequelae has been the focus of intervention studies. High supplies of protein and energy during the first weeks of life (i. Read More

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Conformational transitions of adsorption-responsive single diblock copolymers in homopolymer brushes.

Soft Matter 2021 Mar;17(9):2410-2420

Key Laboratory of Bio-inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Using self-consistent field calculations, we examine the effect of brush polydispersity on conformational transitions of single adsorption-active diblock copolymer chains embedded in inert polydisperse brushes. To represent the polydispersity, we adopt the continuous Schulz-Zimm chain length distributions, and three typical distributions are chosen such that a wide range of polydispersity is covered. A phase diagram of the diblock copolymer switches has been constructed showing that the first order phase transitions occupy a larger space in the case of polydisperse brushes. Read More

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Robotic Duodenal Switch Is Associated with Outcomes Comparable to those of Laparoscopic Approach.

Obes Surg 2021 May 18;31(5):2019-2029. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Division of GI Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, 525 East 68th Street Box 294, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Introduction/purpose: This study evaluates the outcomes of robotic duodenal switch (RDS) when compared to conventional laparoscopy (LDS).

Materials And Methods: Using the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP), patients who underwent RDS were compared to those of LDS (2015-2018) for perioperative characteristics and thirty-day postoperative outcomes. Operative complexity, complications, and resource utilization trends were plotted over the included years for the two approaches. Read More

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Clinical and operational factors associated with treatment duration for cellulitis in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT).

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 6;100(1):115305. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

This study aims to identify factors associated with duration of intravenous (IV) and follow-on oral antibiotic therapy for cellulitis in patients treated through outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT). A retrospective review of episodes of cellulitis treated over a year (January 2018-January 2019) at a large teaching hospital in Sheffield, UK. Overall, 292 OPAT episodes of cellulitis were reviewed. Read More

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Concomitant use of benzodiazepines in chronic pain patients adherent to extended-release tapentadol or oxycodone treatment-A retrospective claims analysis.

J Opioid Manag 2020 Nov-Dec;16(6):461-479

ZRx Outcomes Research, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To compare concomitant benzodiazepine (BZDs) use among chronic pain patients adherent to extended-release tapentadol (TapER) or oxycodone (OxnER) and estimate the number of lives potentially saved by switching pa-tients to the less BZD coprescribed treatment.

Design: Retrospective database study.

Setting: Patients were identified using the IBM MarketScan® Commercial Database. Read More

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January 2021

Different inhibitory control components predict different levels of language control in bilinguals.

Mem Cognit 2021 05 4;49(4):758-770. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 10085, People's Republic of China.

In recent years, some studies have started to explore the impact of individual general executive functions (EFs) on bilingual language control. To our knowledge, few studies have systematically examined various components of EFs on different levels of language control in bilinguals. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of two components of IC on different levels of bilingual language control. Read More

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Comparative analysis of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery versus transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in ovarian cystectomy.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Feb 16;47(2):757-764. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Gynecology, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Aim: To objectively assess the safety, feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and health economics benefits of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) versus transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) in ovarian cystectomy.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of all patients in our hospital who had undergone vNOTES and TU-LESS ovarian cystectomy due to 'unilateral ovarian cyst' from March 2019 to May 2020. Patients were classified into vNOTES group (86) and TU-LESS group (210) based on surgical paths. Read More

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February 2021

Infectious Disease Team Review Using Antibiotic Switch and Discharge Criteria Shortens the Duration of Intravenous Antibiotic: A Single-Center Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Thailand.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Dec 4;7(12):ofaa539. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Strategies have been recommended to optimize early antibiotic (ATB) switching from intravenous (IV) to oral ATB. This study aimed to determine whether infectious disease (ID) team review using ATB switch and discharge criteria would shorten the duration of IV ATB and length of hospital stay (LOS).

Methods: This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 8 general medical wards as cluster units at Siriraj Hospital during January-October 2019. Read More

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December 2020

Role of VapBC12 Toxin-Antitoxin Locus in Cholesterol-Induced Mycobacterial Persistence.

mSystems 2020 Dec 15;5(6). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Mycobacterial Pathogenesis Laboratory, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India

The worldwide increase in the frequency of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant cases of tuberculosis is mainly due to therapeutic noncompliance associated with a lengthy treatment regimen. Depending on the drug susceptibility profile, the treatment duration can extend from 6 months to 2 years. This protracted regimen is attributed to a supposedly nonreplicating and metabolically inert subset of the population, called "persisters. Read More

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December 2020

Aging induces B cell defects and decreased antibody responses to influenza infection and vaccination.

Immun Ageing 2020 Nov 19;17(1):37. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, RMSB 3146A, 1600 NW 10th Ave, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Background: Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in the capacity of the immune system to fight influenza virus infection and to respond to vaccination. Among the several factors involved, in addition to increased frailty and high-risk conditions, the age-associated decrease in cellular and humoral immune responses plays a relevant role. This is in large part due to inflammaging, the chronic low-grade inflammatory status of the elderly, associated with intrinsic inflammation of the immune cells and decreased immune function. Read More

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November 2020