129 results match your criteria shifts pco2


Elevated pCO reinforces preference among intertidal algae in both a specialist and generalist herbivore.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 23;168:112377. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Telonicher Marine Laboratory, Humboldt State University, Trinidad, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, USA.

Ocean acidification (OA) can induce changes in marine organisms and species interactions. We examined OA effects on intertidal macroalgal growth, palatability, and consumption by a specialist crab (Pugettia producta) and a generalist snail (Tegula funebralis) herbivore. Moderate increases in pCO increased algal growth in most species, but effects of pCO on C:N and phenolic content varied by species. Read More

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Effect of Ocean Acidification on Bacterial Metabolic Activity and Community Composition in Oligotrophic Oceans, Inferred From Short-Term Bioassays.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:583982. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Increasing anthropogenic CO emissions in recent decades cause ocean acidification (OA), affecting carbon cycling in oceans by regulating eco-physiological processes of plankton. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in carbon cycling in oceans. However, the effect of OA on bacteria in oceans, especially in oligotrophic regions, was not well understood. Read More

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February 2021

Boosted fish abundance associated with Posidonia oceanica meadows in temperate shallow CO vents.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 28;771:145438. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Department of Integrative Marine Ecology, Ischia Marine Centre, Punta San Pietro, 80077 Ischia, Naples, Italy; Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, 181 chemin du Lazaret, Villefranche-sur-mer 06230, France.

Ocean acidification (OA) may induce major shifts in the structure and function of coastal marine ecosystems. Studies in volcanic CO vents, where seawater is naturally acidified, have reported an overall simplification of fish assemblages structure, while some primary producers are likely to increase their biomass under elevated concentration of CO. Here we used temperate shallow CO vents located around the coast of Ischia island (Italy) to assess the effects of OA on necto-benthic fish assemblages associated with the foundation seagrass species Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea. Read More

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Reconciling atmospheric CO, weathering, and calcite compensation depth across the Cenozoic.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 22;7(4). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1000 Pope Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.

The Cenozoic era (66 to 0 million years) is marked by long-term aberrations in carbon cycling and large climatic shifts, some of which challenge the current understanding of carbon cycle dynamics. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms responsible for the observed long-term trends by using a novel approach that features a full-fledged ocean carbonate chemistry model. Using a compilation of pCO, pH, and calcite compensation depth (CCD) observational evidence and a suite of simulations, we reconcile long-term Cenozoic climate and CCD trends. Read More

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January 2021

Ocean acidification locks algal communities in a species-poor early successional stage.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 10;27(10):2174-2187. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Shizuoka, Japan.

Long-term exposure to CO -enriched waters can considerably alter marine biological community development, often resulting in simplified systems dominated by turf algae that possess reduced biodiversity and low ecological complexity. Current understanding of the underlying processes by which ocean acidification alters biological community development and stability remains limited, making the management of such shifts problematic. Here, we deployed recruitment tiles in reference (pH 8. Read More

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Simulated future conditions of ocean warming and acidification disrupt the microbiome of the calcifying foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis across life stages.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2020 12 28;12(6):693-701. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Foraminifera host diverse microbial communities that can shift in response to changing environmental conditions. To characterize climate change impacts on the foraminifera microbiome across life stages, we exposed adult Marginopora vertebralis (Large Benthic Foraminifera) to pCO and temperature scenarios representing present-day, 2050 and 2100 levels and raised juveniles under present-day and 2050 conditions. While treatment condition had no significant effect on the seawater microbial communities, exposure to future scenarios significantly altered both adult and juvenile microbiomes. Read More

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December 2020

Ocean acidification causes variable trait-shifts in a coral species.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Dec 19;26(12):6813-6830. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Deptartment of Integrative Marine Ecology, Ischia Marine Centre, Naples, Italy.

High pCO habitats and their populations provide an unparalleled opportunity to assess how species may survive under future ocean acidification conditions, and help to reveal the traits that confer tolerance. Here we utilize a unique CO vent system to study the effects of exposure to elevated pCO2 on trait-shifts observed throughout natural populations of Astroides calycularis, an azooxanthellate scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean. Unexpected shifts in skeletal and growth patterns were found. Read More

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December 2020

Understanding the Metabolic Capacity of Antarctic Fishes to Acclimate to Future Ocean Conditions.

Integr Comp Biol 2020 12;60(6):1425-1437

Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Antarctic fishes have evolved under stable, extreme cold temperatures for millions of years. Adapted to thrive in the cold environment, their specialized phenotypes will likely render them particularly susceptible to future ocean warming and acidification as a result of climate change. Moving from a period of stability to one of environmental change, species persistence will depend on maintaining energetic equilibrium, or sustaining the increased energy demand without compromising important biological functions such as growth and reproduction. Read More

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December 2020

Response strategies of boreal spruce trees to anthropogenic changes in air quality and rising pCO.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 20;261:114209. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, 490 de La Couronne, Québec (QC), G1K 9A9, Canada.

Little is known about how forests adjust their gas-exchange mode while atmospheric CO rises globally and air quality changes regionally. The present study aims at addressing this research gap for boreal spruce trees growing in three different regions of Canada, submitted to distinct levels of atmospheric emissions, by examining the amount of carbon gained per unit of water lost in trees, i.e. Read More

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Resistance of seagrass habitats to ocean acidification via altered interactions in a tri-trophic chain.

Sci Rep 2020 03 20;10(1):5103. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

University of Algarve (UAlg-CCMAR), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal.

Despite the wide knowledge about prevalent effects of ocean acidification on single species, the consequences on species interactions that may promote or prevent habitat shifts are still poorly understood. Using natural CO vents, we investigated changes in a key tri-trophic chain embedded within all its natural complexity in seagrass systems. We found that seagrass habitats remain stable at vents despite the changes in their tri-trophic components. Read More

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Responses of Intertidal Bacterial Biofilm Communities to Increasing pCO.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2020 Dec 17;22(6):727-738. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 5-10-1 Shimoda, Shizuoka, Japan.

The effects of ocean acidification on ecosystems remain poorly understood, because it is difficult to simulate the effects of elevated CO on entire marine communities. Natural systems enriched in CO are being used to help understand the long-term effects of ocean acidification in situ. Here, we compared biofilm bacterial communities on intertidal cobbles/boulders and bedrock along a seawater CO gradient off Japan. Read More

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December 2020

The effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on cord blood gas analysis in vaginal and caesarean-delivered term newborns without fetal distress: a prospective observational study.

BJOG 2020 02 17;127(3):405-413. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, NICU, Milan, Italy.

Objective: To determine variations in cord blood gas (CBG) parameters after 3-minute delayed cord clamping (DCC) in vaginal deliveries (VDs) and caesarean deliveries (CDs) at term without fetal distress.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: University hospital. Read More

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February 2020

Raman spectroscopy as a method to replace off-line pH during mammalian cell culture processes.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2020 01 12;117(1):146-156. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson and Johnson, Process Science and Advanced Analytics, New Jersey.

Raman spectroscopy is a robust, well-established tool utilized for measuring important cell culture process variables for example, feed, metabolites, and biomass in real-time. This study further expands the functionality of in-line Raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression modelling to develop a pH measurement tool. Cell line specific models were developed to enhance the robustness for processes with different pH setpoints, deadbands, and cellular metabolism. Read More

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January 2020

Effects of multiple climate change stressors on gene expression in blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2020 01 15;239:110580. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Department of Marine Science, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955, USA. Electronic address:

Global climate change is predicted to increase the co-occurrence of high pCO and hypoxia in coastal upwelling zones worldwide. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of these stressors on economically and ecologically important fishes. Here, we investigated short-term responses of juvenile blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus) to independent and combined high pCO and hypoxia at the molecular level, using changes in gene expression and metabolic enzymatic activity to investigate potential shifts in energy metabolism. Read More

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January 2020

Clinical Predictors of Adherence to Low Tidal Volume Ventilation Practice: Is it Different on Weekend and Night Shifts?

Cureus 2019 Jun 6;11(6):e4844. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Intensive Care Medicine, Dubai Hospital, Dubai, ARE.

Background: Low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) strategy improves outcomes; however, despite recommended by guidelines, adherence to this practice is not high.

Methods: Tidal volume for mechanically ventilated patients were recorded for each 12-hour shift, day and night shifts for consecutive 101 patients. Adherence was determined by comparing these tidal volumes to standard low tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight. Read More

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Impact of ocean acidification on crystallographic vital effect of the coral skeleton.

Nat Commun 2019 07 1;10(1):2896. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Institute of Paleobiology, Twarda 51/55, PL-00-818, Warsaw, Poland.

Distinguishing between environmental and species-specific physiological signals, recorded in coral skeletons, is one of the fundamental challenges in their reliable use as (paleo)climate proxies. To date, characteristic biological bias in skeleton-recorded environmental signatures (vital effect) was shown in shifts in geochemical signatures. Herein, for the first time, we have assessed crystallographic parameters of bio-aragonite to study the response of the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata to experimental seawater acidification (pH 8. Read More

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Ocean acidification impacts on coastal ecosystem services due to habitat degradation.

Emerg Top Life Sci 2019 May;3(2):197-206

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Shimoda, Japan.

The oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions is changing seawater chemistry in a process known as ocean acidification. The chemistry of this rapid change in surface waters is well understood and readily detectable in oceanic observations, yet there is uncertainty about the effects of ocean acidification on society since it is difficult to scale-up from laboratory and mesocosm tests. Here, we provide a synthesis of the likely effects of ocean acidification on ecosystem properties, functions and services based on observations along natural gradients in pCO2. Read More

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The Less the Better: How Suppressed Base Addition Boosts Production of Monoclonal Antibodies With Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2019 11;7:76. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institute of Biochemical Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Biopharmaceutical production processes strive for the optimization of economic efficiency. Among others, the maximization of volumetric productivity is a key criterion. Typical parameters such as partial pressure of CO (pCO) and pH are known to influence the performance although reasons are not yet fully elucidated. Read More

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Cyanophage Propagation in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Is Constrained by Phosphorus Limitation and Enhanced by Elevated CO.

Front Microbiol 2019 29;10:617. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Intensification of human activities has led to changes in the availabilities of CO and nutrients in freshwater ecosystems, which may greatly alter the physiological status of phytoplankton. Viruses require hosts for their reproduction and shifts in phytoplankton host physiology through global environmental change may thus affect viral infections as well. Various studies have investigated the impacts of single environmental factors on phytoplankton virus propagation, yet little is known about the impacts of multiple factors, particularly in freshwater systems. Read More

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Direct and indirect effects of elevated CO2 are revealed through shifts in phytoplankton, copepod development, and fatty acid accumulation.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(3):e0213931. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Shannon Point Marine Center, Western Washington University, Anacortes, Washington, United States of America.

Change in the nutritional quality of phytoplankton is a key mechanism through which ocean acidification can affect the function of marine ecosystems. Copepods play an important role transferring energy from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels, including fatty acids (FA)-essential macronutrients synthesized by primary producers that can limit zooplankton and fisheries production. We investigated the direct effects of pCO2 on phytoplankton and copepods in the laboratory, as well as the trophic transfer of effects of pCO2 on food quality. Read More

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December 2019

Rhodoliths holobionts in a changing ocean: host-microbes interactions mediate coralline algae resilience under ocean acidification.

BMC Genomics 2018 Sep 24;19(1):701. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Biology Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-599, Brazil.

Background: Life in the ocean will increasingly have to contend with a complex matrix of concurrent shifts in environmental properties that impact their physiology and control their life histories. Rhodoliths are coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) that are photosynthesizers, calcifiers, and ecosystem engineers and therefore represent important targets for ocean acidification (OA) research. Here, we exposed live rhodoliths to near-future OA conditions to investigate responses in their photosynthetic capacity, calcium carbonate production, and associated microbiome using carbon uptake, decalcification assays, and whole genome shotgun sequencing metagenomic analysis, respectively. Read More

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September 2018

Ocean acidification drives community shifts towards simplified non-calcified habitats in a subtropical-temperate transition zone.

Sci Rep 2018 07 27;8(1):11354. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 5-10-1 Shimoda, Shizuoka, 415-0025, Japan.

Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide are causing surface seawater pH and carbonate ion concentrations to fall in a process known as ocean acidification. To assess the likely ecological effects of ocean acidification we compared intertidal and subtidal marine communities at increasing levels of pCO at recently discovered volcanic seeps off the Pacific coast of Japan (34° N). This study region is of particular interest for ocean acidification research as it has naturally low levels of surface seawater pCO (280-320 µatm) and is located at a transition zone between temperate and sub-tropical communities. Read More

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Shift towards larger diatoms in a natural phytoplankton assemblage under combined high-CO and warming conditions.

J Plankton Res 2018 Jul 29;40(4):391-406. Epub 2018 May 29.

GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, Kiel, Germany.

An indoor mesocosm experiment was carried out to investigate the combined effects of ocean acidification and warming on the species composition and biogeochemical element cycling during a winter/spring bloom with a natural phytoplankton assemblage from the Kiel fjord, Germany. The experimental setup consisted of a "Control" (ambient temperature of ~4.8 °C and ~535 ± 25 μatm CO), a "High-CO" treatment (ambient temperature and initially 1020 ± 45 μatm CO) and a "Greenhouse" treatment (~8. Read More

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CO oversaturation and degassing using chambers and a new gas transfer velocity model from the Three Gorges Reservoir surface.

Authors:
Siyue Li

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 5;640-641:908-920. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chongqing 400714, China. Electronic address:

Reservoirs are considered as important carbon source of the atmosphere, whilst, regional and global reservoir CO quantification is hampered by data limitation and bias in spatial and temporal sampling. By deploying chamber measurements and employing the newly developed model of gas transfer velocity, CO partial pressure (pCO) and evasion in the main stem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were investigated. The pCO ranged from 429 to 8668 μatm with an average of 2511. Read More

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November 2018

The role of irradiance and C-use strategies in tropical macroalgae photosynthetic response to ocean acidification.

Sci Rep 2018 06 21;8(1):9479. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Biology University of Florida, 220 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Fleshy macroalgae may increase photosynthesis with greater CO availability under ocean acidification (OA) and outcompete calcifying macroalgae important for tropical reef accretion. Macroalgae use energy-dependent carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to take up HCO, the dominant inorganic carbon for marine photosynthesis, but carbon-use strategies may depend on the pCO, pH and irradiance. We examined photosynthesis in eight tropical macroalgae across a range of irradiances (0-1200 μmol photon m s), pH levels (7. Read More

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Ultrabright Red-Emitting Photostable Perylene Bisimide Dyes: New Indicators for Ratiometric Sensing of High pH or Carbon Dioxide.

Chemistry 2018 Jul 27;24(42):10711-10720. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, 8010, Graz, Austria.

New pH-sensitive perylene bisimide indicator dyes were synthesized and used for fabrication of optical sensors. The highly photostable dyes show absorption/emission bands in the red/near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, high molar absorption coefficients (up to 100 000 m  cm ), and fluorescence quantum yields close to unity. The absorption and emission spectra show strong bathochromic shifts upon deprotonation of the imidazole nitrogen atom, which makes the dyes promising as ratiometric fluorescent indicators. Read More

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Biological responses of the marine diatom Chaetoceros socialis to changing environmental conditions: A laboratory experiment.

PLoS One 2017 30;12(11):e0188615. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Service de Biogéochimie et Modélisation du Système Terre - Océanographie Chimique et Géochimie des Eaux, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Diatoms constitute a major group of phytoplankton, accounting for ~20% of the world's primary production. It has been shown that iron (Fe) can be the limiting factor for phytoplankton growth, in particular, in the HNLC (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll) regions. Iron plays thus an essential role in governing the marine primary productivity and the efficiency of biological carbon pump. Read More

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December 2017

Divergent responses in growth and nutritional quality of coastal macroalgae to the combination of increased pCO and nutrients.

Mar Environ Res 2017 Oct 12;131:69-79. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

Coastal ecosystems are subjected to global and local environmental stressors, including increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO) (and subsequent ocean acidification) and nutrient loading. Here, we tested how two common macroalgal species in the Northwest Atlantic (Ulva spp. and Fucus vesiculosus Linneaus) respond to the combination of increased CO and nutrient loading. Read More

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October 2017

Ocean acidification alters zooplankton communities and increases top-down pressure of a cubozoan predator.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Jan 29;24(1):e128-e138. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Schools of Medical and Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The composition of local ecological communities is determined by the members of the regional community that are able to survive the abiotic and biotic conditions of a local ecosystem. Anthropogenic activities since the industrial revolution have increased atmospheric CO concentrations, which have in turn decreased ocean pH and altered carbonate ion concentrations: so called ocean acidification (OA). Single-species experiments have shown how OA can dramatically affect zooplankton development, physiology and skeletal mineralization status, potentially reducing their defensive function and altering their predatory and antipredatory behaviors. Read More

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January 2018

Effect of CO2-induced seawater acidification on growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition of the harmful bloom-forming marine microalga, Karenia mikimotoi.

PLoS One 2017 16;12(8):e0183289. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Marine Ecology, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Karenia mikimotoi is a widespread, toxic and non-calcifying dinoflagellate, which can release and produce ichthyotoxins and hemolytic toxins affecting the food web within the area of its bloom. Shifts in the physiological characteristics of K. mikimotoi due to CO2-induced seawater acidification could alter the occurrence, severity and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Read More

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October 2017