102,668 results match your criteria shifts


Optimization of postural control in precise gaze shifts and laser pointing.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Jul 28;79:102853. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

CHRU Lille, Unité INSERM 1172, Service de Neurophysiologie Clinique, Hôpital Salengro, F-59000 Lille, France.

Young adults are known to reduce their postural sway to perform precise visual search and laser pointing tasks. We tested if young adults could reduce even more postural and/or center of pressure sway to succeed in both tasks simultaneously. The methodology is novel because published pointing tasks usually require continuously looking at the pointed target and not exploring an image while pointing elsewhere at the same time. Read More

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Fluorescent detection mechanism of CO-releasing molecule-3: Competition of inter-/intra-molecular hydrogen bonds.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 26;263:120227. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Henan Key Laboratory of Infrared Materials & Spectrum Measures and Applications, School of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China. Electronic address:

The fluorescent detection mechanism of 2-(4-nitro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) acetic acid (CORM3-green) on CO-Releasing Molecule-3 (CORM-3) is theoretically studied. Upon reaction with CORM-3, the non-fluorescent CORM3-green is transferred to the keto form of 2-(4-amino-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)acetic acid (PTI) to produce strong fluorescence peak located at 423 nm. This peak red-shifts to 489 nm, which is induced by the strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bond (HB) between PTI and water molecules and attributed to the experimentally observed fluorescence emission at 503 nm. Read More

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Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are biomarkers for mice with tectorial membrane defects.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 21;409:108314. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Knowles Hearing Center, Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2-240 Frances Searle Building, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Electronic address:

Cochlear function depends on the operation of a coupled feedback loop, incorporating outer hair cells (OHCs), and structured to assure that inner hair cells (IHCs) convey frequency specific acoustic information to the brain, even at very low sound levels. Although our knowledge of OHC function and its contribution to cochlear amplification has expanded, the importance of the tectorial membrane (TM) to the processing of mechanical inputs has not been fully elucidated. In addition, there are a surprising number of genetic mutations that affect TM structure and that produce hearing loss in humans. Read More

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The accuracy of NMR protein structures in the Protein Data Bank.

Structure 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. Electronic address:

The program ANSURR measures the accuracy of NMR structures by comparing rigidity obtained from experimental backbone chemical shifts and from structures. We report on ANSURR analysis of 7,000 PDB NMR ensembles within the Protein Data Bank, which can be found at ansurr.com. Read More

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Recurrent assessment of lymphocyte subsets in 32 patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Pediatrics with Clinical Assessment Unit, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Lymphopenia is a hallmark of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We aimed to characterize lymphocyte subsets' shifts and their correlations with other severity markers of MIS-C.

Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we performed peripheral lymphocyte phenotyping in 32 patients with MIS-C. Read More

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Capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen by engineered Escherichia coli: hydrogen-dependent CO reduction to formate.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Molecular Microbiology & Bioenergetics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60439, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

In times of global climate change and the fear of dwindling resources, we are facing different considerable challenges such as the replacement of fossil fuel-based energy carriers with the coincident maintenance of the increasing energy supply of our growing world population. Therefore, CO capturing and H storing solutions are urgently needed. In this study, we demonstrate the production of a functional and biotechnological interesting enzyme complex from acetogenic bacteria, the hydrogen-dependent CO reductase (HDCR), in the well-known model organism Escherichia coli. Read More

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Sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotope compositions preserve signatures of the surface microbial mat environment in sediments underlying low-oxygen cyanobacterial mats.

Geobiology 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

The sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotope (δ S) record is an archive of ancient microbial sulfur cycling and environmental conditions. Interpretations of pyrite δ S signatures in sediments deposited in microbial mat ecosystems are based on studies of modern microbial mat porewater sulfide δ S geochemistry. Pyrite δ S values often capture δ S signatures of porewater sulfide at the location of pyrite formation. Read More

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Dynamic changes in mitochondrial 3D structure during folliculogenesis and luteal formation in the goat large luteal cell lineage.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15564. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

In mammalian ovaries, mitochondria are integral sites of energy production and steroidogenesis. While shifts in cellular activities and steroidogenesis are well characterized during the differentiation of large luteal cells in folliculogenesis and luteal formation, mitochondrial dynamics during this process have not been previously evaluated. In this study, we collected ovaries containing primordial follicles, mature follicles, corpus hemorrhagicum, or corpus luteum from goats at specific times in the estrous cycle. Read More

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Structural basis for +1 ribosomal frameshifting during EF-G-catalyzed translocation.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4644. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

RNA Therapeutics Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Frameshifting of mRNA during translation provides a strategy to expand the coding repertoire of cells and viruses. How and where in the elongation cycle +1-frameshifting occurs remains poorly understood. We describe seven ~3. Read More

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Learning-induced shifts in mice navigational strategies are unveiled by a minimal behavioral model of spatial exploration.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Donders Institute for Behaviour and Cognition, Radboud University, Postbus 9010, Nijmegen 6500GL, Netherlands

Shifts in spatial patterns produced during the execution of a navigational task can be used to track the effects of the accumulation of knowledge and the acquisition of structured information about the environment. Here we provide a quantitative analysis of mice behavior while performing a novel goal localization task in a large, modular arena, the HexMaze. To demonstrate the effects of different forms of previous knowledge we first obtain a precise statistical characterization of animals' paths with sub-trial resolution and over different phases of learning. Read More

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Bird neurocranial and body mass evolution across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction: The avian brain shape left other dinosaurs behind.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 30;7(31). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Birds today are the most diverse clade of terrestrial vertebrates, and understanding why extant birds (Aves) alone among dinosaurs survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction is crucial to reconstructing the history of life. Hypotheses proposed to explain this pattern demand identification of traits unique to Aves. However, this identification is complicated by a lack of data from non-avian birds. Read More

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Mechanisms of punctuated vision in fly flight.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

To guide locomotion, animals control gaze via movements of their eyes, head, and/or body, but how the nervous system controls gaze during complex motor tasks remains elusive. In many animals, shifts in gaze consist of periods of smooth movement punctuated by rapid eye saccades. Notably, eye movements are constrained by anatomical limits, which requires resetting eye position. Read More

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Molecules and fossils tell distinct yet complementary stories of mammal diversification.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA; Center for Biodiversity and Global Change, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. Electronic address:

Reconstructing the tempo at which biodiversity arose is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biologists, yet the relative merits of evolutionary-rate estimates are debated based on whether they are derived from the fossil record or time-calibrated phylogenies (timetrees) of living species. Extinct lineages unsampled in timetrees are known to "pull" speciation rates downward, but the temporal scale at which this bias matters is unclear. To investigate this problem, we compare mammalian diversification-rate signatures in a credible set of molecular timetrees (n = 5,911 species, ∼70% from DNA) to those in fossil genus durations (n = 5,320). Read More

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Evaluating real-world national and regional trends in definitive closure in US burn care: A survey of US Burn Centers.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Avita Medical, Valencia, CA.

To better understand trends in burn treatment patterns related to definitive closure, this study sought benchmark real-world survey data with national data contained within the National Burn Repository version 8.0 (NBR v8.0) across key burn center practice patterns, resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Read More

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Optimal designs of the side sensitive synthetic chart for the coefficient of variation based on the median run length and expected median run length.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0255366. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

The side sensitive synthetic chart was proposed to improve the performance of the synthetic chart to monitor shifts in the coefficient of variation (γ), by incorporating the side sensitivity feature where successive non-conforming samples must fall on the same side of the control limits. The existing side sensitive synthetic- γ chart is only evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and expected average run length (EARL). However, the run length distribution is skewed to the right, hence the actual performance of the chart may be frequently different from what is shown by the ARL and EARL. Read More

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Rotational Doppler shift from a rotating rod.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3765-3768

This Letter reports on a rotational Doppler effect obtained from a rotating rod illuminated by a fundamental Gaussian laser beam. More specifically, we decompose the transmitted light behind the rotating rod into Laguerre-Gaussian modes and investigate the associated frequency shifts. The main contributing modes correspond to modes having the same rotational symmetry as the rotating object. Read More

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Balanced fertilization over four decades has sustained soil microbial communities and improved soil fertility and rice productivity in red paddy soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 24;793:148664. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

The influence of long-term fertilization on soil microbial communities is critical for revealing the association between belowground microbial flora and aboveground crop productivity-a relationship of great importance to food security, environmental protection, and ecosystem functions. Here, we examined shifts in soil chemical properties, microbial communities, and the nutrient uptake and yield of rice subjected to different chemical and organic fertilization treatments over a 40-year period in red paddy soil. Ten different treatments were used: a control without fertilizer, and applications of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), NP, NK, PK, NPK, double NPK, or NPK plus manure. Read More

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Isotope Shifts of Radium Monofluoride Molecules.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(3):033001

School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100971, China.

Isotope shifts of ^{223-226,228}Ra^{19}F were measured for different vibrational levels in the electronic transition A^{2}Π_{1/2}←X^{2}Σ^{+}. The observed isotope shifts demonstrate the particularly high sensitivity of radium monofluoride to nuclear size effects, offering a stringent test of models describing the electronic density within the radium nucleus. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Read More

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CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling contributes to an inflammatory microenvironment and its blockade enhances progression of murine pancreatic precancerous lesions.

Elife 2021 Jul 30;10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, United States.

The development of pancreatic cancer requires recruitment and activation of different macrophage populations. However, little is known about how macrophages are attracted to the pancreas after injury or an oncogenic event, and how they crosstalk with lesion cells or other cells of the lesion microenvironment. Here, we delineate the importance of CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling during the early phase of murine pancreatic cancer. Read More

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Homoleptic Perchlorophenyl "Ate" Complexes of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV).

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, United States.

The reaction of AnCl(DME) (An = Th, = 2; U, = 0) with 5 equiv of LiCCl in EtO resulted in the formation of homoleptic actinide-aryl "ate" complexes [Li(DME)(EtO)][Li(DME)][Th(CCl)] ([Li][]) and [Li(EtO)][U(CCl)] ([Li][]). Similarly, the reaction of AnCl(DME) (An = Th, = 2; U, = 0) with 3 equiv of LiCCl in EtO resulted in the formation of heteroleptic actinide-aryl "ate" complexes [Li(DME)(EtO)][Li(EtO)][ThCl(CCl)] ([Li][]) and [Li(EtO)][UCl(CCl)] ([Li][]). Density functional calculations show that the An-C σ-bonds are considerably more covalent for the uranium complexes vs the thorium analogues, in line with past results. Read More

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The GP-OH (General Practice - Organizational Health) Survey: Development and Validation of a Novel Instrument to Measure Organizational Health in General Practice.

Hosp Top 2021 Jul 30:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Academic Surgical Unit, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Primary care healthcare organizations are complex and multidimensional, and there has been much discussion about the potential dangers of focusing on outcomes as quality indicators in isolation without understanding the processes and system characteristics that drive them. Organizational health, as a concept, shifts the focus of measurement upstream and considers the elements needed for sustainable long-term success. This study has both designed and tested the first survey seeking to measure organizational health specifically within the context of primary care. Read More

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Chronic angiotensin receptor activation promotes hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation during an acute glucose challenge in obese-insulin-resistant OLETF rats.

Endocrine 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA, USA.

Purpose: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) can ameliorate metabolic syndrome (MetS)-associated dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance, suggesting that angiotensin receptor (AT1) over-activation contributes to impaired lipid and glucose metabolism, which is characteristic of MetS. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the lipid profile and proteins of fatty acid uptake, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, and β-oxidation to better understand the links between AT1 overactivation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) during MetS.

Methods: Four groups of 25-week-old-rats were used: (1) untreated LETO, (2) untreated OLETF, (3) OLETF + angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg olmesartan/kg/d × 8 weeks) and (4) OLETF ± ARB (MINUS; 10 mg olmesartan/kg/d × 4 weeks, then removed until dissection). Read More

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Human Newborn Monocytes Demonstrate Distinct BCG-Induced Primary and Trained Innate Cytokine Production and Metabolic Activation .

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:674334. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Precision Vaccines Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Newborns exhibit distinct immune responses and are at high risk of infection. Neonatal immunization with BCG, the live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), is associated with broad protection against a range of unrelated pathogens, possibly reflecting vaccine-induced training of innate immune cells ("innate memory"). However, little is known regarding the impact of age on BCG-induced innate responses. Read More

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Morpho-metabotyping the oxidative stress response.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15471. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 38, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are central to many physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, due to multiple technical challenges, it is hard to capture a comprehensive readout of the cell, involving both biochemical and functional status. We addressed this problem by developing a fully parallelized workflow for metabolomics (providing absolute quantities for > 100 metabolites including TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, purine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) and live cell imaging microscopy. Read More

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Inhibitory gating of coincidence-dependent sensory binding in secondary auditory cortex.

Nat Commun 2021 07 29;12(1):4610. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Integration of multi-frequency sounds into a unified perceptual object is critical for recognizing syllables in speech. This "feature binding" relies on the precise synchrony of each component's onset timing, but little is known regarding its neural correlates. We find that multi-frequency sounds prevalent in vocalizations, specifically harmonics, preferentially activate the mouse secondary auditory cortex (A2), whose response deteriorates with shifts in component onset timings. Read More

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Temporal shifts in antibiotic resistance elements govern phage-pathogen conflicts.

Science 2021 07;373(6554)

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Bacteriophage predation selects for diverse antiphage systems that frequently cluster on mobilizable defense islands in bacterial genomes. However, molecular insight into the reciprocal dynamics of phage-bacterial adaptations in nature is lacking, particularly in clinical contexts where there is need to inform phage therapy efforts and to understand how phages drive pathogen evolution. Using time-shift experiments, we uncovered fluctuations in 's resistance to phages in clinical samples. Read More

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Evaluating preferences for colorectal cancer screening in individuals under age 50 using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jul 29;21(1):754. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Behavioral and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Background: In 2021, the United States Preventive Services Task Force updated their recommendation, stating that individuals ages 45-49 should initiate screening for colorectal cancer. Since several screening strategies are recommended, making a shared decision involves including an individual's preferences. Few studies have included individuals under age 50. Read More

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Matching Digital Intervention Affordances with Tasks: The Case of a Zoom and WhatsApp Mental Health Intervention for Seniors during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Health Commun 2021 Jul 30:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Spitzer Department of Social Work, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

During the first COVID-19 wave, we conducted a Zoom and WhatsApp digital group intervention that promoted community-dwelling seniors' mental health. A total of 82 community-dwelling adults participated in this intervention. Based on the media richness theory (MRT) and the affordances approach, we used netnography to explore how group moderators and technical support team members (n = 9), but not the seniors themselves, perceived the ways Zoom and WhatsApp technological affordances/constraints matched intervention tasks and increased intervention performance. Read More

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Model-as-replica, model-as-instrument: Representational power and contextual versatility in animal models.

Authors:
Bican Polat

Stud Hist Philos Sci 2021 Jul 26;89:19-30. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Tsinghua-Michigan Society of Fellows, Tsinghua University, Haidian, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Existing scholarship on animal models tends to foreground either of the two major roles research organisms play in different epistemic contexts, treating their representational and instrumental roles separately. Based on an empirical case study, this article explores the changing relationship between the two epistemic roles of a research organism over the span of a decade, while the organism was used to achieve various knowledge ends. This rat model was originally intended as a replica of human susceptibility to cardiac arrest. Read More

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Missed critical value callbacks due to middleware flaw.

Clin Biochem 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: In 2018, our clinical laboratory was alerted to back-to-back plasma sodium critical value callback failures on the same patient, occurring on different shifts and involving different technologists. Therefore, we set forth to investigate the root cause for the critical value callback failures.

Design And Methods: We conducted a thorough investigation focused on the processes associated with critical value identification and notification for plasma sodium measurement performed on the Siemens Vista. Read More

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