202 results match your criteria shedding norovirus

Assessing the Efficacy of Small Molecule Inhibitors in aMouse Model of Persistent Norovirus Infection.

Bio Protoc 2018 May 5;8(9):e2831. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Human norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, resulting in estimated mortality of ~210,000 each year, of whom most are children under the age of five. However, norovirus can infect people of all age groups. There is a risk of prolonged infection in children, the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genome-wide analyses of human noroviruses provide insights on evolutionary dynamics and evidence of coexisting viral populations evolving under recombination constraints.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 13;17(7):e1009744. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Viral Products, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Over 30 different genotypes, mostly from genogroup I (GI) and II (GII), have been shown to infect humans. Despite three decades of genome sequencing, our understanding of the role of genomic diversification across continents and time is incomplete. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Viral shedding in gastroenteritis in children caused by variants and novel recombinant norovirus infections.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25123

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei.

Abstract: Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and the rapid transmission of NoV renders infection control problematic. Our study aimed to investigate viral shedding in gastroenteritis in children caused by variants of emerging norovirus strains infections.We used RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequencing to measure NoV genome copies in stool to understand the relationship between the clinical manifestations and viral shedding in hospitalized patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Norovirus evolution in immunodeficient mice reveals potentiated pathogenicity via a single nucleotide change in the viral capsid.

PLoS Pathog 2021 03 11;17(3):e1009402. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Interferons (IFNs) are key controllers of viral replication, with intact IFN responses suppressing virus growth and spread. Using the murine norovirus (MNoV) system, we show that IFNs exert selective pressure to limit the pathogenic evolutionary potential of this enteric virus. In animals lacking type I IFN signaling, the nonlethal MNoV strain CR6 rapidly acquired enhanced virulence via conversion of a single nucleotide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Norovirus Infections in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Transplantation 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Nephrology, Universitätsmedizin Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Department of Infectious Diseases, West German Centre of Infectious Diseases, Universitätsmedizin Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Centre of Translational Medicine, Medical Department I, Marien Hospital Herne, University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Herne, Germany Institute for Virology, Universitätsmedizin Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Norovirus (NoV) infection frequently progresses to chronic disease after kidney transplant (KTx). This study aims to assess potential risk factors helping to determine patients at risk of chronic NoV infection and to analyse the effect of NoV on allograft outcome. Additionally, we assessed the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy for chronic NoV infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Astrovirus Outbreak in an Animal Shelter Associated With Feline Vomiting.

Front Vet Sci 2021 11;8:628082. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, United States.

An outbreak of cat vomiting was observed in an animal shelter. Testing for known enteric feline pathogens did not identify a causative agent. Viral metagenomics on four mini pools of feces from cases and controls housed in the same area revealed the presence of feline astrovirus in all pools. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Modelling faecal pathogen flows and health risks in urban Bangladesh: Implications for sanitation decision making.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Apr 9;233:113669. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, 235 Jones St, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Faecal-oral infections are a major component of the disease burden in low-income contexts, with inadequate sanitation seen as a contributing factor. However, demonstrating health effects of sanitation interventions - particularly in urban areas - has proved challenging and there is limited empirical evidence to support sanitation decisions that maximise health gains. This study aimed to develop, apply and validate a systems modelling approach to inform sanitation infrastructure and service decision-making in urban environments by examining enteric pathogen inputs, transport and reduction by various sanitation systems, and estimating corresponding exposure and public health impacts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection of Norovirus in Saliva Samples from Acute Gastroenteritis Cases and Asymptomatic Subjects: Association with Age and Higher Shedding in Stool.

Viruses 2020 11 30;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Enteric Virus Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Norovirus infections are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and across all age groups, with two main genogroups (GI and GII) infecting humans. The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of norovirus in saliva samples from individuals involved in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in closed and semiclosed institutions, and its relationship with the virus strain, virus shedding in stool, the occurrence of symptoms, age, and the secretor status of the individual. Epidemiological and clinical information was gathered from norovirus outbreaks occurring in Catalonia, Spain during 2017-2018, and stool and saliva samples were collected from affected and exposed resident individuals and workers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Understanding Pediatric Norovirus Epidemiology: A Decade of Study among Ghanaian Children.

Viruses 2020 11 18;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Electron Microscopy and Histopathology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra 00233, Ghana.

Understanding the epidemiology of human norovirus infection in children within Ghana and the entire sub-Saharan African region, where future norovirus vaccines would have the greatest impact, is essential. We analyzed 1337 diarrheic stool samples collected from children <5 years from January 2008 to December 2017 and found 485 (36.2%) shedding the virus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Identification of GII.14[P7] norovirus and its genomic mutations from a case of long-term infection in a post-symptomatic individual.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 12 1;86:104612. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections, Nonthaburi, Thailand. Electronic address:

Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus shedding typically lasts one week to one month after the onset of diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. The occurrence of mutations in the genome during infection has contributed to the evolution of norovirus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Performance characteristics of a quantitative PCR assay on repository stool specimens and smeared filter-paper cards.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Oct 30;13(1):500. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: Stool repositories are a valuable resource for retrospective analyses including quantitative PCR assays to distinguish between asymptomatic shedding and clinical disease. The suitability of archival specimens for this purpose is unclear and requires assessment. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate pathogen detection by TaqMan Array Card (TAC) in travelers' diarrhea (TD) stool specimens stored for 1-13 years, as well as the impact of transporting specimens on Whatman FTA Elute cards (FTA Cards) on detection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Screening Level Risk Assessment (SLRA) of human health risks from faecal pathogens associated with a Natural Swimming Pond (NSP).

Water Res 2021 Jan 5;188:116501. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1C9, Canada; Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.

Natural swimming ponds (NSPs) are artificially created bodies of water intended for human recreation, characterised by the substitution of chemical disinfection with natural biological processes for water purification. NSPs are growing in popularity, however little is known regarding the public health risks. A screening level risk assessment was undertaken as an initial step in assessing the first Canadian public NSP located in Edmonton, Alberta. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

SARS-CoV-2 in environmental perspective: Occurrence, persistence, surveillance, inactivation and challenges.

Chem Eng J 2021 Feb 4;405:126893. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India.

The unprecedented global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is depicting the distressing pandemic consequence on human health, economy as well as ecosystem services. So far novel coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks were associated with SARS-CoV-2 (2019), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, 2012), and SARS-CoV-1 (2003) events. CoV relates to the enveloped family of Betacoronavirus (βCoV) with positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine and its potential role in person-to-person transmission and the environment-based spread of COVID-19.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 31;749:141364. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, School of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK; School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, Anglesey LL59 5AB, UK.

The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces has led to speculation that it can be transmitted via the fecal-oral/ocular route. This review aims to critically evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the quantity and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine, and whether these pose an infection risk in sanitary settings, sewage networks, wastewater treatment plants, and the wider environment (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Human Bocavirus in Brazil: Molecular Epidemiology, Viral Load and Co-Infections.

Pathogens 2020 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil.

Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus and has been detected worldwide, especially in pediatric patients with respiratory and gastrointestinal infection. In this study, we describe HBoV prevalence, genotypes circulation and DNA shedding, in stool samples from children up to two years of age in Brazil. During 2016 and 2017, 886 acute gastroenteritis (AGE) stool samples from ten Brazilian states were analyzed by TaqMan-based qPCR, to detect and quantify HBoV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantifying the Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle via a Contaminated Environment.

mBio 2020 08 4;11(4). Epub 2020 Aug 4.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Indirect transmission via a contaminated environment can occur for a number of pathogens, even those typically thought of as being directly transmitted, such as influenza virus, norovirus, bovine tuberculosis, or foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Indirect transmission facilitates spread from multiple sources beyond the infectious host, complicating the epidemiology and control of these diseases. This study carried out a series of transmission experiments to determine the dose-response relationship between environmental contamination and transmission of FMDV in cattle from measurements of viral shedding and rates of environmental contamination and survival. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Infectious Norovirus Is Chronically Shed by Immunocompromised Pediatric Hosts.

Viruses 2020 06 5;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Although infections in healthy individuals are self-resolving, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for chronic disease and severe complications. Chronic norovirus infections in immunocompromised hosts are often characterized by long-term virus shedding, but it is unclear whether this shed virus remains infectious. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of rotavirus vaccine implementation on the prevalence of coinfections with enteric viruses in Norway.

J Med Virol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness in both adults and children worldwide and is caused by several microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Rotavirus (RV), which is the main cause of AGE, can occur as a mixed infection with other viruses. The aim of this study is to assess the molecular epidemiology of viral enteric viruses and assess RV coinfections with other enteric viruses and their influence on disease severity before and after RV vaccine introduction in children under 5 years of age. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages Model the Behavior of Human Noroviruses during Purification of Oysters: the Main Mechanism Is Probably Inactivation Rather than Release.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 06 2;86(12). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LCPME, Nancy, France

Noroviruses (NoV) are responsible for many shellfish outbreaks. Purification processes may be applied to oysters before marketing to decrease potential fecal pollution. This step is rapidly highly effective in reducing ; nevertheless, the elimination of virus genomes has been described to be much slower. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adoption of Exhaust Air Dust Testing in SPF Rodent Facilities.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 03 19;59(2):156-162. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Reliable detection of unwanted microbial agents is essential for meaningful health monitoring in laboratory animal facilities. Most rodents at our institution are housed in IVC rack systems to minimize aerogenic transmission of infectious agents between cages. The most commonly used rodent health monitoring systems expose live sentinel rodents to soiled bedding collected from other rodent cages on IVC racks and subsequently test these soiled-bedding sentinels for evidence of infection with excluded agents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Analysis on the duration of intestinal detoxification in restaurant employee infected with Norovirus during the outbreak].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Dec;40(12):1560-1562

Infection Disease Prevention and Immunization Program Department, Chenghua District Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chengdu, Chengdu 610051, China.

To explore the duration of intestinal detoxification and its related factors infected with Norovirus, and to provide scientific evidences for the prevention and control of acute gastroenteritis caused by Norovirus in the future. Follow up and sampling program on 115 employees in a restaurant outbreak of Norovirus in Chengdu in 2017 was carried out. Anal swab was collected every 3 d or 7 d for nucleic acid detection, and the experimental results were statistically analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019

Humoral and Mucosal Immune Responses to Human Norovirus in the Elderly.

J Infect Dis 2020 05;221(11):1864-1874

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Most information on mucosal and systemic immune response to norovirus infection is derived from human challenge studies, birth cohort studies, or vaccine trials in healthy adults. However, few data are available on immune responses to norovirus in the elderly.

Methods: To study the mucosal and systemic immune response against norovirus, 43 long-term care facilities were enrolled prospectively in 2010-2014. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epidemiology and genotype diversity of norovirus infections among children aged <5 years following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Blantyre, Malawi.

J Clin Virol 2020 02 18;123:104248. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Members of Liverpool Health Partners, Ronald Ross Building, 8 West Derby Street, Liverpool, L69 7BE, UK; NIHR, Health Protection Research Unit in Gastrointestinal Infections at University of Liverpool, L69 3GL, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background: Following rotavirus vaccine introduction, norovirus has emerged as a significant pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among children in some high- and middle-income countries. In a case-control study following rotavirus vaccination in Malawi, we used PCR to test for multiple enteric pathogens in fecal samples from children aged <5 years hospitalized with diarrhea, and from asymptomatic community controls (Iturriza-Gómara et al. 2019). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

Enhanced GII.4 human norovirus infection in gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with a human gut microbiota.

J Gen Virol 2019 11;100(11):1530-1540

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

The role of commensal microbiota in enteric viral infections has been explored extensively, but the interaction between human gut microbiota (HGM) and human norovirus (HuNoV) is poorly understood. In this study, we established an HGM-Transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of HuNoV infection and disease, using an infant stool as HGM transplant and a HuNoV GII.4/2006b strain for virus inoculation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2019

Infectious Causes of Acute Gastroenteritis in US Children Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant: A Longitudinal, Multicenter Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 Sep;9(4):421-427

Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, Washington.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. Data regarding the longitudinal assessment of infectious pathogens during symptomatic AGE and asymptomatic periods, particularly in children, are limited. We investigated the prevalence of AGE-associated infectious pathogens in children undergoing allogeneic HCT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Protective immunity against influenza virus challenge by norovirus P particle-M2e and HA2-AtCYN vaccines in chickens.

Vaccine 2019 10 7;37(43):6454-6462. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Development of a broadly reactive influenza vaccine that can provide protection against emerging type A influenza viruses is a big challenge. We previously demonstrated that a vaccine displaying the extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) on the surface loops of norovirus P-particle (M2eP) can partially protect chickens against several subtypes of avian influenza viruses. In the current study, a chimeric vaccine containing a conserved peptide from the subunit 2 of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein (HA2) and Arabidopsis thaliana cyanase protein (AtCYN) (HA2-AtCYN vaccine) was evaluated in 2-weeks-old chickens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

Caspase-mediated cleavage of murine norovirus NS1/2 potentiates apoptosis and is required for persistent infection of intestinal epithelial cells.

PLoS Pathog 2019 07 22;15(7):e1007940. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

Human norovirus (HNoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and is spread by fecal shedding that can often persist for weeks to months after the resolution of symptoms. Elimination of persistent viral reservoirs has the potential to prevent outbreaks. Similar to HNoV, murine norovirus (MNV) is spread by persistent shedding in the feces and provides a tractable model to study molecular mechanisms of enteric persistence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Norovirus shedding among symptomatic and asymptomatic employees in outbreak settings in Shanghai, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jul 8;19(1):592. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology, China and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, (Fudan University), School of Public Health, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, No.130 Dongan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in settings globally. Studies have shown that employees played an important role in the transmission mode during some NoV outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of NoV infection and duration of NoV shedding among employees during NoV outbreaks, as well as factors affecting shedding duration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune response and protective efficacy of the S particle presented rotavirus VP8* vaccine in mice.

Vaccine 2019 07 11;37(30):4103-4110. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Rotaviruses cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Despite implementation of current rotavirus vaccines, severe diarrhea caused by rotaviruses still claims ∼200,000 lives of children with great economic loss worldwide each year. Thus, new prevention strategies with high efficacy are highly demanded. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Norovirus in health care and implications for the immunocompromised host.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 08;32(4):348-355

Department of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: The majority of norovirus outbreaks in the United States occur in healthcare facilities. With the growing population of immunocompromised hosts who are in frequent contact with healthcare facilities, norovirus is not only a threat to hospitals and nursing homes but also to these individuals. This review summarizes the impact of norovirus infection on healthcare facilities and immunocompromised hosts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF