29,127 results match your criteria shedding


Airway monocyte modulation relates to tumour necrosis factor dysregulation in neutrophilic asthma.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 19;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Dysregulation of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signalling is implicated in neutrophilic asthma. TNF-α signalling involves membrane-bound and soluble ligand (TNF-α) and receptors (TNFRs); however, little is known about how these proteins are altered in asthma. We hypothesised that intercompartment-, immune cell- and/or asthma inflammatory phenotype-dependent regulation could relate to TNF dysregulation in neutrophilic asthma. Read More

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Leucine-Rich α-2-Glycoprotein 1 Suppresses Endothelial Cell Activation Through ADAM10-Mediated Shedding of TNF-α Receptor.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:706143. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A∗STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

Elevated serum concentrations of leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG1) have been reported in patients with inflammatory, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of LRG1 in endothelial activation. LRG1 in endothelial cells (ECs) of arteries and serum of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. Read More

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Re-infection with different SARS-CoV-2 clade and prolonged viral shedding in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: SARS-CoV-2 Re-infection with different clade.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Special Infectious Agents Unit-BSL3, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

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Pore-forming alpha-hemolysin efficiently improves the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of protein antigens.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 21;17(7):e1009752. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products & Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR China.

Highly immunogenic exotoxins are used as carrier proteins because they efficiently improve the immunogenicity of polysaccharides. However, their efficiency with protein antigens remains unclear. In the current study, the candidate antigen PA0833 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was fused to the α-hemolysin mutant HlaH35A from Staphylococcus aureus to form a HlaH35A-PA0833 fusion protein (HPF). Read More

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Crystal-size-induced band gap tuning in perovskite films.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, SWITZERLAND.

A comprehensive picture explaining the effect of the crystal size in metal halide perovskite films on their opto-electronic characteristics is currently lacking. We report that perovskite nanocrystallites exhibit a wider band gap due to concurrent quantum confinement and size dependent structural effects, with the latter being remarkably distinct and attributed to the perturbation from the surface of the nanocrystallites affecting the structure of their core. This phenomenon might assist in the photo-induced charge separation within the perovskite in devices employing mesoporous layers as they restrict the size of nanocrystallites present in them. Read More

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Human Models for COVID-19 Research.

J Physiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

UCL (University College London) GOS Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 presents a diverse clinical spectrum, ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to patients with life-threatening multi-organ failure and death (Huang et al., 48a). Read More

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Functional Role of miR-155 in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications.

Noncoding RNA 2021 Jul 7;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Medicine, Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism (FIDAM), Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10461, USA.

Substantial evidence indicates that microRNA-155 (miR-155) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. A number of clinical studies reported low serum levels of miR-155 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Preclinical studies revealed that miR-155 partakes in the phenotypic switch of cells within the islets of Langerhans under metabolic stress. Read More

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Th17 T cells and immature dendritic cells are the preferential initial targets after rectal challenge with an SIV-based replication-defective dual-reporter vector.

J Virol 2021 Jul 21:JVI0070721. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Chicago Illinois, USA.

Understanding the earliest events of HIV sexual transmission is critical to develop and optimize HIV prevention strategies. To gain insights into the earliest steps of HIV rectal transmission, including cellular targets, rhesus macaques were intra-rectally challenged with a single-round SIV-based dual reporter that expresses luciferase and iRFP670 upon productive transduction. The vector was pseudotyped with the HIV-1 envelope JRFL. Read More

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Effects of controlled ovarian stimulation on vascular barrier and endothelial glycocalyx: a pilot study.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Division of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Controlled ovarian stimulation significantly amplifies the number of maturing and ovulated follicles as well as ovarian steroid production. The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) increases capillary permeability and fluid extravasation. Vascular integrity intensely is regulated by an endothelial glycocalyx (EGX) and we have shown that ovulatory cycles are associated with shedding of EGX components. Read More

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RaFAH: Host prediction for viruses of Bacteria and Archaea based on protein content.

Patterns (N Y) 2021 Jul 15;2(7):100274. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Evolutionary Genomics Group, Departamento de Producción Vegetal y Microbiología, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Aptdo. 18., Ctra. Alicante-Valencia N-332, s/n, San Juan de Alicante, 03550 Alicante, Spain.

Culture-independent approaches have recently shed light on the genomic diversity of viruses of prokaryotes. One fundamental question when trying to understand their ecological roles is: which host do they infect? To tackle this issue we developed a machine-learning approach named Random Forest Assignment of Hosts (RaFAH), that uses scores to 43,644 protein clusters to assign hosts to complete or fragmented genomes of viruses of Archaea and Bacteria. RaFAH displayed performance comparable with that of other methods for virus-host prediction in three different benchmarks encompassing viruses from RefSeq, single amplified genomes, and metagenomes. Read More

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A potent endocytosis inhibitor Ikarugamycin up-regulates TNF production.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2021 Sep 8;27:101065. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Ikarugamycin (IK) is an antibiotic which has been reported to have a variety of functions, such as inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), anti-tumor effects and regulation of the immune system. Whether IK influences cytokine production is poorly understood. We have investigated the relationship between IK and production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the Efficacy of Small Molecule Inhibitors in aMouse Model of Persistent Norovirus Infection.

Bio Protoc 2018 May 5;8(9):e2831. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Human norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, resulting in estimated mortality of ~210,000 each year, of whom most are children under the age of five. However, norovirus can infect people of all age groups. There is a risk of prolonged infection in children, the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. Read More

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Novel insights on the molecular mechanism of action of the anti-angiogenic pyrazolyl-urea GeGe-3 by functional proteomics.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 14;115:105168. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy. Electronic address:

In recent years, 5-pyrazolyl-ureas have mostly been known for their attractive poly-pharmacological outline and, in particular, ethyl 1-(2-hydroxypentyl)-5-(3-(3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl) ureido)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (named GeGe-3) has emerged as a capable anti-angiogenic compound. This paper examines its interactome by functional proteomics using a label-free mass spectrometry based platform, coupling Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability and targeted Limited Proteolysis-Multiple Reaction Monitoring. Calreticulin has been recognized as the GeGe-3 principal target and this evidence has been supported by immunoblotting and in silico molecular docking. Read More

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Daily sampling of early SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals substantial heterogeneity in infectiousness.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 replication and shedding in humans remain poorly understood. We captured the dynamics of infectious virus and viral RNA shedding during acute infection through daily longitudinal sampling of 60 individuals for up to 14 days. By fitting mechanistic models, we directly estimate viral reproduction and clearance rates, and overall infectiousness for each individual. Read More

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Shedding light on the genetics of fetal growth.

Nat Genet 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

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Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Detection by Rapid Antigen and by Three Commercial RT-qPCR Tests: A Study from Martin University Hospital in Slovakia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 1;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Physiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia.

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is having a tremendous impact on the global economy, health care systems and the lives of almost all people in the world. The Central European country of Slovakia reached one of the highest daily mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the first 3 months of 2021, despite implementing strong prophylactic measures, lockdowns and repeated nationwide antigen testing. The present study reports a comparison of the performance of the Standard Q COVID-19 antigen test (SD Biosensor) with three commercial RT-qPCR kits (vDetect COVID-19-MultiplexDX, gb SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex-GENERI BIOTECH Ltd. Read More

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Carboxy-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein mediates lipid droplet accumulation upon γ-secretase inhibition.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 16;570:137-142. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bonn, 53127, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

γ-Secretase is a protease catalysing the proteolysis of type-I membrane proteins usually after precedent ectodomain shedding of the respective protein substrates. Since proteolysis of membrane proteins is involved in fundamental cellular signaling pathways, dysfunction of γ-secretase can have significant impact on cellular metabolism and differentiation. Here, we examined the role of γ-secretase in cellular lipid metabolism using neuronally differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells. Read More

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Shedding Light on Cast Shadows: An Investigation of Perceived Ground Contact in AR and VR.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Jul 19;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Virtual objects in augmented reality (AR) often appear to float atop real world surfaces, which makes it difficult to determine where they are positioned in space. This is problematic as many applications for AR require accurate spatial perception. In the current study, we examine how the way we render cast shadows--which act as an important monocular depth cue for creating a sense of contact between an object and the surface beneath it--impacts spatial perception. Read More

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as a Diagnostic Biomarker for Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Jul;25(7):463-470

Department of Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

, a newly discovered member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, exerts antitumor effects by binding to receptor on natural killer cells; it has important clinical implications. Cell surface ectodomain shedding of generates soluble B7-H6 (), which is highly expressed and serves as a valuable biomarker in multiple tumors, but the clinical significance and diagnostic value of in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) remains unclear. To assess the expression and diagnostic value of in CSCC. Read More

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Direct Detection of Isolevuglandins in Tissues using a D11 scFv-Alkaline Phosphatase Fusion Protein and Immunofluorescence.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 5(173). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University;

Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) are highly reactive gamma ketoaldehydes formed from H2-isoprostanes through lipid peroxidation and crosslink proteins leading to inflammation and various diseases including hypertension. Detection of IsoLG accumulation in tissues is crucial in shedding light on their involvement in the disease processes. However, measurement of IsoLGs in tissues is extremely difficult, and currently available tools, including mass spectrometry analysis, are laborious and extremely expensive. Read More

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The Exosome-Associated Tetraspanin CD63 Contributes to the Efficient Assembly and Infectivity of the Hepatitis B Virus.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Jul 31;5(7):1238-1251. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Center for Basic Research in Digestive Diseases Mayo Clinic Rochester MN USA.

Currently, the hepatocellular trafficking pathways that are used by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) during viral infection and shedding are poorly defined. It is known that the HBV uses late endosomal and multivesicular body (MVB) compartments for assembly and release. The intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) generated within MVBs have also been implicated in the late synthesis stages of a variety of pathogenic viruses. Read More

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Considerations for immunotherapy in patients with cancer and comorbid immune dysfunction.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):1035

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been widely incorporated for cancer treatment in a variety of solid and hematologic malignancies. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 axis inhibition in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. Due to the risks of autoimmune toxicity with these agents, stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria were employed in those initial clinical trials. Read More

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Promoting Students' Health at University: Key Stakeholders, Cooperation, and Network Development.

Front Public Health 2021 30;9:680714. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute of Sports and Sports Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Cooperation among university units is considered a cornerstone for the promotion of students' health. The underlying mechanisms of health-promoting networks at universities have rarely been examined so far. Shedding light on partnerships is generally limited to the naming of allied actors in a network. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Meningoencephalitis With Abducens Nerve Palsy With Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 Jun 8;13(6):e15523. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Infectious Disease, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a human alpha herpes virus, is responsible for most infections caused by herpes viruses worldwide. Among the herpes simplex viruses, both HSV 1 and 2 cause significant morbidity. HSV-2 accounts for most genital infections with extragenital complications involving the groin, thigh, or other pelvic areas. Read More

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Generation of plasma cells and CD27IgD B cells during hantavirus infection is associated with distinct pathological findings.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 12;10(7):e1313. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Microbiology Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR) Umea Sweden.

Objective: Human hantavirus infections can cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood, nor if they affect the humoral immune system. The objective of this study was to investigate humoral immune responses to hantavirus infection and to correlate them to the typical features of HFRS: thrombocytopenia and transient kidney dysfunction. Read More

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Mechanistic Analysis of Age-Related Clinical Manifestations in Down Syndrome.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:700280. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

The Children's Guild Foundation Down Syndrome Research Program, Genetics and Genomics Program and Department of Cancer Genetics and Genomics, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States.

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to trisomy for all or part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). It is also associated with other phenotypes including distinctive facial features, cardiac defects, growth delay, intellectual disability, immune system abnormalities, and hearing loss. All adults with DS demonstrate AD-like brain pathology, including amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, by age 40 and dementia typically by age 60. Read More

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The COVID-19 Outpatient Pragmatic Platform Study (COPPS): Study design of a multi-center pragmatic platform trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jul 15:106509. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Quantitative Sciences Unit, Division of Biomedical Informatics Research, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA. Electronic address:

More than 3000 clinical trials related to COVID-19 have been registered through clinicaltrials.gov. With so many trials, there is a risk that many will be inconclusive due to being underpowered or due to an inability to recruit patients. Read More

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Dynamics of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in domestic pigs infected with virulent, moderate virulent and attenuated genotype II ASFV European isolates.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, CISA, INIA-CSIC, European Union Reference Laboratory for African Swine Fever (EURL), Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain.

This study aimed to compare the infection dynamics of three genotype II African swine fever viruses (ASFV) circulating in Europe. Eighteen domestic pigs divided into three groups were infected intramuscularly or by direct contact with two haemadsorbent ASFVs (HAD) from Poland (Pol16/DP/ OUT21) and Estonia (Est16/WB/Viru8), and with the Latvian non-HAD ASFV (Lv17/WB/Rie1). Parameters, such as symptoms, pathogenicity, and distribution of the virus in tissues, humoral immune response, and dissemination of the virus by blood, oropharyngeal and rectal routes, were investigated. Read More

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Antibody Response to SARS-CoV-2 is Associated with Long-term Clinical Outcome in Patients with COVID-19: a Longitudinal Study.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Alicante, Spain.

Background: The relationship of host immune response and viral replication with health outcomes in patients with COVID-19 remains to be defined. We aimed to characterize the medium and long-term clinical, virological, and serological outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19, and to identify predictors of long-COVID.

Methods: Prospective, longitudinal study conducted in COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-PCR. Read More

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ALCAM/CD166: A pleiotropic mediator of cell adhesion, stemness and cancer progression.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Química Biológica, Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFIB) Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a glycoprotein involved in homotypic and heterotypic cell adhesion. ALCAM can be proteolytically cleaved at the cell surface by metalloproteases, which generate shedding of its ectodomain. In various tumors, ALCAM is overexpressed and serves as a valuable prognostic marker of disease progression. Read More

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