70,765 results match your criteria shear


Uniqueness of shear wave modeling in an incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) material.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Duke University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Durham, North Carolina, UNITED STATES.

Five material parameters are required to describe a transversely isotropic (TI) material including two Poisson's ratios that characterize the compressibility of the material. Both Poisson's ratios must be specified to model an incompressible, TI (ITI) material. However, a previous analysis of the procedure used to evaluate the incompressible limit in a two-dimensional (2D) space of Poisson's ratios has shown that elements of the stiffness tensor are not unique in this limit, and that an additional, fourth parameter is required to model these elements for an ITI material. Read More

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September 2021

Reliability of performing ultrasound derived SWE and fat fraction in adult livers.

Clin Imaging 2021 Sep 17;80:424-429. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Rocky Vista University, Ivins, UT, USA.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to test the reproducibility of performing conventional point shear wave elastography (pSWE), auto-pSWE, and ultrasound derived fat fraction (UDFF) in adult livers.

Methods: The Institutional Review Board approved the study and all participants provided written informed consent. Conventional pSWE (obtaining 10 measurements through 10 acquisitions), auto-pSWE (automatically obtaining 15 measurements by a single acquisition), and UDFF (one measurement obtained by one acquisition) of the liver were prospectively performed in 21 participants (10 men, 11 women, mean age 63y) by senior and junior operators in February-May 2021. Read More

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September 2021

Alginate-based self-healing hydrogels assembled by dual cross-linking strategy: Fabrication and evaluation of mechanical properties.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Science (IASBS), Gava Zang, Zanjan 45137-66731, Iran. Electronic address:

One way to enhance the poor mechanical properties of the self-healing hydrogels based on host-guest (HG) interaction is employing the dual cross-linking method. Here, the alginate-based hydrogels based on HG complexation were prepared through the modification of alginate (ALG) polysaccharide with beta-cyclodextrin (βCD) and adamantane (Ad) as host and guest groups with different grafting values, respectively. The porous structure was confirmed for all ALG-CD:ALG-Ad hydrogels. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of elastic strains on the adsorption energy of H, O, and OH in transition metals.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 - Getafe, Madrid, Spain.

The influence of elastic strains on the adsorption of H, O, and OH on the (111) surfaces of 8 fcc (Ni, Cu, Pd, Ag, Pt, Au, Rh, Ir) and on the (0001) surfaces of 3 hcp (Co, Zn, Cd) transition metals was analyzed by means of density functional theory calculations. To this end, surface slabs were subjected to different strain states (uniaxial, biaxial, shear, and a combination of them) up to strains dictated by the mechanical stability limits indicated by phonon calculations. It was found that the adsorption energy followed the predictions of the d-band theory but - surprisingly - the variations in the adsorption energy only depended on the area of the adsorption hole and not on the particular elastic strain tensor applied to achieve this area. Read More

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September 2021

Avidin-Conjugated Nanofibrillar Cellulose Hydrogel Functionalized with Biotinylated Fibronectin and Vitronectin Promotes 3D Culture of Fibroblasts.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology and BioMediTech, Tampere University, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland.

The future success of physiologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell/tissue models is dependent on the development of functional biomaterials, which can provide a well-defined 3D environment instructing cellular behavior. To establish a platform to produce tailored hydrogels, we conjugated avidin (Avd) to anionic nanofibrillar cellulose (aNFC) and demonstrated the use of the resulting Avd-NFC hydrogel for 3D cell culture, where Avd-NFC allows easy functionalization biotinylated molecules. Avidin was successfully conjugated to nanocellulose and remained functional, as demonstrated by electrophoresis and titration with fluorescent biotin. Read More

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September 2021

Neutrophil extracellular traps in feline cardiogenic arterial thrombi: a pilot study.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Sep 20:1098612X211044986. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in cardiogenic arterial thromboembolism (CATE). Specifically, we aimed to examine the related structural features of NETs in feline arterial thrombi in relation to their arterial locations.

Methods: Paraffin-embedded aortic bifurcations from nine cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (four with CATE and five without) were deparaffinized, and NETs were identified by immunodetection based on colocalization of cell-free DNA, citrullinated histone H3 and neutrophil elastase. Read More

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September 2021

Lubricant-Infused Three-Dimensional Frame Composed of a Micro/Nanospinous Ball Cluster Structure with Salient Durability and Superior Fog Harvesting Capacity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, People's Republic of China.

Due to the limitation of the special wettability surface in the water collection field, the smooth surface injected by the lubricant has attracted wide attention. In this study, a simple two-step electrochemical reaction was used to successfully design a micro/nanospinous ball cluster structure on the surface of a frame. Subsequently, after low-surface-energy treatment and lubricant immersion, a lubricant-infused three-dimensional frame is prepared. Read More

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September 2021

Quantitative effects of off-resonance related distortion on brain mechanical property estimation with magnetic resonance elastography.

NMR Biomed 2021 Sep 20:e4616. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Off-resonance related geometric distortion can impact quantitative MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), and result in errors to these otherwise sensitive metrics of brain health. MRE is a phase contrast technique to determine the mechanical properties of tissue by imaging shear wave displacements and estimating tissue stiffness through inverse solution of Navier's equation. In this study, we systematically examined the quantitative effects of distortion and corresponding correction approaches on MRE measurements through a series of simulations, phantom models, and in vivo brain experiments. Read More

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September 2021

Shear-induced alignment of block copolymer worms in mineral oil.

Soft Matter 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Dainton Building, Brook Hill, Sheffield, S3 7HF, UK.

Poly(stearyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PSMA-PBzMA] diblock copolymer worms were synthesized directly in mineral oil reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization at 90 °C. Free-standing gels were obtained from this polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) formulation when targeting PSMA-PBzMA dispersions at 5% w/w to 20% w/w copolymer concentration. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies indicated that almost identical copolymer chains were obtained in all cases, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies confirmed that highly anisotropic worms were formed with mean cross-sectional diameters of 11. Read More

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September 2021

S1P in the development of atherosclerosis: roles of hemodynamic wall shear stress and endothelial permeability.

Tissue Barriers 2021 Sep 18:1959243. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Atherosclerosis is characterized by focal accumulations of lipid within the arterial wall, thought to arise from effects of hemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on endothelial permeability. Identifying pathways that mediate the effects of shear on permeability could therefore provide new therapeutic opportunities. Here, we consider whether the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway could constitute such a route. Read More

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September 2021

A case study on establishing the state of decomposition of municipal solid waste in a bioreactor landfill in India.

Waste Manag Res 2021 Sep 20:734242X211045607. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Estimation of temporal changes undergone by municipal solid waste (MSW) in its physico-chemico-geomechanical properties in a bioreactor landfill (BLF) is essential for: (i) efficient landfilling, (ii) establishing the state of decomposition of MSW with time and (iii) deciding upon the appropriate time to initiate landfill mining. To achieve this, a series of destructive (DTs) and non-destructive tests (NDTs) can be conducted on the MSW samples in the BLF. With this in view, several DTs were conducted on these samples retrieved from different depths of the two cells of a fully operational BLF in Mumbai, India. Read More

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September 2021

Endometriosis is associated with an increased whole-blood thrombogenicity detected by a novel automated microchip flow-chamber system (T-TAS®).

Ginekol Pol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Reproduction, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

Objectives: Potential thrombotic and antifibrinolytic influence of endometriosis on haemostasis has been recently reported in the literature, as well as increased cardiovascular morbidity in women suffering from the disease. We performed a pilot study to assess the influence of endometriosis on the thrombus formation process underin vitroflow conditions.

Material And Methods: This study compared women with confirmed endometriosis (n = 23) surgically and control healthy subjects (n = 10). Read More

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September 2021

Bio-printing of aligned GelMa-based cell-laden structure for muscle tissue regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2022 Feb 6;8:57-70. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Biomechatronics Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is associated with a severe loss of muscle tissue that overwhelms the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles. Tissue engineering has shown promise for the treatment of VML injuries, as evidenced by various preclinical trials. The present study describes the fabrication of a cell-laden GelMa muscle construct using an crosslinking (ISC) strategy to improve muscle functionality. Read More

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February 2022

Relative Stiffness Measurements of Tumour Tissues by Shear Rheology.

Bio Protoc 2017 May 5;7(9):e2265. Epub 2017 May 5.

The Garvan Institute of Medical Research and The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Cancer Division, St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Australia.

The microenvironment of solid tumours is a critical contributor to the progression of tumours and offers a promising target for therapeutic intervention (Cox and Erler, 2011; Barker , 2012 ; Cox , 2016; Cox and Erler, 2016). The properties of the tumour microenvironment vary significantly from that of the original tissue in both biochemistry and biomechanics. At present, the complex interplay between the biomechanical properties of the microenvironment and tumour cell phenotype is under intense investigation. Read More

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Development and Quantitation of Biofilms after Cultivation in Flow-reactors.

Bio Protoc 2021 Aug 20;11(16):e4126. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, ShaanXi, China.

Characterization of biofilm formation and metabolic activities is critical to investigating biofilm interactions with environmental factors and illustrating biofilm regulatory mechanisms. An appropriate model that mimics biofilm habitats therefore demands accurate quantitation and investigation of biofilm-associated activities. Current methodologies commonly involve static biofilm setups (such as biofilm assays in microplates, bead biofilms, or biofilms on glass-slides) and fluidic flow biofilm systems (such as drip-flow biofilm reactors, 3-channel biofilm reactors, or tubing biofilm reactors). Read More

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Shear wave elastography in optic neuritis: diagnostic accuracy of the optic nerve and adjacent fat tissue values.

J Ultrason 2021 Aug 9;21(86):e194-e199. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Radiology Department, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

In this study, we attempt to determine the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography of the optic nerve and adjacent fat tissue in patients with optic neuritis. The study included a patient group consisting of 72 eyes of 36 patients who were diagnosed with unilateral optic neuritis, and an age-matched control group of 36 eyes of 18 healthy subjects. The patient group consisted of 25 multiple sclerosis patients and 11 recurrent isolated optic neuritis patients. Read More

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Comparison between shear wave elastography and serological findings for the evaluation of fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

J Ultrason 2021 Aug 9;21(86):e186-e193. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Radiology, The University of Lahore, Pakistan.

In this study, we sought to examine the optimal cutoff values for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, and to determine the level of agreement between shear wave elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) scores in patients with chronic liver disease. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed at the Radiology Department of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Hospital Lahore from 1 Jun 2019 until 1 June 2020. FIB-4 and APRI scores were determined by the following formula: FIB-4 = (age × AST) ÷ (platelet count × (√ (ALT)) and APRI = (AST÷AST upper limit of normal) ÷ platelet × 100. Read More

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Mechanical and permeation response characteristics of basalt fibre reinforced tailings to different reinforcement technologies: an experimental study.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Sep 15;8(9):210669. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai'an 223001, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Tailings dam is a man-made hazard with high potential energy; dam failure would cause great losses to human lives and properties. However, the limitations of conventional reinforcement methods like geosynthetic make it easy to slide along the weak structural plane. In this paper, we innovatively added basalt fibre (BF) with different lengths () and contents () into tailings to study its mechanical and permeation characteristics. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Superb Microvascular Imaging and Shear Wave Elastography in Differentiation of Thyroid Nodules from Intrathyroidal Ectopic Thymus in Children.

Acta Endocrinol (Buchar) 2021 Apr-Jun;17(1):33-41

Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Radiology Department, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Ectopic thymus could be located intrathyroidal, therefore fine ultrasound details are useful for this differentiation.

Aim: To investigate differences in stiffness and vascularity properties among thyroid nodules and intrathyroidal ectopic thymus (IET) by obtaining quantitative data in children.

Patients And Methods: Twenty-seven thyroid nodules and 20 IET in children were evaluated in terms of vascularity index (VI) via superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and stiffness by shear wave elastography (SWE). Read More

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October 2021

Mitochondria in Injury, Inflammation and Disease of Articular Skeletal Joints.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:695257. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Research Group, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Inflammation is an important biological response to tissue damage caused by injury, with a crucial role in initiating and controlling the healing process. However, dysregulation of the process can also be a major contributor to tissue damage. Related to this, although mitochondria are typically thought of in terms of energy production, it has recently become clear that these important organelles also orchestrate the inflammatory response multiple mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Rebleeding of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm After Admission: A Multidimensional Nomogram Model to Risk Assessment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:692615. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Rebleeding is recognized as the main cause of mortality after intracranial aneurysm rupture. Though timely intervention can prevent poor prognosis, there is no agreement on the surgical priority and choosing medical treatment for a short period after rupture. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors related to the rebleeding after admission and establish predicting models for better clinical decision-making. Read More

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September 2021

Rheological characterisation of synthetic and fresh faeces to inform on solids management strategies for non-sewered sanitation systems.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 16;300:113730. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK. Electronic address:

In order to obviate the economic issues associated with pit latrine emptying and transport such as high water additions and rheologically difficult sludge properties, the implications of prompt solid/liquid separation were investigated. This was achieved through rheological characterisation of fresh human faeces and synthetic faeces, and comparison with aged faecal sludges. Shear yield stress, thixotropy and post-shear structural recovery were characterised for a total solids (TS) concentration range of 5-35% total solids (TS) and stickiness yield stress was determined for concentrations up to 100% TS. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of microflow on hepatic sinusoid blood flow and red blood cell deformation.

Biophys J 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Hepatic sinusoids present complex anatomical structures such as the endothelial sieve pores and the Disse space, which govern the microscopic blood flow in the sinusoids and are associated with structural variations in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. However, the contributions of the permeability of endothelial and collagen layers and the roughness of hepatocyte microvilli to the features of this microflow remain largely unknown. Here, an immersed boundary method coupled with a lattice Boltzmann method was adopted in an in vitro hepatic sinusoidal model, and flow field and erythrocyte deformation analyses were conducted by introducing three new source terms including permeability of the endothelial layer, resistance of hepatocyte microvilli and collagen layers, and deformation of red blood cells (RBCs). Read More

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September 2021

Sleep Disturbance in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: Disturbed sleep is a common feature of psychotic disorders that is also present in the clinical high risk (CHR) state. Evidence suggests a potential role of sleep disturbance in symptom progression, yet the interrelationship between sleep and CHR symptoms remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the association between disturbed sleep and CHR symptoms over time. Read More

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September 2021

Local fluid shear stress operates a molecular switch to drive fetal semilunar valve extension.

Dev Dyn 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

The Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Background: While much is known about the genetic regulation of early valvular morphogenesis, mechanisms governing fetal valvular growth and remodeling remain unclear. Hemodynamic forces strongly influence morphogenesis, but it is unknown whether or how they interact with valvulogenic signaling programs. Side specific activity of valvulogenic programs motivates the hypothesis that shear stress pattern specific endocardial signaling controls the elongation of leaflets. Read More

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September 2021

Patterns of vascular response immediately after passive mobilization in patients with sepsis: an observational transversal study.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Sepsis is a serious organ dysfunction leading to endothelial damage in critical patients. Physiologically, there is an augment of vascular diameter in response to increased vascular blood flow and shear stress stimulus. However, the pattern of vascular response in face of passive mobilization (PM), an early mobilization physical strategy, has not yet been explored in patients with sepsis. Read More

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September 2021

Research Note: Expression level of heat shock protein 27 in PSE-like and fast-glycolyzing conditions of chicken pectoralis major muscle.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 9;100(11):101424. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Animal Sciences and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, South Korea. Electronic address:

This study compared the meat quality traits, histochemical characteristics, and heat shock protein (HSP) 27 expression levels of the broiler Pectoralis major (PM) muscles in groups classified by pale, soft, and exudative (PSE)-like and fast-glycolyzing conditions using the lightness and muscle pH change values. Chicken PM muscles showing higher pH change value and paler meat surface (as HP group) could be associated with the PSE-like condition, and exhibited a lower pH value and higher cooking loss compared to PM muscles showing lower pH change value and normal color (as LN group) (P < 0.05). Read More

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The impact of Elsinoë ampelina-infection on key metabolic properties in Vitis vinifera cv. Red Globe berries via multi-omics approaches.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Northwest A&F University, 12469, No.3, Taicheng Road, Yangling, China, 712100;

Grape anthracnose caused by Elsinoë ampelina (Shear) is one of the most serious fungal diseases that lead to the quality reduction and yield losses of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Red Globe) berries. In the present study, metabolome and transcriptome analyses were conducted using grape berries in the field after infection with E. Read More

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September 2021

Shear strain and inflammation-induced fixed charge density loss in the knee joint cartilage following ACL injury and reconstruction: a computational study.

J Orthop Res 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, FI, 70210, Kuopio, Finland.

Excessive tissue deformation near cartilage lesions and acute inflammation within the knee joint after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and reconstruction surgery accelerate the loss of fixed charge density (FCD) and subsequent cartilage tissue degeneration. Here, we show how biomechanical and biochemical degradation pathways can predict FCD loss using a patient-specific finite element model of an ACL reconstructed knee joint exhibiting a chondral lesion. Biomechanical degradation was based on the excessive maximum shear strains that may result in cell apoptosis, while biochemical degradation was driven by the diffusion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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September 2021

Remarkable toughness of a nanostructured medium-entropy nitride compound.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):15074-15084. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

A novel medium-entropy nitride (MEN) - CrCoNiN doped with Al and Ti was prepared using magnetron sputtering. The new MEN possesses a single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, offering a superior combination of hardness (∼21.2 GPa) and fracture toughness (∼4. Read More

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September 2021