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CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells exhibit embryo-like behavior patterns.

Acta Histochem 2021 Jun 19;123(5):151743. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Van, Turkey.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which act as an important bridge between cancer formation and embryonic development, represent a small population associated with tumor initiation, drug resistance, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have the ability to form spheroids in three-dimensional culture systems. Tumor spheroids derived from CSCs with symmetric and asymmetric division patterns were found to contain highly heterogeneous cell groups. Read More

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Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis and pv. corylina: Brothers or distant relatives? Genetic clues, epidemiology, and insights for disease management.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Background: The species Xanthomonas arboricola comprises up to nine pathovars, two of which affect nut crops: pv. juglandis, the causal agent of walnut bacterial blight, brown apical necrosis, and the vertical oozing canker of Persian (English) walnut; and pv. corylina, the causal agent of the bacterial blight of hazelnut. Read More

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Genetic and behavioral adaptation of Candida parapsilosis to the microbiome of hospitalized infants revealed by in situ genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics.

Microbiome 2021 Jun 21;9(1):142. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Candida parapsilosis is a common cause of invasive candidiasis, especially in newborn infants, and infections have been increasing over the past two decades. C. parapsilosis has been primarily studied in pure culture, leaving gaps in understanding of its function in a microbiome context. Read More

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Biogenesis of a Bacteriophage Long Non-Contractile Tail.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 18:167112. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Unité de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, Centre de Recherche de Gif, CNRS UPR 3296 and IFR115, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Siphoviruses are main killers of bacteria. They use a long non-contractile tail to recognize the host cell and to deliver the genome from the viral capsid to the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we define the molecular organization of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 ∼6. Read More

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Dissecting the Nucleoside Antibiotics as Universal Translation Inhibitors.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Utah 84103, United States.

ConspectusWithout question, natural products have provided the lion share of leads, if not drugs themselves, for the treatment of bacterial infections. The bacterial arms race, fueled by selection and survival pressures has delivered a natural arsenal of small molecules targeting the most essential of life processes. Antibiotics that target these critical intracellular processes face the formidable defense of both penetrating a bacterial cell membrane and avoiding efflux to exert their effect. Read More

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Structural variability and dynamics in the ectodomain of an ancestral-type classical cadherin revealed by AFM imaging.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Evolutionary Cell and Developmental Biology, JT Biohistory Research Hall, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, 569-1125, Japan.

Type III cadherin represents the ancestral form of classical cadherin in bilaterian metazoans. Drosophila possesses type III and type IVa cadherins, known as DN- and DE-cadherins, respectively. Mature DN- and DE-cadherins have 15 and 7 extracellular cadherin domain (EC) repeats, respectively, with DN-cadherin EC6-11 homologous to DE-cadherin EC1-6. Read More

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A hub-and-spoke nuclear lamina architecture in trypanosomes.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 21;134(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

The nuclear lamina supports many functions, including maintaining nuclear structure and gene expression control, and correct spatio-temporal assembly is vital to meet these activities. Recently, multiple lamina systems have been described that, despite independent evolutionary origins, share analogous functions. In trypanosomatids the two known lamina proteins, NUP-1 and NUP-2, have molecular masses of 450 and 170 kDa, respectively, which demands a distinct architecture from the ∼60 kDa lamin-based system of metazoa and other lineages. Read More

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Encapsulation of MnS Nanocrystals into N, S-Co-doped Carbon as Anode Material for Full Cell Sodium-Ion Capacitors.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jan 22;12(1):34. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.

Sodium-ion capacitors (SICs) have received increasing interest for grid stationary energy storage application due to their affordability, high power, and energy densities. The major challenge for SICs is to overcome the kinetics imbalance between faradaic anode and non-faradaic cathode. To boost the Na reaction kinetics, the present work demonstrated a high-rate MnS-based anode by embedding the MnS nanocrystals into the N, S-co-doped carbon matrix ([email protected]). Read More

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January 2020

Microbial starch debranching enzymes: Developments and applications.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Jun 18:107786. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; School of Biotechnology and Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Starch debranching enzymes (SDBEs) hydrolyze the α-1,6 glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides such as starch, amylopectin, pullulan and glycogen. SDBEs are also important enzymes for the preparation of sugar syrup, resistant starch and cyclodextrin. As the synergistic catalysis of SDBEs and other starch-acting hydrolases can effectively improve the raw material utilization and production efficiency during starch processing steps such as saccharification and modification, they have attracted substantial research interest in the past decades. Read More

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Psychotherapeutic case formulation: Plan analysis for narcissistic personality disorder.

Personal Ment Health 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Institute of Psychotherapy, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: One of the relevant case formulation methods for personality difficulties is plan analysis. The present study aimed at delivering a prototypical plan analysis for clients presenting with a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). The sample consisted of 14 participants diagnosed with an NPD. Read More

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Assessing competition in the hip implant industry in the light of recent policy guidance.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 21:114055. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Economics, University of East Anglia, UK. Electronic address:

NHS procurement is a highly topical area, attracting a great deal of recent policy focus. The pivotal report by Lord Carter of Coles (2016) highlighted unwarranted variation, estimating it to be worth approximately £5bn in efficiency savings. In relation to hip replacement surgery, recent procurement policy guidance has recommended the use of cemented hip implants for all patients aged 68 years and over in England and Wales. Read More

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Functional dissection of structural regions of the Thermus thermophilus competence protein PilW: Implication in secretin complex stability, natural transformation and pilus functions.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jun 16;1863(10):183666. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Molecular Microbiology & Bioenergetics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

Uptake of DNA from the environment into the bacterial cytoplasm is mediated by a macromolecular transport machinery that is similar in structure and function to type IV pili (T4P) and, indeed, DNA translocator and T4P share common components. One is the secretin PilQ which is assembled into homopolymeric complexes forming highly dynamic outer membrane (OM) channels mediating pilus extrusion and DNA uptake. How PilQ interacts with the motor is still enigmatic. Read More

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Engineering the Coordination Sphere of Isolated Active Sites to Explore the Intrinsic Activity in Single-Atom Catalysts.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 7;13(1):136. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Reducing the dimensions of metallic nanoparticles to isolated, single atom has attracted considerable attention in heterogeneous catalysis, because it significantly improves atomic utilization and often leads to distinct catalytic performance. Through extensive research, it has been recognized that the local coordination environment of single atoms has an important influence on their electronic structures and catalytic behaviors. In this review, we summarize a series of representative systems of single-atom catalysts, discussing their preparation, characterization, and structure-property relationship, with an emphasis on the correlation between the coordination spheres of isolated reactive centers and their intrinsic catalytic activities. Read More

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Investigating the myth of smokeless industry: environmental sustainability in the ASEAN countries and the role of service sector and renewable energy.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Since the development of the service sector and renewable energy reduce fossil-based energy consumption which mitigates CO emissions and this nexus provides a better understanding of the environmental sustainability. Considering the substantially increasing contribution of service sector and tremendous potential for renewable energy in ASEAN5 countries, leaning forward from ASEAN's energy and growth nexus, this study examines the impact of service sector contribution and renewable energy on the environmental quality of ASEAN5 using annual data from 1990 to 2018. The results of the fully modified ordinary least squared, dynamic ordinary least squared, and canonical co-integrating regressions depicted that the service sectors of Thailand, the Philippines, and Singapore augment CO emissions; however, the service sectors of Malaysia and Indonesia could reduce CO emissions. Read More

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Sequence-Signature Optimization Enables Improved Identification of Human HV6-1-Derived Class Antibodies That Neutralize Diverse Influenza A Viruses.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:662909. Epub 2021 May 31.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Sequence signatures of multidonor broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies can be used to quantify the prevalence of B cells with virus-neutralizing potential to accelerate development of broadly protective vaccine strategies. Antibodies of the same class share similar recognition modes and developmental pathways, and several antibody classes have been identified that neutralize diverse group 1- and group 2-influenza A viruses and have been observed in multiple human donors. One such multidonor antibody class, the HV6-1-derived class, targets the stem region of hemagglutinin with extraordinary neutralization breadth. Read More

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African forest elephant movements depend on time scale and individual behavior.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 16;11(1):12634. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, PO Box 90328, Durham, 27708, NC, USA.

The critically endangered African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) plays a vital role in maintaining the structure and composition of Afrotropical forests, but basic information is lacking regarding the drivers of elephant movement and behavior at landscape scales. We use GPS location data from 96 individuals throughout Gabon to determine how five movement behaviors vary at different scales, how they are influenced by anthropogenic and environmental covariates, and to assess evidence for behavioral syndromes-elephants which share suites of similar movement traits. Elephants show some evidence of behavioral syndromes along an 'idler' to 'explorer' axis-individuals that move more have larger home ranges and engage in more 'exploratory' movements. Read More

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Total Synthesis of Thuggacin cmc-A and Its Structure Determination.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8521, Japan.

The first total synthesis of thuggacin cmc-A and the determination of the absolute structure are described. The thuggacin family of antibiotics is of great interest due to the antibiotic activity against . Based on the assumption that seven stereogenic centers in thuggacin cmc-A would share the same stereochemistry as thuggacin-A, all stereogenic centers of thuggacin cmc-A were strictly constructed in a stereocontrolled manner. Read More

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Ultrafast spectral hole burning reveals the distinct chromophores in eumelanin and their common photoresponse.

Chem Sci 2019 Dec 18;11(5):1248-1259. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University 100 West 18th Avenue Columbus Ohio 43210 USA +1-614-688-2635.

Eumelanin, the brown-black pigment found in organisms from bacteria to humans, dissipates solar energy and prevents photochemical damage. While the structure of eumelanin is unclear, it is thought to consist of an extremely heterogeneous collection of chromophores that absorb from the UV to the infrared, additively producing its remarkably broad absorption spectrum. However, the chromophores responsible for absorption by eumelanin and their excited state decay pathways remain highly uncertain. Read More

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December 2019

Decision analysis of the optimal freight structure at provincial level in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Transportation and Logistics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Room 2611, No. 2 Teaching Building, No. 999 Xi'an Road, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan, China.

In recent years, considering the railway and waterway are cleaner ways of freight transportation, the Chinese government has vigorously promoted the adjustment of the transportation structure of the freight industry to reduce carbon emissions. However, with such a macroscopic objective, it remains a crucial problem for the policy-maker to further determine: how to estimate the optimal value of the share of freight volume among roadway, railway, and waterway regionally? To this end, this paper first quantified and analyzed the economic benefits, carbon emission intensity, and input-output efficiency of different transportation modes in each province. Then, with the goal of maximizing the efficiency of the freight transportation system, considering the carbon emission intensity reduction constraint and the economic output non-reduction constraint, an optimization model is constructed to obtain the freight structure adjustment plan in each province. Read More

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Deliberations with American Indian and Alaska Native People about the Ethics of Genomics: An Adapted Model of Deliberation Used with Three Tribal Communities in the United States.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2021 Jun 14:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.

Background: This paper describes the design, implementation, and process outcomes from three public deliberations held in three tribal communities. Although increasingly used around the globe to address collective challenges, our study is among the first to adapt public deliberation for use with exclusively Indigenous populations. In question was how to design deliberations for tribal communities and whether this adapted model would achieve key deliberative goals and be well received. Read More

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MacEmerg Podcast: A Novel Initiative to Connect a Distributed Community of Practice.

AEM Educ Train 2021 Jul 25;5(3):e10550. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Emergency Medicine Training Program McMaster University Burlington Ontario Canada.

Background: Regional knowledge dissemination and information sharing is a challenge among physically divided groups of physicians. Many staff and resident physicians do not have easy access to share clinical and medical education and research information with each other in an academic setting. Our divisions of emergency medicine could benefit from a novel approach aimed at improving overall connection and collaborative engagement. Read More

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Testing for overall and cluster convergence of housing rents using robust methodology: evidence from Polish provincial capitals.

Authors:
Mateusz Tomal

Empir Econ 2021 Jun 6:1-33. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Real Estate and Investment Economics, Cracow University of Economics, Rakowicka 27, 31-510 Cracow, Poland.

The aim of this paper is to test for overall and cluster convergence of housing rents across Polish provincial capitals and to identify drivers of convergence club formation. In order to achieve the goal of the study, several novel convergence tests were used, including the Kong et al. (J Econom 209:185-207, 2019. Read More

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Revealing the Structural Plasticity of SARS-CoV-2 nsp7 and nsp8 Using Structural Proteomics.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida 33458, United States.

Coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural proteins (nsps) assemble to form the replication-transcription complex (RTC) responsible for viral RNA synthesis. nsp7 and nsp8 are important cofactors of the RTC, as they interact and regulate the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and other nsps. To date, no structure of the full-length SARS-CoV-2 nsp7:nsp8 complex has been published. Read More

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Sensory innervation of the human male prepuce: Meissner's corpuscles predominate.

J Anat 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Departamento de Morfología y Biología Celular, Grupo SINPOS, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

Meissner's corpuscles are the most abundant sensory corpuscles in the glabrous skin of the male prepuce. They are type I, rapidly adapting, low-threshold mechanoreceptors, and their function is linked to the expression of the mechanoprotein piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2). Stimulation of genital Meissner's corpuscles gives rise to sexual sensations. Read More

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Have the eyes of bioluminescent scale worms adapted to see their own light? A comparative study of eyes and vision in Harmothoe imbricata and Lepidonotus squamatus.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Annelids constitute a diverse phylum with more than 19000 species, exhibiting greatly varying morphologies and lifestyles ranging from sessile detritivores to fast swimming active predators. The lifestyle of an animal is closely linked to its sensory systems not least the visual equipment. Interestingly, many errant annelid species from different families such as the scale worms, Polynoidae, share the same two pairs of eyes on their prostomium. Read More

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Archaea: A Gold Mine for Topoisomerase Diversity.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:661411. Epub 2021 May 25.

Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), École normale supérieure, CNRS, INSERM, Université PSL, Paris, France.

The control of DNA topology is a prerequisite for all the DNA transactions such as DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. This global control is carried out by essential enzymes, named DNA-topoisomerases, that are mandatory for the genome stability. Since many decades, the Archaea provide a significant panel of new types of topoisomerases such as the reverse gyrase, the type IIB or the type IC. Read More

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Drum-like Metallacages with Size-Dependent Fluorescence: Exploring the Photophysics of Tetraphenylethylene under Locked Conformations.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

Materials with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties are of growing interest due to their widespread applications. AIEgens, such as tetraphenylethylene units, display varying emission behaviors during their conformational changes. However, the structure-property relationships of the intermediate conformations have rarely been explored. Read More

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Predictors of Sexual Satisfaction in Women: A Systematic Review.

Sex Med Rev 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (JGU), Mainz, Germany; Centre for Criminology (Kriminologische Zentralstelle - KrimZ), Wiesbaden, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: The increasing research interest in sexual satisfaction corresponds to a large amount of studies which focus on different singular determinants without establishing a common model for its explanation.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to systematically identify and evaluate the structure and results of the current research about sexual satisfaction in heterosexual women in a long-term relationship.

Methods: A systematic literature search using Web of Knowledge, ProQuest and PSYNDEX was conducted from January 2004 to October 2019. Read More

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Oxalate Decarboxylase uses Electron Hole Hopping for Catalysis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 4:100857. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Box 117200, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

The hexameric low-pH stress response enzyme oxalate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of the oxalate mono-anion in the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A single protein subunit contains two Mn-binding cupin domains, and catalysis depends on Mn(III) at the N-terminal site. The present study suggests a mechanistic function for the C-terminal Mn as an electron hole donor for the N-terminal Mn. Read More

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Rational design, synthesis and testing of novel tricyclic topoisomerase inhibitors for the treatment of bacterial infections part 1.

RSC Med Chem 2020 Dec 18;11(12):1366-1378. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Redx Anti-Infectives Ltd, Alderley Park, Mereside Macclesfield SK10 4TG UK.

The alarming reduction in drug effectiveness against bacterial infections has created an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial agents that circumvent bacterial resistance mechanisms. We report here a series of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors that demonstrate potent activity against a range of Gram-positive and selected Gram-negative organisms, including clinically-relevant and drug-resistant strains. In part 1, we present a detailed structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis that led to the discovery of our previously disclosed compound, REDX05931, which has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0. Read More

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December 2020