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Salient properties in bimanual haptic volume perception: influence of object shape, finger pair, and schizotypal personality traits.

IEEE Trans Haptics 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

Bimanual haptic volume perception refers to somatosensory access to volume information through both hands, and the characteristics that influence this perception remain unclear. The current study investigated the influence of target object shapes and finger pairs on bimanual haptic perception; in addition, associations of bimanual haptic impairment and schizotypal features in nonpsychotic individuals were investigated. Twenty blindfolded participants bimanually discriminated volume variations in regular solid objects under different shape (tetrahedron, cube, or sphere) and finger pair (high- or low-sensitivity pairs) conditions using a newly developed bimanual haptic volume presentation device. Read More

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Limited flavivirus cross-reactive antibody responses elicited by a ZIKV DNA vaccine candidate in humans.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

ZIKV DNA vaccine VRC5283 encoding viral structural genes, has been shown to be immunogenic in humans. Recognizing that antigenically-related flaviviruses co-circulate in regions with ZIKV activity, we explored the degree of antibody cross-reactivity elicited by this vaccine candidate using genetically-diverse flaviviruses. The antibody response of vaccinated individuals with no evidence of prior flavivirus infection or vaccine experience had a limited capacity to bind heterologous viruses. Read More

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A new regression model for overdispersed binomial data accounting for outliers and an excess of zeros.

Stat Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Economics, Management and Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Binary outcomes are extremely common in biomedical research. Despite its popularity, binomial regression often fails to model this kind of data accurately due to the overdispersion problem. Many alternatives can be found in the literature, the beta-binomial (BB) regression model being one of the most popular. Read More

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Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Tissue Adhesives for Sealing Military-Relevant Corneal Perforation Injuries.

Mil Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Sensory Trauma, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA.

Introduction: Open-globe ocular injuries have increased in frequency in recent combat operations due to increased use of explosive weaponry. Unfortunately, open-globe injuries have one of the worst visual outcomes for the injured warfighter, often resulting in permanent loss of vision. To improve visual recovery, injuries need to be stabilized quickly following trauma, in order to restore intraocular pressure and create a watertight seal. Read More

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The Formation of Bilobate Comet Shapes through Sublimative Torques.

Planet Sci J 2021 Feb 28;2(1). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Recent spacecraft and radar observations have found that ~70 percent of short-period comet nuclei, mostly Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), have bilobate shapes (two masses connected by a narrow neck). This is in stark contrast to the shapes of asteroids of similar sizes, of which ~14% are bilobate. This suggests that a process or mechanism unique to comets is producing these shapes. Read More

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February 2021

Integrating real-time data analysis into automatic tracking of social insects.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 31;8(3):202033. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Automatic video tracking has become a standard tool for investigating the social behaviour of insects. The recent integration of computer vision in tracking technologies will probably lead to fully automated behavioural pattern classification within the next few years. However, many current systems rely on offline data analysis and use computationally expensive techniques to track pre-recorded videos. Read More

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The pre-exponential voltage-exponent as a sensitive test parameter for field emission theories.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):201986. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Ioffe Institute, ul. Politekhnicheskaya 26, Saint Petersburg 194021, Russia.

For field electron emission (FE), an empirical equation for measured current as a function of measured voltage has the form = exp[-/], where is a constant and and are constants or vary weakly with . Values for can be extracted (i) from simulations based on some specific FE theory, and in principle (ii) from current-voltage measurements of sufficiently high quality. This paper shows that a comparison of theoretically derived and experimentally derived values could provide a sensitive and useful tool for comparing FE theory and experiment, and for choosing between alternative theories. Read More

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Assessing intrastate shipments from interstate data and expert opinion.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):192042. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

Live animal shipments are a potential route for transmitting animal diseases between holdings and are crucial when modelling spread of infectious diseases. Yet, complete contact networks are not available in all countries, including the USA. Here, we considered a 10% sample of Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspections from 1 year (2009). Read More

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Putting Stress in Historical Context: Why It Is Important That Being Stressed Out Was Not a Way to Be a Person 2,000 Years Ago.

Authors:
Fabian Hutmacher

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:539799. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that scientists and Western societies began to label the combination of physiological and psychological responses that people display when things are getting too much and out of balance as "stress." However, stress is commonly understood as a universal mechanism that exists across times and cultures. In a certain sense, this universality claim is correct: the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms underlying the stress response are not a modern invention of our body. Read More

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on rhodoliths: a new stoloniferan genus (Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Alcyonacea).

Zookeys 2021 16;1032:63-77. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centro de Investigación en Estructuras Microscópicas, Universidad de Costa Rica, P. O. Box 11501-2060, San José, Costa Rica.

(Clavulariidae) is described from Cocos Island National Park, Pacific Ocean, Costa Rica. The species was found at various islets and rocky outcrops around the island, 20-55 m in depth. The genus is characterised by tubular, single, erect anthosteles interconnected by thin basal ribbon-like stolons on the surfaces of living rhodoliths. Read More

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C/EBPβ is a MYB- and p300-cooperating pro-leukemogenic factor and promising drug target in acute myeloid leukemia.

Oncogene 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Biochemistry, Westfälische-Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany.

Transcription factor MYB has recently emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we have characterized a group of natural sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), previously shown to suppress MYB activity, for their potential to decrease AML cell proliferation. Unlike what was initially thought, these compounds inhibit MYB indirectly via its cooperation partner C/EBPβ. Read More

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Genetic and environmental modulation of transposition shapes the evolutionary potential of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Genome Biol 2021 May 6;22(1):138. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institut de Biologie de l'École Normale Supérieure, ENS, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75005, Paris, France.

Background: How species can adapt to abrupt environmental changes, particularly in the absence of standing genetic variation, is poorly understood and a pressing question in the face of ongoing climate change. Here we leverage publicly available multi-omic and bio-climatic data for more than 1000 wild Arabidopsis thaliana accessions to determine the rate of transposable element (TE) mobilization and its potential to create adaptive variation in natural settings.

Results: We demonstrate that TE insertions arise at almost the same rate as base substitutions. Read More

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Development of a Measure of Calculative Mindset (CM): Establishing a Nomological Net and Predictive Utility of the CM Measure.

Psychol Rep 2021 May 6:332941211010245. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hogan Assessment Systems, Tulsa, OK, USA.

A calculative mindset (CM) describes the tendency to analyze and convert qualitative social values into numeric or monetary metrics and is a predisposition that shapes behaviors and actions of the employee. CM has been manipulated in experimental studies, but it has not been investigated in field research due to the absence of a scale to measure CM. In study 1, we followed Hinkin's scale development protocol to conceptualize, develop, and validate a measure of CM to facilirate research in organizational contexts. Read More

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A simplified cluster model and a tool adapted for collaborative labeling of lung cancer CT scans.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 18;206:106111. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Research and Practical Clinical Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine Technologies of the Moscow Health Care Department, Petrovka str., 24, Moscow, 127051, Russia; Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow, 119333, Russia. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate. Early detection using medical imaging is critically important for the long-term survival of the patients. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools can potentially reduce the number of incorrect interpretations of medical image data by radiologists. Read More

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Correlating Structure and Detection Properties in HgTe Nanocrystal Films.

Nano Lett 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Sorbonne Université, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France.

HgTe nanocrystals (NCs) enable broadly tunable infrared absorption, now commonly used to design light sensors. This material tends to grow under multipodic shapes and does not present well-defined size distributions. Such point generates traps and reduces the particle packing, leading to a reduced mobility. Read More

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Monitoring the carryover of egg proteins in pasta making to support allergen risk management.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 May 6:1-9. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (Defens), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Egg proteins are among the major food allergens. Very often, the same pasta-making plants are used for industrial production of egg-based pasta (EBP) and semolina-only pasta (SP), so that residual egg proteins may be present in SP. This calls for defining the amount of semolina pasta that should be discarded when switching production lines. Read More

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Oriented-Attachment- and Defect-Dependent PbTe Quantum Dots Growth: Shape Transformations Supported by Experimental Insights and DFT Calculations.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Tecnológico Nacional de México, Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Ciudad Hidalgo, Av. Ing. Carlos Rojas Gutiérrez 2120, Fracc. Valle de la herradura, Ciudad Hidalgo 61100, Michoacán, Mexico.

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy results reveal that oriented-attachment- and defect-dependent mechanisms rule the size and shape evolution of the monodispersed PbTe quantum dots (QDs). The former is characterized by the growth of quasi-cubic PbTe QDs, which depends on both the geometric constraints imposed by the {200} facets and the defect-free lattice, while the latter one is a defect-dependent mechanism which gives way to the formation of decahedral PbTe QDs (∼6 nm). Experimentally, formaldehyde is an important parameter for the mechanochemical synthesis of monodispersed PbTe QDs, which has not been studied until now. Read More

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Liquid Wells as Self-Healing, Functional Analogues to Solid Vessels.

Adv Mater 2021 May 6:e2100117. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Biological and Chemical Systems - Functional Materials Systems (IBCS-FMS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Pl. 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

Liquids are traditionally handled and stored in solid vessels. Solid walls are not functional, adaptive, or self-repairing, and are difficult to remove and re-form. Liquid walls can overcome these limitations, but cannot form free-standing 3D walls. Read More

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Before Watson and Crick in 1953 Came Friedrich Miescher in 1869.

Genetics 2020 Jun;215(2):291-296

Institut fü r Philosophie,Universität Wien, 1010 Wien, Austria.

The story of genetics typically omits the original discovery of the molecular nature of DNA: Friedrich Miescher's 1869 discovery of the substance he christened "nuclein". The article explains how he came.. Read More

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Caenorhabditis elegans Gastrulation: A Model for Understanding How Cells Polarize, Change Shape, and Journey Toward the Center of an Embryo.

Genetics 2020 Feb;214(2):265-277

Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016.

Gastrulation is fundamental to the development of multicellular animals. Along with neurulation, gastrulation is one of the major processes of morphogenesis in which cells or whole tissues move from the surface of an embryo to its interior. Cell internalization mechanisms that have been discovered to date in Caenorhabditis elegans gastrulation bear some similarity to internalization mechanisms of other systems including Drosophila, Xenopus, and mouse, suggesting that ancient and conserved mechanisms internalize cells in diverse organisms. Read More

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February 2020

On Gaussian curvature and membrane fission.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9562. Epub 2021 May 5.

Instituto de Física, U.N.A.M., Ap. Postal 101000, 01000, Mexico, DF, Mexico.

We propose a three-dimensional mathematical model to describe dynamical processes of membrane fission. The model is based on a phase field equation that includes the Gaussian curvature contribution to the bending energy. With the addition of the Gaussian curvature energy term numerical simulations agree with the predictions that tubular shapes can break down into multiple vesicles. Read More

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Aerodynamics of the newly approved football for the English Premier League 2020-21 season.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9578. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Japan.

Footballs are typically constructed with 32 panels. Recently, the number of panels has been successively reduced to 14, 8, and 6 panels, and official balls have been adopted with complex panel shapes and aerodynamics that differ from those of 32-panel balls. The official ball for the 2020-21 season of the English Premier League comprises just four panels with a complex panel shape and surface groove design; however, its aerodynamics have not yet been clarified. Read More

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Morphing pasta and beyond.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Morphing structures are often engineered with stresses introduced into a flat sheet by leveraging structural anisotropy or compositional heterogeneity. Here, we identify a simple and universal diffusion-based mechanism to enable a transient morphing effect in structures with parametric surface grooves, which can be realized with a single material and fabricated using low-cost manufacturing methods (e.g. Read More

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Associations of specific-age and decade recall body mass index trajectories with obesity-related cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 5;21(1):502. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Health Informatics, Division of Informatics, Imaging and Data Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Excess body fatness, commonly approximated by a one-off determination of body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of at least 13 cancers. Modelling of longitudinal BMI data may be more informative for incident cancer associations, e.g. Read More

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Children's Perception of Animacy: Social Attributions to Moving Figures.

Perception 2021 May;50(5):387-398

McMaster University, Canada.

Adults describe abstract shapes moving in a goal-directed manner using animate terms. This study tested which variables affect school-aged children's descriptions of moving geometrical shapes. Children aged 5 to 9 years were shown displays of interacting geometrical shapes and were asked to describe them. Read More

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Personality profile of individual sports champions.

Authors:
Paweł Piepiora

Brain Behav 2021 May 5:e02145. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Sports Didactics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Research on personality in sport is popular because it allows you to forecast the greediness of actions in sports competition situations. The purpose of this paper is to determine which personality traits characterize individual sports champions.

Materials And Methods: The subjects of the research were Polish athletes (N = 600) between 20 and 29 years of age from 20 individual sports disciplines (each n = 30). Read More

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Role of Marginal Ridge Shape and Contact Extent in Proximal Caries Between Primary Molars.

J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021 Apr;45(2):98-103

Objectives: To determine different combinations of marginal ridge shape (MRS) and contact extents in nature of the contact between primary molars and its correlation with the presence of carious lesions on radiographic examination of approximal surfaces.

Study Design: Retrospective study of 347 clinical records, including photographs and bitewing radiographs, were assessed for intact MRS and caries extent. The carious lesions were scored (0-5, Mejàre scoring system) radiographically and correlated to the intact MRS on clinical photographs, and strength of associations quantified using logistic regression analysis and chi-square tests. Read More

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Die-off of plant pathogenic bacteria in tile drainage and anoxic water from a managed aquifer recharge site.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250338. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Earth Sciences, Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can provide irrigation water and overcome water scarcity in agriculture. Removal of potentially present plant pathogens during MAR is essential to prevent crop diseases. We studied the die-off of three plant pathogenic bacteria in water microcosms with natural or filtered tile drainage water (TDW) at 10 and 25°C and with natural anoxic aquifer water (AW) at 10°C from a MAR site. Read More

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A city of cities: Measuring how 15-minutes urban accessibility shapes human mobility in Barcelona.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250080. Epub 2021 May 5.

Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

As cities expand, human mobility has become a central focus of urban planning and policy making to make cities more inclusive and sustainable. Initiatives such as the "15-minutes city" have been put in place to shift the attention from monocentric city configurations to polycentric structures, increasing the availability and diversity of local urban amenities. Ultimately they expect to increase local walkability and increase mobility within residential areas. Read More

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Length Perception Model for Handheld Controllers: The Effects of Diameter and Inertia.

IEEE Trans Haptics 2021 May 5;PP. Epub 2021 May 5.

Typical handheld controllers for interaction in virtual reality (VR) have fixed shapes and sizes, regardless of what visual objects they represent. Resolving this crossmodal incongruence with a shape-changing interface is our long-term goal. In this paper, we seek to find a length perception model that considers the moment of inertia (MOI) and diameter of a handheld object based on the concept of dynamic touch. Read More

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