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Septal chondrocyte hypertrophy contributes to midface deformity in a mouse model of Apert syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7979. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Dental Pharmacology, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Midface hypoplasia is a major manifestation of Apert syndrome. However, the tissue component responsible for midface hypoplasia has not been elucidated. We studied mice with a chondrocyte-specific Fgfr2 mutation (Col2a1-cre; Fgfr2) to investigate the effect of cartilaginous components in midface hypoplasia of Apert syndrome. Read More

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The medial tangent of the proximal tibia is a suitable extra-articular landmark in determining the tibial anteroposterior axis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 12;22(1):346. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi Kami-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Background: Tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is generally determined based on intra-articular structure, and can be difficult to ascertain in some cases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the medial tangent angle of the tibia (MTAT) could be useful in determining the anteroposterior axis of the tibia.

Methods: This study was performed on 103 lower limbs in 53 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty. Read More

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Testing the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape evolution of living carnivorans.

Evolution 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin", University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy.

Convergence consists in the independent evolution of similar traits in distantly related species. The mammalian cranio-mandibular complex constitutes an ideal biological structure to investigate ecomorphological dynamics and the carnivorans, due to their phenotypic variability and ecological flexibility, offer an interesting case-study to explore the occurrence of convergent evolution. Here, we applied multiple pattern-based metrics to test the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape of extant carnivorans. Read More

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Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value can Predict Poor Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Responders in T1HG/NMIBC: Prospective Cohort Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Urology Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background: Prediction of recurrence and progression and the choice of type of management are largely based on stage and grade; however, these prognostic features are limited in the prediction of clinical outcomes. The objective was to investigate the relation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and recurrence and progression of T1G3 of urothelial carcinoma after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study included 65 patients with single bladder mass T1G3 less than 3 cm without carcinoma in situ or lymphovascular invasion. Read More

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Electronic and optical properties of tapered tetrahedral semiconductor nanocrystals.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, CHINA.

The quantum confinement effect resulting from size reduction drastically alters the electronic structure and optical properties of optoelectronic materials. Quantum confinement in nanomaterials can be efficiently controlled by morphology variation combined characteristics of nanomaterials, such as their size, shape, and spatial organization. In this study, considering indium arsenide (InAs) in tetrahedral semiconductors as an example, we demonstrated the controllable morphology evolution of InAs nanostructures by tuning the growth conditions. Read More

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Arc concave sign on thin-section computed tomography:A novel predictor for invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma in pure ground-glass nodules.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Mar 27;139:109683. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Depatment of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, NO.2 Fuxue Rd, Wenzhou, 325000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to investigate the risk factors of invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially to report and validate the use of our newly identified arc concave sign in predicting invasiveness of pure ground-glass nodules (pGGNs).

Methods: From January 2015 to August 2018, we retrospectively enrolled 302 patients with 306 pGGNs ≤ 20 mm pathologically confirmed (141 preinvasive lesions and 165 invasive lesions). Arc concave sign was defined as smooth and sunken part of the edge of the lesion on thin-section computed tomography (TSCT). Read More

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Seed rain-successional feedbacks in wet tropical forests.

Ecology 2021 Apr 9:e03362. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0118, USA.

Tropical forest regeneration after abandonment of former agricultural land depends critically on the input of tree seeds, yet seed dispersal is increasingly disrupted in contemporary human-modified landscapes. Here, we introduce the concept of seed rain-successional feedbacks as a deterministic process in which seed rain is shaped by successional dynamics internal to a forest site and that acts to reinforce priority effects. We used a combination of time series and chronosequence approaches to investigate how the quantity and taxonomic and functional composition of seed rain change during succession and to evaluate the strength of seed rain-successional feedbacks, relative to other deterministic and stochastic mechanisms, in secondary wet forests of Costa Rica. Read More

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The influence of biophysical parameters in a biomechanical model of cortical folding patterns.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7686. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

IMT Atlantique, LaTIM U1101 INSERM, UBL, Brest, France.

Abnormal cortical folding patterns, such as lissencephaly, pachygyria and polymicrogyria malformations, may be related to neurodevelopmental disorders. In this context, computational modeling is a powerful tool to provide a better understanding of the early brain folding process. Recent studies based on biomechanical modeling have shown that mechanical forces play a crucial role in the formation of cortical convolutions. Read More

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Glass polyamorphism in gallium: Two amorphous solid states and their transformation on the potential energy landscape.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134503

International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Using the potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism and molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate a phase transformation between two amorphous solid states of gallium, namely, a low-density amorphous solid (LDA) and a high-density amorphous solid (HDA), and compare with its equilibrium counterpart, the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT). It is found that on the PEL, the signatures of the out-of-equilibrium LDA-HDA transition are reminiscent of those of the equilibrium LLPT in terms of pressure, inherent structure pressure, inherent structure energy, and shape function, indicating that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like transition. However, differences are also found between the out-of-equilibrium phase transition and the equilibrium one, for example, the path from LDA to HDA on the PEL cannot be accessed by the path from LDL to HDL. Read More

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[Evaluation of the effects auricular reconstruction with Medpor combined with hearing rehabilitation].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;56(4):333-339

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

To investigate the clinical effects of single-stage auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation in children with microtia and external auditory canal atresia. Sixty eight cases of microtia with external auditory canal atresia (53 males and 15 females, age from 7 to 12 years, with a median age of 8.8 years), who received operations in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from July 2017 to December 2019 were collected. Read More

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Implication of scanning electron microscopy in the seed morphology with special reference to three subfamilies of Fabaceae.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The current research work was aimed to determine the morphological variation in the seeds of subfamilies Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae using scanning electron microscope to investigate the different seed features including; Seed length, width, weight, hilum shape, position, fracture line pattern, pleurogram shape, texture crudeness, ornamentation wall, and surface ornamentation. A total of 12 species were collected. The study reveals that the seed types alters from psilate to rugose, pleurogram shape from lunar to U shape, hilum shape from elliptical to depressed, hilum position from terminal to subterminal, fracture line pattern from reticulate irregular ridges to psilate with regular ridges, texture crudeness from fine to coarse, surface ornamentation from reticulate to psilate, and ornamentation wall also varies from thin to thick. Read More

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Toward Exotic Silicon Doping with a Low Thermal Budget and Flexible Profile Control by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Nanoengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

We investigate semiconductor p-n junction formation by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) using metallic pastes incorporating traditional and nontraditional dopants. The LPE technique enables us to control the shape of doping profiles with a low thermal budget through the choice of solvent, total amount of solvent deposited, and process temperature. We focus here on the Al-B, Zn-P, and Sn-Ga chemistries to dope silicon regions using the chemicophysical properties of a low-eutectic-temperature metallic solvent acting as a matrix for the dissolution of a high concentration of a dopant. Read More

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Auricular reconstruction using Medpor combined with different hearing rehabilitation approaches for microtia.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 6:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Institute of Otology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Congenital microtia-atresia affects patients in two specific ways: severe conductive hearing loss and difficulty in integrating into social environments due to auricle malformation.

Aims/objectives: To investigate the safety and efficacy of single-stage auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation in children with microtia and external auditory canal atresia.

Material And Methods: From January 2016 to December 2019, we included 32 patients with microtia and external canal atresia who received auricle reconstruction with high-density polyethylene (Medpor) framework and three different hearing rehabilitation approaches at the Ninth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Read More

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Profile shape variation and sexual dimorphism amongst middle-aged Northern Europeans.

Eur J Orthod 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Oral Development and Orthodontics, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Medical Faculty, University of Oulu, Oulu,Finland.

Aim: To explore profile shape variation in a large population of middle-aged individuals and investigate features of sexual dimorphism.

Materials And Methods: Facial profile photographs of 1776 individuals (964 females and 812 males; 46 years old), members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), were uploaded and digitized with Viewbox software. Profile shape was defined with 47 landmarks (4 fixed and 43 sliding semi-landmarks). Read More

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Topology-optimized catenary-like metasurface for wide-angle and high-efficiency deflection: from a discrete to continuous geometric phase.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10181-10191

We investigate the topology optimization of geometric phase metasurfaces for wide-angle and high-efficiency deflection, where adjoint-based multi-object optimization approach is adopted to improve the absolute efficiency while maintaining the polarization conversion characteristic of geometric phase metasurfaces. We show that, for the initially discrete geometric phase metasurfaces with different materials and working wavelengths, the topology shapes gradually evolve from discrete structures to quasi-continuous arrangements with the increment of optimization iteration operations. More importantly, the finally optimized metasurfaces manifest as catenary-like structure, providing significant improvements of absolute efficiency. Read More

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Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Health Sciences, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; Graduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Design: Randomized Clinical Trial SETTING: Outpatient Physical Therapy.

Participants: One hundred and twenty people with chronic low back (CLBP) aged 18 to 60 years.

Interventions: SSKT, Sham KT (no tension) and Minimal Intervention (Educational booklet for self-management counseling). Read More

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Sex Disparities in COVID-19 Mortality Vary Across US Racial Groups.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Women and Gender Studies, University of Southern Maine, Portland, Maine, USA.

Background: Inequities in COVID-19 outcomes in the USA have been clearly documented for sex and race: men are dying at higher rates than women, and Black individuals are dying at higher rates than white individuals. Unexplored, however, is how sex and race interact in COVID-19 outcomes.

Objective: Use available data to characterize COVID-19 mortality rates within and between race and sex strata in two US states, with the aim of understanding how apparent sex disparities in COVID-19 deaths vary across race. Read More

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Ring distribution patterns-diversification or speciation? Comparative phylogeography of two small mammals in the mountains surrounding the Sichuan Basin.

Mol Ecol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Studying the genetic differentiation in a unique geographic area contributes to understanding the process of speciation. Here, we explore the spatial genetic structure and underlying formation mechanism of two congeneric species (Apodemus draco and A. chevrieri), which are mainly distributed in the mountains surrounding the lowland Sichuan Basin, in Southwest China. Read More

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Construction of a Phenylboronic Acid-Functionalized Nano-Prodrug for pH-Responsive Emodin Delivery and Antibacterial Activity.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 18;6(12):8672-8679. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, P. R. China.

In this study, a pH-responsive nano-prodrug was fabricated by conjugating emodin to the PEGylated polyethyleneimine (mPEG-PEI) with acid-sensitive boronate ester bonds. H NMR spectra results showed that emodin was effectively bonded to mPEG-PEI, and acid-sensitive assay further confirmed the formation of boronate ester bonds. The size and morphology of the nano-prodrug were ascertained through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which showed that the prodrug has a sphere-like shape with hydrodynamic size around 102 nm at pH 7. Read More

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Dyslipidemia and Its Components Across Body Mass Index Levels Among Type II Diabetic Patients in the West of Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2020 11;11:188. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The combination of dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia can accelerate the progression to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate dyslipidemia and its components across body mass index (BMI) levels among type II diabetic patients.

Methods: The data for this cross-sectional study were extracted from the records of diabetic patients during 2014 to 2015. Read More

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December 2020

Efficient photodynamic inactivation of Leishmania parasites mediated by lipophilic water-soluble Zn(II) porphyrin ZnTnHex-2-PyP.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Mar 31:129897. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Departamento de Biofísica e Radiobiologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is emerging as a promising alternative for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The chemotherapy currently used, presents adverse effects and cases of drug resistance have been reported. ZnTnHex-2-PyP is a porphyrin with a high potential as a photosensitizer (PS) for PDI, due to its photophysical properties, structural stability, and cationic/amphiphilic character that can enhance interaction with cells. Read More

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Influence of cleaning methods after 3D printing on two-body wear and fracture load of resin-based temporary crown and bridge material.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Goethestrasse 70, 80336, Munich, Germany.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of different cleaning methods on the fracture load and two-body wear of additively manufactured three-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDP) for long-term temporary use, compared to the respective outcomes of milled provisional PMMA FDPs.

Materials And Methods: Shape congruent three-unit FDPs were 3D printed using three different resin-based materials [FPT, GCT, NMF] or milled [TEL] (N = 48, n = 16 per group). After printing, the FDPs were cleaned using: Isopropanol (ISO), Yellow Magic 7 (YEL), or centrifugal force (CEN). Read More

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Low-Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Oxynitride Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

The synthesis of transition metal oxynitrides is complicated by extreme reaction conditions such as high temperatures and/or high pressures. Here, we show an unprecedented solution-based synthesis of narrowly dispersed titanium oxynitride nanoparticles of cubic shape and average size of 65 nm. Their synthesis is performed by using titanium tetrafluoride and lithium nitride as precursors alongside trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) as stabilizers at temperatures as low as 250 °C. Read More

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Bactericidal Properties of Rod-, Peanut-, and Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles Coated with Ceragenin CSA-131 against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland.

Background: The ever-growing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains requires an increased effort to develop new antibiotics. Herein, we demonstrate that a new class of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), defined by shape and conjugated with ceragenin CSA-131 (cationic steroid antimicrobial), display strong bactericidal activity against intractable superbugs.

Methods: For the purpose of research, we developed nanosystems with rod- (AuR NPs@CSA-131), peanut-(AuP NPs@CSA-131) and star-shaped (AuS NPs@CSA-131) metal cores. Read More

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