72,291 results match your criteria sham treatment


Pharmacological blockade of neurokinin1 receptor restricts morphine-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia in the rat.

Scand J Pain 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Neurophysiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The most notable adverse side effects of chronic morphine administration include tolerance and hyperalgesia. This study investigated the involvement of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) protein kinase Cɛ (PKCɛ) expression during chronic morphine administration and also considered the relationship between DRG PKCɛ expression and the substance P- neurokinin1 receptor SP- NK1R) activity.

Methods: Thirty-six animals were divided into six groups (n=6) in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Colorectal cancer in the Linxian China Nutrition Intervention Trial: Risk factors and intervention results.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0255322. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers in economically developed countries and developing world. While dietary factors are associated with risk of CRC in the West and urban China, little is known about risk or protective factors in rural China.

Methods: The Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort was established over 30 years ago to test whether daily multivitamin/mineral supplements could reduce the incidence and mortality of esophageal/gastric cardia cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy and safety of electrical stimulation in the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in myelomeningocele-Systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, Brazil.

Aims: The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate and synthesize the effects (benefits and harms) of electrical stimulation (EE), alone or in association with other interventions, compared with sham and other interventions, for the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in myelomeningocele.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted following the methodological recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020200425). A search was performed in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, LILACS, and PEDro. Read More

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September 2021

Histopathological examination of the impact of sodium hypochlorite on the hepatobiliary system. An experimental study.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 ;92:412-418

Background: The liver is the most common organ for settlement of hydatic cyst disease. All acknowledged protoscolicidals that are used for echinococcus degeneration have a risk of caustic secondary sclerosing cholangitis. The sodium hypochlorite is an effective protoscolicidal agent for treatment of hydatid liver cysts in vitro. Read More

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September 2021

Menhaden fish oil attenuates postpartum depression in rat model via inhibition of NLRP3-inflammasome driven inflammatory pathway.

J Tradit Complement Med 2021 Sep 25;11(5):419-426. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background And Aim: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a familiar problem which is associated with about 10-20% of women after child delivery. Fish oil (FO) has a therapeutic potentials to many diseases including mood disorders. However, there is paucity of data on the effects of FO supplementation on PPD rat model. Read More

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September 2021

Resveratrol Pretreatment Inhibits Myocardial Apoptosis in Rats Following Coronary Microembolization via Inducing the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling Cascade.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 7;15:3821-3834. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University & Guangxi Key Laboratory Base of Precision Medicine in Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases Control and Prevention & Guangxi Clinical Research Center for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Coronary microembolization (CME) is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and apoptosis. Resveratrol (RES) has a considerable role in cardioprotection. However, the contribution and possible mechanisms of RES in CME have not been clearly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Neurofeedback as placebo: a case of unintentional deception?

J Med Ethics 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The use of placebo in clinical practice has been the topic of extensive debate in the bioethics literature, with much scholarship focusing on concerns regarding deception. While considerations of placebo without deception have largely centred on open-label placebo, this paper considers a different kind of ethical quandary regarding placebo without an intent to deceive-one where the provider believes a treatment is effective due to a direct physiological mechanism, even though that belief may not be supported by rigorous scientific evidence. This is often the case with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques and also with some mainstream therapies that have not proven to be better than sham. Read More

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September 2021

Alleviation of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by exosomes from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Transplant Research Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Renal ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is closely associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) exert powerful therapeutic effects in renal ischemia. However, the efficacy of iMSC-derived exosomes (iExo) on I/R injuries remains largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of local, regional and abscopal effects of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) combined with immunotherapy in an ectopic colon cancer model.

Br J Radiol 2021 Sep 14:20210593. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local and regional therapeutic efficacy and abscopal effect of BNCT mediated by boronophenyl-alanine, combined with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as an immunotherapy agent in this model.

Methods: The local effect of treatment was evaluated in terms of tumor response in the irradiated tumor-bearing right hind flank. Metastatic spread to tumor-draining lymph nodes was analyzed as an indicator of regional effect. Read More

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September 2021

Adjuvant Priming Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: In Search of a New Paradigm!

J ECT 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

From the Geriatric Mental Health, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Asha Hospital, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used as a therapeutic option for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in both clinical and research settings. There has been no consensus with regard to target area and other parameters, although 1-Hz rTMS over the supplementary motor area (SMA) is found to be promising. Priming stimulation, which involves high-frequency followed by low-frequency rTMS, has been shown to enhance neural response to low-frequency rTMS. Read More

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September 2021

Pain Modulation Induced by Electronic Wrist-ankle Acupuncture: A Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy Study.

Pain Pract 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: As a new technology, electronic wrist-ankle acupuncture (E-WAA) combines the advantages of wrist-ankle acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, but the analgesic effect and mechanism need to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to identify the pain modulation caused by electronic wrist-ankle acupuncture by evaluating the response of prefrontal cortex (PFC) from the perspective of neurophysiology.

Methods: 50 male volunteers (age 25. Read More

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September 2021

Predicting the immediate impact of national lockdown on neovascular age-related macular degeneration and associated visual morbidity: an INSIGHT Health Data Research Hub for Eye Health report.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: Predicting the impact of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) service disruption on visual outcomes following national lockdown in the UK to contain SARS-CoV-2.

Methods And Analysis: This retrospective cohort study includes deidentified data from 2229 UK patients from the INSIGHT Health Data Research digital hub. We forecasted the number of treatment-naïve nAMD patients requiring anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) initiation during UK lockdown (16 March 2020 through 31 July 2020) at Moorfields Eye Hospital (MEH) and University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB). Read More

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September 2021

An investigation of the effects of amniotic fluid on experimental ischemia/reperfusion damage in rat testes.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Izmir Saglik Bilimleri University, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Urology, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

Introduction: Various agents have been tested as preventive treatments for ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage. In this study, we have investigated for the first time in the literature the efficacy of injection of amniomax (AMX) into testicular parenchyma, which is a commercial medium of rat amniotic fluid, in preventing testicular IR damage related to testicular torsion.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate whether or not amniomax has an effect on experimental IR damage in rat testes using biochemical and histopathological methods based on data in the literature. Read More

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The effect of transcranial direct stimulation as an add-on treatment to conventional physical therapy on pain intensity and functional ability in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

Neurophysiol Clin 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Physiotherapy, Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation School, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objective: To investigate the effect of adding transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to conventional physiotherapy treatment (PT) on pain and performance of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).

Methods: Eighty people suffering from chronic KOA participated in this study. They were randomly divided into four treatment groups, including PT combined with tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1), PT combined with tDCS over the primary sensory cortex (S1), PT combined with tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and PT combined with sham tDCS. Read More

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September 2021

Salidroside protects against ventilation-induced lung injury by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):760-768

Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Context: Salidroside, a compound extracted from L. (Crassulaceae), possesses many beneficial pathological effects.

Objective: To explore the effect of salidroside on ventilator-induced lung endothelial dysfunction and . Read More

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December 2021

Combined Effects of Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Melatonin on Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

Bioelectromagnetics 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and melatonin (MEL) supplementation are expected to be important strategies for the treatment of osteoporosis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of PEMF therapy, MEL supplementation, a combination of PEMF therapy, and MEL supplementation (PEMF + MEL) in mice with bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis. Forty 12-week-old female C57/BL mice were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 8/group): OVX, PEMF, MEL, PEMF + MEL, and sham-operation (sham) groups. Read More

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September 2021

Disrupted Blood-Brain Barrier and Mitochondrial Impairment by Autotaxin-Lysophosphatidic Acid Axis in Postischemic Stroke.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 13:e021511. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport LA.

Background The loss of endothelial integrity increases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage during ischemic stroke. Adjunct therapeutic targets for reperfusion in ischemic stroke are in need to prevent blood-brain barrier disruption. Recently, we have shown that endothelial permeability is mediated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), but the role of autotaxin, which produces LPA, remains unclear in stroke. Read More

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September 2021

Protective effect of oltipraz in testicular ischaemia/reperfusion injury: An experimental study.

Andrologia 2021 Sep 12:e14245. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Urology, Prof. Dr. Cemil Tascioglu City Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Testicular torsion is an emergency urological disease, and the treatment is immediate surgery. Despite emergency surgery, testicular damage may occur due to reperfusion. Therefore, a medical treatment to prevent this damage may be a rational idea. Read More

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September 2021

The Effects of Intermittent Hypoxic-Hyperoxic Exposures on Lipid Profile and Inflammation in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 27;8:700826. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Cardiology, Functional and Ultrasound Diagnostics, N.V. Sklifosofsky, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) tend to suffer from comorbidities, and are often simultaneously affected by obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This syndrome can be reversed if it is timely diagnosed and treated with a combination of risk factors-reducing lifestyle changes and a tailored pharmacological plan. Interval hypoxic-hyperoxic training (IHHT) has been shown as an effective program in reducing cardiovascular risk factors in patients with MS even in the absence of exercise. Read More

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Hypomanic/manic switch after transcranial magnetic stimulation in mood disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

World J Psychiatry 2021 Aug 19;11(8):477-490. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti, Chieti 66100, Italy.

Background: Nowadays there is an increasing use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) both in neurological and psychiatric fields. After Food and Drug Administration approval of TMS for the therapy of treatment-resistant depression, TMS has been widely used in the context of mood disorders (MD). However, growing reports regarding the possibility of developing hypomanic/manic switch (HMS) have generated concern regarding its use in MDs. Read More

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Microglial Activation of GLP-1R Signaling in Neuropathic Pain Promotes Gene Expression Adaption Involved in Inflammatory Responses.

Neural Plast 2021 31;2021:9923537. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai 200240, China.

Background: Neuropathic pain is a common chronic pain, which is related to hypersensitivity to stimulus and greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Maladaptive gene changes and molecular signaling underlie the sensitization of nociceptive pathways. We previously found that the activation of microglial glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) could potently relieve formalin-, bone cancer-, peripheral nerve injury-, and diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Read More

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Acupuncture as an Adjunctive Treatment for Post-stroke Epilepsy: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:711390. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Encephalopathy, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Acupuncture has been clinically used to treat epilepsy after stroke. However, most of the current clinical studies are observational studies, and there are few well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Hence, we designed a multicentre RCT to assess the advantages and efficacy of acupuncture for post-stroke epilepsy (PSE). Read More

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Modulating the Activity of the VMPFC With tDCS Alters the Social Framing Effect.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 26;15:677006. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Center for Economic Behavior and Decision-Making, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou, China.

Numerous experimental studies have replicated the social framing effect-the observation that people's decisions related to economic benefits and feelings depend on the method of presentation. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) plays a part in the influence of framing and how individuals think about the feelings of others. Based on this, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate neuronal activity in the VMPFC to determine the likelihood of a direct association between VMPFC activity and the social framing effect. Read More

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Thread-Embedding Acupuncture for the Treatment of Shoulder Instability: Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled, Patient-Assessor Blinded Pilot Study.

J Pain Res 2021 4;14:2729-2737. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: This study aims to determine the feasibility of thread-embedding acupuncture (TEA) for the treatment of shoulder instability.

Patients And Methods: This is a patient-assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial with two parallel arms. A total of 40 patients with shoulder instability aged between 13 and 43 years will be recruited and screened using set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Read More

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September 2021

Dexmedetomidine and Phosphocreatine Post-treatment Provides Protection against Focal Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats.

Acta Histochem Cytochem 2021 Aug 7;54(4):105-113. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of the University of Science and Technology of China, No. 1 Swan Lake Road, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China.

In this study we investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of dexmedetomidine (Dex) and phosphocreatine (PCr) alone or in combination in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was induced by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the Sham group and I/R group, and the I/R group was further divided into three subgroups: Dex (9 μg. Read More

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Effects of amantadine and topiramate on neuronal damage in rats with experimental cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Background: Ischemia-reperfusion models are used to evaluate treatment options that may minimize cellular damage after ischemia.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of amantadine and topiramate on apoptosis and cellular oxidative damage.

Material And Methods: This experiment was performed using 30 male Wistar albino rats. Read More

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September 2021

Investigation of the effect of melatonin administration on inflammatory mediators; MMP-2, TGF-β and VEGF levels in rats with sepsis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 12:e14832. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey.

Aims: Sepsis causes life-threatening tissue and organ dysfunctions caused by endogenous mediators in response to infection. Melatonin is a powerful endogenous anti-inflammatory agent and effective in reducing cellular damage. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in serum and liver tissue levels of VEGF, TGF-β and MMP-2 in melatonin-treated septic rats. Read More

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September 2021

Protective role of melatonin and spirulina in aortic occlusion-reperfusion model in rats.

J Food Biochem 2021 Sep 12:e13926. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Saki Yenilli Experimental Animals Production Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey.

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the role of melatonin and spirulina on multiorgan damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IR) in a rat model. A total of 32 male rats weighing 200-220 g were allocated into 4 groups (n = 8/group) (Sham, Control-IR [CIR], Melatonin-IR [MIR], and Spirulina-IR [SIR]). Sham group underwent midline laparotomy and dissection of the aorta without injury. Read More

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September 2021

Durability of treatment response to zolpidem using a partial reinforcement regimen: does this strategy require priming?

Sleep Med 2021 Aug 21;87:56-61. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

In memoriam.

Background: Previous research has shown that after one month of full dose nightly treatment with zolpidem (priming), subjects with chronic insomnia (CI) switched to intermittent dosing with medication and placebos were able to maintain their treatment responses. This approach to maintenance therapy is referred to as partial reinforcement. The present study sought to assess whether priming is required for partial reinforcement or whether intermittent dosing with placebos (50% placebos and 50% active medication) can, by itself, be used for both acute and extended treatment. Read More

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