1,263 results match your criteria sga fetuses

Maternal and Fetal Vascular Lesions of Malperfusion in the Placentas Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Death: Results of a Prospective Observational Study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Columbia University, New York NY USA.

Background: Fetal death, one of the major adverse pregnancy outcomes, is especially common in low and middle-income countries. Placental lesions may play an important role in the etiology of fetal and possibly neonatal death. Prior research relating placental lesions to fetal death causation was often hindered by the lack of agreement on a placental classification scheme. Read More

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Perinatal Outcome and its Prediction Using Longitudinal Feto-Maternal Doppler Follow-Up in Late Onset Small for Gestational Age Fetuses - A Prospective Cohort Study.

Ultraschall Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Defects, German Heart Centre Munich, München, Germany.

Purpose:  To describe the perinatal outcome of a prospective cohort of late-onset small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses and to test adverse perinatal outcome (APO) prediction using Doppler measurements.

Methods:  Singleton pregnancies from 32 weeks with suspicion of SGA (followed-up each 2 weeks) and randomly selected healthy controls at a university hospital were included. The whole SGA group was divided into the FGR subgroup or SGA percentile 3-10 subgroup. Read More

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Individualized growth assessment in pregnancies complicated by fetal gastroschisis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 7:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objective: Prenatal ultrasound (US) has been shown to overestimate the incidence of suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR) in gastroschisis cases. This is largely because of altered sonographic abdominal circumference (AC) measurements when comparing gastroschisis cases with population nomograms. Individualized Growth Assessment (IGA) evaluates fetal growth using serial US measurements that allow consideration of the growth potential for a given case. Read More

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Interaction between Metformin, Folate and Vitamin B and the Potential Impact on Fetal Growth and Long-Term Metabolic Health in Diabetic Pregnancies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 28;22(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Metformin is the first-line treatment for many people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to maintain glycaemic control. Recent evidence suggests metformin can cross the placenta during pregnancy, thereby exposing the fetus to high concentrations of metformin and potentially restricting placental and fetal growth. Offspring exposed to metformin during gestation are at increased risk of being born small for gestational age (SGA) and show signs of 'catch up' growth and obesity during childhood which increases their risk of future cardiometabolic diseases. Read More

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Maternal nutrient restriction alters thyroid hormone dynamics in placentae of sheep having small for gestational age fetuses.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 May 2;77:106632. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, 2471 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843. Electronic address:

Thyroid hormones regulate a multitude of metabolic and cellular processes involved in placental and fetal growth, while maternal nutrient restriction (NR) has the potential to influence these processes. Those fetuses most impacted by NR, as categorized by weight, are termed small for gestational age (SGA), but the role of thyroid hormones in these pregnancies is not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine effects of NR during pregnancy on maternal and fetal thyroid hormone concentrations, as well as temporal and cell-specific expression of mRNAs and proteins for placental thyroid hormone transporters, thyroid hormone receptors, and deiodinases in ewes having either SGA or normal weight fetuses. Read More

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Placental chemical elements concentration in small fetuses and its relationship with Doppler markers of placental function.

Placenta 2021 May 14;110:1-8. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Forensic and Legal Medicine. University of Murcia, Spain.

Introduction: In this study, we aimed at quantifying placental concentrations of 22 chemical elements in small fetuses (SGA) as compared with normally grown fetuses (AGA), and to assess the relationship with Doppler markers of placental function.

Methods: Prospective cohort study, including 71 SGA fetuses (estimated fetal weight < 10th percentile) and 96 AGA fetuses (estimated fetal weight > 10th percentile), recruited in the third trimester of gestation. The placental concentration of 22 chemical elements was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES, ICAP 6500 Duo Thermo): aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), sulfur (S), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), thallium (Tl), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Read More

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Third trimester ultrasound estimated fetal weight for increasing prenatal prediction of small-for-gestational age newborns in low-risk pregnant women.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 23:1-6. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal and Fetal Medicine, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Aim: The early detection of small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses and newborns is pivotal in the prevention of perinatal mortality.

Objectives: To compare the predictive capability of performing ultrasound-based estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 32 versus 36 weeks' gestation on the detection rate of SGA fetuses and SGA newborns at delivery, and to find a better cutoff level to consider a fetus at risk of being born small.

Material And Methods: Nine hundred fifteen low-risk pregnant women were assessed at both 32 and 36 weeks' gestation. Read More

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The association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with small for gestational age and intertwin birthweight discordance.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Foshan Institute of Fetal Medicine, Affiliated Foshan Maternity & Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, China.

Available evidence shows conflicting results regarding the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs)/preeclampsia (PE) and small for gestational age (SGA) and birthweight discordance (BWD). This retrospective study of 2131 twin pregnancies aimed to evaluate the association of HDPs/PE with the presence of SGA and BWD. The eligible pregnancies were categorized into four study groups: concordant pairs without SGA fetuses, discordant pairs without SGA fetuses, concordant pairs with SGA fetuses, and discordant pairs with SGA fetuses. Read More

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Third-trimester growth diversity in small fetuses classified as AGA or SGA at birth.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: We have previously shown that 3 trimester growth in small fetuses (EFW < 10 percentile) with birth weights <10 percentile is heterogeneous using Individualized Growth Assessment (IGA). We hypothesize that individualized growth patterns in small fetuses with birth weights >10 percentile are also variable but in different ways.

Methods: This investigation was carried out on 191 fetuses/neonates derived from the PORTO study with EFW < 10 percentile and BW > 10 percentile. Read More

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The prevalence of abnormal Doppler's of the umbilical artery in a low-risk pregnant population in South Africa.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Apr 18;34:100792. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Unit Private Bag X323 Arcadia, Pretoria 0007, South Africa.

Background: The assessment of fetal blood flow using Doppler waveform can be used to identify placental insufficiency, and hence is a tool to identify fetuses at risk of stillbirth due to fetal growth restriction (FGR). In South Africa the largest category of perinatal deaths is 'unexplained intrauterine death'. The majority of the mothers are clinically healthy women. Read More

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Influence of Swimming Program on the Blood Pressure of Pregnant Hypertensive Rats and Their Fetuses.

Reprod Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratory of System Physiology and Reproductive Toxicology, Institute of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

The hypertension incidence and its complication on pregnant women are growing and can lead to adverse consequences on their fetuses. However, it is known that regular exercise practice can be healthful to hypertensive pregnant women but harmful to fetal growth. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise beginning before pregnancy or during pregnancy on the maternal blood pressure and reproductive outcome and on the fetal development of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Read More

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Molecular Pathways of Cellular Senescence and Placental Aging in Late Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 18;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pomeranian Medical University, Al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

Abnormally accelerated, premature placental senescence plays a crucial role in the genesis of pregnancy pathologies. Abnormal growth in the third trimester can present as small for gestational age fetuses or fetal growth restriction. One differs from the other by the presence of signs of placental insufficiency and the risk of stillbirth. Read More

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Fatty acids in the placenta of appropiate- versus small-for-gestational-age infants at term birth.

Placenta 2021 Jun 18;109:4-10. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Maternal-Fetal Metabolic Research Group, Girona Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBGI), 17190, Salt, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Fatty acids are essential nutrients for the fetus and are supplied by the mother through the placenta. Desaturase and elongase enzymes play an important role in modulating the fatty acid composition of body tissues. We aimed to compare the fatty acid profile and the estimated desaturase and elongase activities in the placenta of appropriate (AGA) versus small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and to determine their relationship with the offspring size at birth. Read More

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The risks of recurrent small for gestational age infants at term is dependent on the number of previous affected births.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Mater Research Institute-University of Queensland, Level 3 Aubigny Place, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia,; Mater Mothers' Hospital, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia,; Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia,. Electronic address:

Background: Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants are at significantly increased risk of perinatal complications, but the risk of recurrent SGA is not well known, particularly as there are many demographic and obstetric factors that interact and modify this risk. We investigated the relationship between previous SGA births and the risk of recurrence at term in a large Australian cohort.

Objective(s): We aimed to identify key demographic and obstetric variables that influence the risk of recurrence of an SGA infant at term. Read More

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Evaluation of Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women With Decreased Fetal Movements.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215071. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Mater Research, University of Queensland, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Importance: Stillbirth is a devastating pregnancy outcome with far-reaching economic and psychosocial consequences, but despite significant investment, a screening tool for identifying those fetuses at risk for stillbirth remains elusive. Maternal reporting of decreased fetal movements (DFM) has been found to be associated with stillbirth and other adverse perinatal outcomes.

Objective: To examine pregnancy outcomes of women presenting with DFM in the third trimester at a tertiary Australian center with a clear clinical management algorithm. Read More

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The impact of individual sonographer variation on the detection of small for gestational age fetuses using a third trimester growth scan.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 Jun 6;49(5):442-450. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Fetal Medicine Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: Detection of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses in a third trimester ultrasound could be affected by variation in sonographer performance.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all singleton, non-anomalous ultrasound examinations between 35 -36 weeks gestation, in a single institution where a universal 36-week scan is offered. Screen positive was defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile; SGA was birthweight <10th centile. Read More

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Ultrasound and Doppler findings in pregnant SARS-CoV-2 positive women.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Houston, Texas, USA.

Aim: There is limited information on ultrasound data from pregnant women SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2) positive. Our aim was to describe and compare ultrasound and Doppler findings from pregnant women either SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative evaluated during the pandemic period.

Methods: One hundred and six (106) pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the time or within one week of the ultrasound (US) scan were evaluated. Read More

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Fetal growth trajectory in type 1 pregestational diabetes (PGDM) - an ultrasound study.

Ginekol Pol 2021 ;92(2):110-117

Department of Reproduction, Chair of Obstertics, Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland, Poland.

Objectives: Growth disorders are frequent in diabetic pregnancies. However, they are difficult to predict and capture early during pregnancy. These newborns are at risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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January 2021

Gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain predicts fetal growth and neonatal outcomes.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Apr 12;42:307-312. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Nutrition & Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are salient predictors of pregnancy-outcomes. However, findings on the association between GDM, BMI, and GWG with fetal growth measures are limited.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GDM on fetal growth measures and birth outcomes. Read More

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Low CETP activity and unique composition of large VLDL and small HDL in women giving birth to small-for-gestational age infants.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6213. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol (C) and HDL-C is essential for fetal development. We hypothesized that women giving birth to large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants differed in longitudinal changes in lipoproteins, CETP activity and HDL-C and that placentas from women with higher or lower circulating HDL-C displayed differential expression of mRNAs involved in cholesterol/nutrient transport, insulin signaling, inflammation/ extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Circulating lipids and CETP activity was measured during pregnancy, NMR lipidomics in late pregnancy, and associations with LGA and SGA infants investigated. Read More

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Twin discordance: a study of volumetric fetal brain MRI and neurodevelopmental outcome.

Eur Radiol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, 52621, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Objective: This study employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare brain volumes of discordant twins and examined their neurodevelopment after birth by using a validated exam.

Study Design: A prospective historical cohort study of discordant dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) or monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin fetuses, who undergone an MRI scan to evaluate growth restriction in the discordant twin (weight < 10 centile) during 6 years period, at a single tertiary center. Twenty-seven twin pairs were included in the volumetric study and 17 pairs were included in the neurodevelopmental outcome examination. Read More

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[Impact of the healthcare pathway on the rate of obstetrical interventions in small for gestational age fetuses (IATROPAG Study)].

Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Département de gynécologie obstétrique, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69500 Bron, France; Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, HESPER EA 7425, 69008 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: While previous studies have demonstrated an improvement in implementation of clinical practices and an improved neonatal prognosis when growth restricted fetuses were followed within a standardized healthcare pathway, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obstetric interventions in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses followed within a standardized care pathway compared to a traditional care pathway.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study between 2015 and 2017, in a type III maternity hospital in Lyon, in a population of SGA fetuses, considered as such in case of antenatal diagnosis of fetal weight<10th percentile but>3rd centile without umbilical Doppler abnormality during antenatal surveillance and without ultrasound argument suggesting intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). We collected the gestational age at diagnosis, obstetrical events and prevention of preterm delivery (antenatal corticosteroids), gestation age at birth, the method of delivery (spontaneous or induced), indication of induction, the method of birth (spontaneous, instrumental extraction or caesarean section), and the immediate neonatal outcome including cord pH, Apgar score at 5minutes, birth weight and fetal sex. Read More

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Prenatal serum sFlt-1/PlGF ratio predicts the adverse neonatal outcomes among small-for-gestational-age fetuses in normotensive pregnant women: A prospective cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(8):e24681

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, 566, Nonhyeon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract: We investigated the predictive value of the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)-to-placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio for poor neonatal outcomes of SGA neonates in the absence of preeclampsia.This prospective cohort study included 530 singleton pregnant women who attended a prenatal screening program at a single institution. The sFlt-1/PlGF values at 24 to 28+6 weeks and 29 to 36+6 weeks of gestation were analyzed and compared between control and SGA group (subdivided as with normal neonatal outcomes and with poor neonatal outcomes). Read More

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February 2021

The impact of optimal dating on the assessment of fetal growth.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Feb 27;21(1):167. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Collége Français d'Echographie Foetale, CFEF, 34820, Teyran, France.

Background: The impact of using the Intergrowth (IG) dating formulae in comparison to the commonly used Robinson dating on the evaluation of biometrics and estimated fetal weight (EFW) has not been evaluated.

Methods: Nationwide cross-sectional study of routine fetal ultrasound biometry in low-risk pregnant women whose gestational age (GA) had been previously assessed by a first trimester CRL measurement. We compared the CRL-based GA according to the Robinson formula and the IG formula. Read More

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February 2021

Second Trimester Placental Growth Factor Levels and Placental Histopathology in Low-Risk Nulliparous Pregnancies.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, The University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON.

Objective: Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels are lower at delivery in pregnancies with preeclampsia or fetuses small for gestational age (SGA). These obstetrical complications are typically mediated by placental dysfunction, most commonly related to the specific placental phenotype termed placental maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between PlGF levels in the second trimester and the development of placental diseases that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes. Read More

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February 2021

Routine third-trimester ultrasound for the detection of small-for-gestational age in low-risk pregnancies (ROTTUS study): randomized controlled trial.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun;57(6):910-916

Fetal Medicine Research Center, BCNatal, Barcelona Center for Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Institut Clínic de Ginecologia, Obstetrícia i Neonatologia, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To compare the proportion of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants detected by routine third-trimester ultrasound vs those detected by selective ultrasound based on serial symphysis-fundus height (SFH) measurements (standard care) in low-risk pregnancy.

Methods: This was an open-label randomized controlled trial conducted at a hospital in Kenya between May 2018 and February 2020. Low-risk pregnant women were randomly allocated (ratio of 1:1) to routine ultrasound for fetal growth assessment between 36 + 0 and 37 + 6 weeks' gestation (intervention group) or to standard care, which involved a selective growth scan on clinical suspicion of fetal growth abnormality based on serial SFH measurements (control group). Read More

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Performance of a local reference curve for predicting small for gestational age fetuses in pregnant women with HIV/AIDS.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 May 6;49(4):322-327. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Obstetrics, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: To compare the performance of a local estimated fetal weight curve with curves established for other populations to predict small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses.

Methods: A retrospective and cross-sectional study involving 231 fetuses in which the performance of a local curve (proposed model) was compared with the Hadlock and Intergrowth-21st curves in the prediction of SGA fetuses, by applying them to a population of high-risk pregnant woman with HIV/AIDS. For each model, a receiver operating characteristic curve was adjusted, considering the SGA classification by the neonatal Intergrowth method as the gold standard, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Read More

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Large-for-gestational-age or macrosomia as a classifier for risk of adverse perinatal outcome: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Feb 18:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Reproductive Health, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland.

Objective: Small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and neonates are of great interest, while those who are too big are much less studied. The aim was to analyze the classifiers described by ACOG "Fetal macrosomia" practice bulletin as predictors of adverse perinatal outcomes for overgrown fetuses and their mothers.

Materials: From a database of 53,586 singleton term births, appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA), and macrosomic deliveries were selected. Read More

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February 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of fetal growth charts for placenta-related fetal growth restriction.

Placenta 2021 Feb 30;105:70-77. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada; Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X5, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: The choice of fetal growth chart to be used in antenatal screening for fetal growth restriction (FGR) has an important impact on the proportion of fetuses diagnosed as small for gestational age (SGA), and on the detection rate for FGR. We aimed to compare diagnostic accuracy of SGA diagnosed using four different common fetal growth charts [Hadlock, Intergrowth-21st (IG21), World Health Organization (WHO), and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)], for abnormal placental pathology.

Methods: A secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study in low-risk nulliparous women. Read More

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February 2021

Fetal neurosonography detects differences in cortical development and corpus callosum in late-onset small fetuses.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

BCNatal | Fetal Medicine Research Center (Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore whether neurosonography can detect differences in cortical development and corpus callosum length in late-onset small fetuses sub-classified into small-for-gestational age (SGA) or fetal growth restriction (FGR).

Methods: A prospective cohort study in 318 singleton pregnancies including 97 normally grown and 221 late-onset small fetuses (birthweight below the 10 centile diagnosed after 32 weeks of gestation). Small fetuses were sub-classified into SGA (birthweight between the 3 and 9 centile and normal fetoplacental Doppler; n=67) and FGR (birthweight <3 centile and/or abnormal cerebroplacental ratio and/or uterine artery Doppler; n=154). Read More

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January 2021