242 results match your criteria sex-specific isoforms

Unconventional translation initiation factor EIF2A is required for Drosophila spermatogenesis.

Dev Dyn 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA.

Background: EIF2A is an unconventional translation factor required for initiation of protein synthesis from non-AUG codons from a variety of transcripts, including oncogenes and stress related transcripts in mammalian cells. Its function in multicellular organisms has not been reported.

Results: Here, we identify and characterize mutant alleles of the CG7414 gene, which encodes the Drosophila EIF2A ortholog. Read More

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Long-read RNA sequencing reveals widespread sex-specific alternative splicing in threespine stickleback fish.

Genome Res 2021 Aug 15;31(8):1486-1497. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

Alternate isoforms are important contributors to phenotypic diversity across eukaryotes. Although short-read RNA-sequencing has increased our understanding of isoform diversity, it is challenging to accurately detect full-length transcripts, preventing the identification of many alternate isoforms. Long-read sequencing technologies have made it possible to sequence full-length alternative transcripts, accurately characterizing alternative splicing events, alternate transcription start and end sites, and differences in UTR regions. Read More

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A role for sex-determination genes in life history evolution? Doublesex mediates sexual size dimorphism in the gazelle dung beetle.

Patrick T Rohner

J Evol Biol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

An organism's fitness depends strongly on its age and size at maturation. Although the evolutionary forces acting on these critical life history traits have been heavily scrutinized, the developmental mechanisms underpinning intraspecific variation in adult size and development time remain much less well-understood. Using RNA interference, I here show that the highly conserved sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) mediates sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in the gazelle dung beetle Digitonthophagus gazella. Read More

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Variance in expression and localization of sex-related genes CgDsx, CgBHMG1 and CgFoxl2 during diploid and triploid Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas gonad differentiation.

Gene 2021 Jul 4;790:145692. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Several evolutionarily conserved classes of transcriptional regulators were involved in diverse sex determination and differentiation pathways across taxa, whereas their roles in most mollusks is still limited. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a dioecious bivalve with sex reversal, could be an ideal model for this issue because of its complex sexuality and potential disruption of sex differentiation in triploid individuals. Here, two mRNA splicing isoforms of a DM domain gene CgDsx and two isoforms of a novel sex-related CgBHMG1 (ortholog of BHMG1 in mammals) were identified in C. Read More

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The Associations of Cerebrospinal Fluid ApoE and Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: Exploring Interactions With Sex.

Front Neurosci 2021 3;15:633576. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background: Sex-related difference in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) isoforms have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

Objective: We aimed to explore whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ApoE is associated with AD biomarkers and whether the associations are different (between sexes).

Methods: Data of 309 participants [92 with normal cognition, 148 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 69 with AD dementia] from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were cross-sectionally evaluated with the multiple linear regression model and longitudinally with the multivariate linear mixed-effects model for the associations of CSF ApoE with AD biomarkers. Read More

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Interplay between sex determination cascade and major signaling pathways during Drosophila eye development: Perspectives for future research.

Dev Biol 2021 Aug 18;476:41-52. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg, 195251, Russia. Electronic address:

Understanding molecular mechanisms of sexually dimorphic organ growth is a fundamental problem of developmental biology. Recent quantitative studies showed that the Drosophila compound eye is a convenient model to study the determination of the final organ size. In Drosophila, females have larger eyes than males and this is evident even after correction for the larger body size. Read More

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Differential expression of GluN2 NMDA receptor subunits in the dorsal horn of male and female rats.

Channels (Austin) 2021 12;15(1):179-192

Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University , Ottawa, Canada.

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed throughout the CNS, including in the spinal dorsal horn. The GluN2 subtypes of NMDAR subunit, which include GluN2A, GluN2B, and GluN2D in the dorsal horn, confer NMDARs with structural and functional variability, enabling heterogeneity in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Despite essential roles for NMDARs in physiological and pathological pain processing, the distribution and function of these specific GluN2 isoforms across dorsal horn laminae remain poorly understood. Read More

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December 2021

Alterations to Placental Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression with Alcohol Consumption.

Reprod Sci 2021 05 6;28(5):1390-1402. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Mater Research Institute-University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in elevated vulnerability to intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, miscarriage, and stillbirth. Many of the detrimental effects of fetal alcohol exposure may be mediated through placental dysfunction; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of maternal alcohol exposure prior to and during early pregnancy on placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms, associated GR regulated genes, and infant outcomes. Read More

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Isoform-specific roles for AKT in affective behavior, spatial memory, and extinction related to psychiatric disorders.

Elife 2020 12 16;9. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, United States.

AKT is implicated in neurological disorders. AKT has three isoforms, AKT1/AKT2/AKT3, with brain cell type-specific expression that may differentially influence behavior. Therefore, we examined single isoform, conditional brain-specific , and double mutant mice in behaviors relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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December 2020

Alternative splicing patterns of doublesex reveal a missing link between Nix and doublesex in the sex determination cascade of Aedes albopictus.

Insect Sci 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Pathogen Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Sexual development in insects is regulated by a complicated hierarchical cascade of sex determination. The primary signals are diverse, whereas the central nexus doublesex (dsx) gene is relatively conserved within the pathway. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is an important vector with an extensive worldwide distribution. Read More

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November 2020

Sex-Specific Selection Drives the Evolution of Alternative Splicing in Birds.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 01;38(2):519-530

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Males and females of the same species share the majority of their genomes, yet they are frequently exposed to conflicting selection pressures. Gene regulation is widely assumed to resolve these conflicting sex-specific selection pressures, and although there has been considerable focus on elucidating the role of gene expression level in sex-specific adaptation, other regulatory mechanisms have been overlooked. Alternative splicing enables different transcripts to be generated from the same gene, meaning that exons which have sex-specific beneficial effects can in theory be retained in the gene product, whereas exons with detrimental effects can be skipped. Read More

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January 2021

p38δ genetic ablation protects female mice from anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 10 21;319(4):H775-H786. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia.

The efficacy of an anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX) as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX is associated with activation of intracellular stress signaling pathways including p38 MAPKs. While previous studies have implicated p38 MAPK signaling in DOX-induced cardiac injury, the roles of the individual p38 isoforms, specifically, of the alternative isoforms p38γ and p38δ, remain uncharacterized. Read More

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October 2020

Age-related changes in isolated mouse skeletal muscle function are dependent on sex, muscle, and contractility mode.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2020 09 22;319(3):R296-R314. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.

The present study aimed to simultaneously examine the age-related, muscle-specific, sex-specific, and contractile mode-specific changes in isolated mouse skeletal muscle function and morphology across multiple ages. Measurements of mammalian muscle morphology, isometric force and stress (force/cross-sectional area), absolute and normalized (power/muscle mass) work-loop power across a range of contractile velocities, fatigue resistance, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform concentration were measured in 232 isolated mouse (CD-1) soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm from male and female animals aged 3, 10, 30, 52, and 78 wk. Aging resulted in increased body mass and increased soleus and EDL muscle mass, with atrophy only present for female EDL by 78 wk despite no change in MHC isoform concentration. Read More

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September 2020

Modulated Expression of the Protein Kinase GSK3 in Motor and Dopaminergic Neurons Increases Female Lifespan in .

Front Genet 2020 30;11:668. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Genome Variation, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Most eukaryotic genes express multiple transcripts and proteins, and a sophisticated gene expression strategy plays a crucial role in ensuring the cell-specificity of genetic information and the correctness of phenotypes. The gene encodes several isoforms of the conserved glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which is vitally important for multiple biological processes. To characterize the phenotypic effects of differential expression, we explored how the multidirectional modulation of the expression of the main GSK3 isoform, Shaggy-PB, in different tissues and cells affects lifespan. Read More

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Cell Type- and Sex-Specific Dysregulation of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Placentas in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 5;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Maistrasse 11, 80337 Munich, Germany.

Thyroid hormones are essential for development of trophoblasts and the fetus. They also regulate a wide range of metabolic processes. We investigated the influence of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on thyroid hormone receptor (THR) isoforms THRα1, THRα2, THRβ1 and THRβ2 of the human placenta in a sex- and cell-type specific manner. Read More

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Layered roles of isoforms in specification and function of male aggression-promoting neurons in .

Elife 2020 04 21;9. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, United States.

Inter-male aggressive behavior is a prominent sexually dimorphic behavior. Neural circuits that underlie aggressive behavior are therefore likely under the control of sex-determining genes. However, the neurogenetic mechanism that generates sex-specific aggressive behavior remains largely unknown. Read More

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Stress-mediated convergence of splicing landscapes in male and female rock doves.

BMC Genomics 2020 Mar 23;21(1):251. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.

Background: The process of alternative splicing provides a unique mechanism by which eukaryotes are able to produce numerous protein products from the same gene. Heightened variability in the proteome has been thought to potentiate increased behavioral complexity and response flexibility to environmental stimuli, thus contributing to more refined traits on which natural and sexual selection can act. While it has been long known that various forms of environmental stress can negatively affect sexual behavior and reproduction, we know little of how stress can affect the alternative splicing associated with these events, and less still about how splicing may differ between sexes. Read More

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Ribosomal RNA fragmentation into short RNAs (rRFs) is modulated in a sex- and population of origin-specific manner.

BMC Biol 2020 04 13;18(1):38. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Computational Medicine Center, Jefferson Alumni Hall #M81, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA.

Background: The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the discovery of short and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in an unbiased manner using reverse genetics approaches, enabling the discovery of multiple categories of ncRNAs and characterization of the way their expression is regulated. We previously showed that the identities and abundances of microRNA isoforms (isomiRs) and transfer RNA-derived fragments (tRFs) are tightly regulated, and that they depend on a person's sex and population origin, as well as on tissue type, tissue state, and disease type. Here, we characterize the regulation and distribution of fragments derived from ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Read More

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Characteristic and Functional Study of , a Gene Related to Female Fertility in .

Front Physiol 2020 25;11:55. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The () gene acts in concert with () at the end of the sex determination hierarchy to control somatic sexual differentiation in . Here, we report the homolog in () with differential splicing events. Four isoforms were found in adults, including two sex-specific transcripts ( and ). Read More

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February 2020

A Direct Comparison of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Protein Levels in Mice Provides Unexpected Insights into Thyroid Hormone Action.

Thyroid 2020 08 6;30(8):1193-1204. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

Thyroid hormone (TH) action is mediated by three major thyroid hormone receptor (THR) isoforms α1, β1, and β2 (THRA1, THRB1, and THRB2). These THRs and a fourth major but non-TH binding isoform, THRA2, are encoded by two genes and . Reliable antibodies against all THR isoforms are not available, and THR isoform protein levels in mammalian tissues are often inferred from messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Read More

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Doublesex Mediates the Development of Sex-Specific Pheromone Organs in Bicyclus Butterflies via Multiple Mechanisms.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 06;37(6):1694-1707

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The Bicyclus lineage of satyrid butterflies exhibits male-specific traits, the scent organs, used for chemical communication during courtship. These organs consist of tightly packed brush-like scales (hair-pencils) that rub against scent patches to disperse pheromones, but the evolution and molecular basis of these organ's male-limited development remains unknown. Here, we examine the evolution of the number and location of the scent patches and hair-pencils within 53 species of Bicyclus butterflies, and the involvement of the sex determinant gene doublesex (dsx) in scent organ development in Bicyclus anynana using CRISPR/Cas9. Read More

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Sex and fiber type independently influence AMPK, TBC1D1, and TBC1D4 at rest and during recovery from high-intensity exercise in humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 02 2;128(2):350-361. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Center for Sport Performance, California State University, Fullerton, California.

Women and men present different metabolic responses to exercise, yet whether this phenomenon results from differences in fiber type (FT) composition or other sex-specific factors remains unclear. Therefore, our aim was to examine the effects of sex and FT independently on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), Tre-2/BUB2/CDC1 domain family (TBC1D)1, and TBC1D4 in response to acute exercise. Segregated pools of myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and MHC IIa fibers were prepared from vastus lateralis biopsies of young trained men and women at rest and during recovery (0 min, 45 min, 90 min, or 180 min) from high-intensity interval exercise (6 × 1. Read More

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February 2020

Effects of sex and fasting/refeeding on hepatic AMPK signaling in chickens (Gallus gallus).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2020 02 30;240:110606. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

BOA, INRA, Université de Tours, 37380 Nouzilly, France.

The alpha-1 isoform of chicken AMPK situates on the Z-chromosome, in contrast, the other isoforms in birds and the mammalian AMPKα1 are located on the autosomes. The present study aimed to investigate the role of hepatic AMPK signaling in adaptation to nutritional status and the potential sex-specific response in chickens. Hepatic genes and proteins were compared between the two sexes immediately after hatching. Read More

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February 2020

Mapping of the Sex Determining Region on Linkage Group 12 of Guppy ().

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 11 5;9(11):3867-3875. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Institute of Animal Science, HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159, 7528809, Rishon LeTsiyon, Israel,

is one of the most popular ornamental fish species with a higher demand for males due to their large colorful fins. The objectives of this study were mapping of the sex-determining (SD) region on linkage group 12 of guppy, and identification of a sex specific marker. We generated eight polymorphic microsatellite markers distributed along the distal 5. Read More

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November 2019

Behavioural effects of high fat diet in adult Nrg1 type III transgenic mice.

Behav Brain Res 2020 01 6;377:112217. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, 2031, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia; School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, NSW, 2560, Australia. Electronic address:

Some diets appear to have detrimental effects on schizophrenia symptoms. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a risk gene for schizophrenia and a recently developed transgenic mouse model for Nrg1 type III demonstrates a schizophrenia-relevant phenotype. The current study evaluated the behavioural response of Nrg1 type III transgenic mice to a high fat diet (HFD) to determine the potential interactive impact of diets and genetic risk factors on disease symptoms. Read More

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January 2020

Hemimetabolous insects elucidate the origin of sexual development via alternative splicing.

Elife 2019 09 3;8. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, United States.

Insects are the only known animals in which sexual differentiation is controlled by sex-specific splicing. The transcription factor produces distinct male and female isoforms, which are both essential for sex-specific development. splicing depends on , which is also alternatively spliced such that functional Tra is only present in females. Read More

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September 2019

The Hox gene uses Doublesex as a cofactor to promote neuroblast apoptosis in the central nervous system.

Development 2019 08 22;146(16). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Drosophila Neural Development, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Inner Ring Road, Uppal, Hyderabad 500039, India

Highly conserved DM domain-containing transcription factors (Doublesex/MAB-3/DMRT1) are responsible for generating sexually dimorphic features. In the central nervous system, a set of Doublesex (Dsx)-expressing neuroblasts undergo apoptosis in females whereas their male counterparts proliferate and give rise to serotonergic neurons crucial for adult mating behaviour. Our study demonstrates that the female-specific isoform of Dsx collaborates with Hox gene () to bring about this apoptosis. Read More

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Alternative polyadenylation produces multiple 3' untranslated regions of odorant receptor mRNAs in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jul 12;20(1):577. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

CNRS, INSERM, Institut de Biologie Paris Seine, Neuroscience Paris Seine, NPS, Sorbonne Université, F-75005, Paris, France.

Background: Odorant receptor genes constitute the largest gene family in mammalian genomes and this family has been extensively studied in several species, but to date far less attention has been paid to the characterization of their mRNA 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). Given the increasing importance of UTRs in the understanding of RNA metabolism, and the growing interest in alternative polyadenylation especially in the nervous system, we aimed at identifying the alternative isoforms of odorant receptor mRNAs generated through 3'UTR variation.

Results: We implemented a dedicated pipeline using IsoSCM instead of Cufflinks to analyze RNA-Seq data from whole olfactory mucosa of adult mice and obtained an extensive description of the 3'UTR isoforms of odorant receptor mRNAs. Read More

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Modular tissue-specific regulation of underpins sexually dimorphic development in .

Development 2019 07 25;146(14). Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA

The ability of a single genome to produce distinct and often dramatically different male and female forms is one of the wonders of animal development. In , most sexually dimorphic traits are controlled by sex-specific isoforms of the () transcription factor, and expression is mostly limited to cells that give rise to sexually dimorphic traits. However, it is unknown how this mosaic of sexually dimorphic and monomorphic organs arises. Read More

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Mutation of doublesex induces sex-specific sterility of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 09 3;112:103180. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai, 200032, China. Electronic address:

DOUBLESEX (DSX): the downstream gene in the insect sex determination pathway, plays a critical role in sexual differentiation and development. The functions of dsx have been characterized in several model insect species. However, the molecular mechanism and functions of sex determination of dsx in Plutella xylostella, an agricultural pest, are still unknown. Read More

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September 2019