1,411 results match your criteria sex-determining factor

Pluripotency inducing Yamanaka factors: role in stemness and chemoresistance of liver cancer.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 May 6:1-12. Epub 2021 May 6.

Molecular Cancer Genetics & Translational Research Laboratory, Section of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-Uttar Pradesh, India.

: Liver cancer is a major cause of mortality and is characterized by the transformation of cells into an uncontrolled mass of tumor cells with many genetic and epigenetic changes, which lead to the development of tumors. A small subpopulation of cell population known as Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) is responsible for cancer stemness and chemoresistance. Yamanaka factors [octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and Myelocytomatosis (MYC); OSKM] are responsible for cancer cell stemness, chemoresistance, and recurrence. Read More

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Diverse Regulation but Conserved Function: SOX9 in Vertebrate Sex Determination.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;12(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Sex Development Laboratory, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, VIC 3168, Australia.

Sex determination occurs early during embryogenesis among vertebrates. It involves the differentiation of the bipotential gonad to ovaries or testes by a fascinating diversity of molecular switches. In most mammals, the switch is (sex determining region Y); in other vertebrates it could be one of a variety of genes including or Downstream of the switch gene, upregulation is a central event in testes development, controlled by gonad-specific enhancers across the 2 Mb locus. Read More

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Deletions on Chromosome Y and Downregulation of the Gene in Tumor Tissue Are Associated with Worse Survival of Glioblastoma Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, 58185 Linköping, Sweden.

Background: Biological causes of sex disparity seen in the prevalence of cancer, including glioblastoma (GBM), remain poorly understood. One of the considered aspects is the involvement of the sex chromosomes, especially loss of chromosome Y (LOY).

Methods: Tumors from 105 isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild type male GBM patients were tested with droplet digital PCR for copy number changes of ten genes on chromosome Y. Read More

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TFEB regulates pluripotency transcriptional network in mouse embryonic stem cells independent of autophagy-lysosomal biogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 1;12(4):343. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Seoul, 130-743, Republic of Korea.

Transcription factor EB (TFEB), a well-known master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, is a member of the microphthalmia family of transcription factors (MiT family). Over the years, TFEB has been shown to have diverse roles in various physiological processes such as clearance for intracellular pathogenic factors and having developmental functions such as dendritic maturation, as well as osteoclast, and endoderm differentiation. However, in the present study, we propose a novel mechanism for TFEB governing pluripotency of mouse ESCs (mESCs) by regulating the pluripotency transcriptional network (PTN) in these cells. Read More

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Role of microRNA-15a-5p/Sox9/NF-κB axis in inflammatory factors and apoptosis of murine nucleus pulposus cells in intervertebral disc degeneration.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 26;277:119408. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Spine Surgery, Wuxi 9th Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Wuxi 214000, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Objective: MicroRNAs are well-established players in post-transcriptional gene modulation. We aim to explore the role of microRNA-15a-5p (miR-15a-5p)/sex determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) axis in inflammation and apoptosis of murine nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD).

Methods: Expression levels of miR-15a-5p and Sox9 in disc tissues from IVDD patients were determined. Read More

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Immune evasion by cancer stem cells.

Regen Ther 2021 Jun 11;17:20-33. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Medical Genetics and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Genomic Medicine and Regenerative Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-cho, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503, Japan.

Tumor immunity represents a new avenue for cancer therapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have successfully improved outcomes in several tumor types. In addition, currently, immune cell-based therapy is also attracting significant attention. Read More

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Clinicopathological significance of SOX4 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25028

Department Of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong.

Background And Aim: Sex-determining region-Y-related high-mobility-group box 4 (SOX4) is associated with the metastasis and prognosis of many cancer types. However, studies on the role of SOX4 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are few, and hence the mechanism is unclear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows neoplastic cells to gain the plasticity and motility required for tumor progression and metastasis. Read More

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Neural precursor cells are decreased in the hippocampus of the delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy rat model.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6244. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Molecules and Function, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime, 791-0295, Japan.

The pathophysiology of delayed carbon monoxide (CO) encephalopathy remains unclear. In this study, the effects of CO exposure on the dentate gyrus (DG) were investigated in a Wistar rat model by histochemical and molecular methods. Model rats showed significant cognitive impairment in the passive-avoidance test beginning 7 days after CO exposure. Read More

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Sex determining region Y-box 9 induced microtubule formation and epithelial⁃mesenchymal transition in human oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL27 cells.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;39(1):74-80

Dept. of Stomatology, Affiliated Hospital of Tongji Medical University, Wuhan 430000, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effect of sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) on the microtubule formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) CAL27 and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: SOX9-shRNA1 and SOX9-shRNA2 were designed and synthesized and then transfected into CAL27 cells. The expression of SOX9 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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February 2021

The Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Sex-Determining Region Y-Box 2 and its Prognostic Value in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Meta-Analysis.

Breast Care (Basel) 2021 Feb 26;16(1):16-26. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Cancer Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Objective: Transcription factor SOX2 (sex-determining region Y-box 2) has a crucial role in the maintenance of the stem cell state. However, current evidence regarding the role of SOX2 in breast cancer is conflicting. We conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the association of SOX2 expression with clinical and molecular features and its prognostic effect on breast cancer. Read More

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February 2021

amplification and gain significantly impact prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Feb;9(4):321

Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic role of () amplification and expression in surgically resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: We evaluated 450 ESCC samples using fluorescence in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for gene amplification and protein expression, respectively. The relationships of gene status with various clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival were statistically analyzed. Read More

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February 2021

Asiaticoside inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell-like properties of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells by blocking the activation of p65 and p38MAPK.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Feb;12(1):196-206

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: To analyze the inhibitory effects of Asiaticoside (ATS) on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties of a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) by blocking the activation of p65 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK).

Methods: ATS concentrations were set at 0, 10, 25, and 50 µmol/L. The survival rate of PANC-1 cells in each group was detected by CCK-8, and CD133 and CD44 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. Read More

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February 2021

Infiltration of CD163-, PD-L1- and FoxP3-positive cells adversely affects outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma independent of established risk factors.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 8;193(3):520-531. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

We characterised patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) with poor prognosis based on differences in immune infiltration. Different expressions of the tumour cell markers Cyclin D1 and sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 11 (SOX11), and the immune markers cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), CD4, CD8, CD25, forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), T-box transcription factor TBX21 (T-bet), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD163 were investigated for all-cause mortality in 282 patients with MCL and time-to-progression (TTP) in 106 clinical trial patients. With increasing age, a significantly lower infiltration of CD3 T lymphocytes was seen. Read More

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Primary sex determination in birds depends on DMRT1 dosage, but gonadal sex does not determine adult secondary sex characteristics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(10)

Division of Functional Genomics and Development, The Roslin Institute, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, EH25 9RG Midlothian, United Kingdom.

In birds, males are the homogametic sex (ZZ) and females the heterogametic sex (ZW). Primary sex determination is thought to depend on a sex chromosome gene dosage mechanism, and the most likely sex determinant is the Z chromosome gene Doublesex and Mab-3-Related Transcription factor 1 (DMRT1). To clarify this issue, we used a CRISPR-Cas9-based monoallelic targeting approach and sterile surrogate hosts to generate birds with targeted mutations in the DMRT1 gene. Read More

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Chromosome level reference of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus provides insight into the evolution of sexual determination systems.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Changes in the genetic mechanisms that control sexual determination have occurred independently across the tree of life, and with exceptional frequency in teleost fishes. To investigate the genomic changes underlying the evolution of sexual determination, we sequenced a chromosome-level genome, multitissue transcriptomes, and reduced representation population data for the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), which has an XY/XX sex determination mechanism and has recently diverged (0.9-3. Read More

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Chromosome-scale assembly of the genome of Salix dunnii reveals a male-heterogametic sex determination system on chromosome 7.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants, Ministry of Education, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Sex determination systems in plants can involve either female or male heterogamety (ZW or XY, respectively). Here we used Illumina short reads, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) long reads and Hi-C reads to assemble the first chromosome-scale genome of a female willow tree (Salix dunnii), and to predict genes using transcriptome sequences and available databases. The final genome sequence of 328 Mb in total was assembled in 29 scaffolds, and includes 31,501 predicted genes. Read More

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February 2021

Unfavorable Prognostic Effects of the Stem Cell Pluripotency Factor Sox2 in Feline Invasive Mammary Carcinomas.

Front Vet Sci 2020 22;7:622019. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

AMaROC (Animal Cancers, Models for Research in Comparative Oncology), Oniris, Nantes Atlantic College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering, Nantes, France.

Sex-determining Region Y (SRY)-box transcription factor-2 (Sox2) belongs to the "Yamanaka's factors," necessary and sufficient to convert somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells. In breast cancers, Sox2 expression has been associated with poor prognosis, and resistance to therapy. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of Sox2 positivity in feline invasive mammary carcinomas (FMCs), its relationships with other clinical-pathologic variables, and with patient outcomes. Read More

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January 2021

Leptin improves the in vitro development of preimplantation rabbit embryos under oxidative stress of cryopreservation.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(2):e0246307. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Vitrification is an economically effective method for embryo cryopreservation in human and livestock animals; however, it carries the risk of damage by the exposure to severe oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of leptin at different levels on the in vitro development of fresh and vitrified preimplantation embryos in a rabbit model. Normal embryos at morulae stage were randomly cultured for 2 h with 0, 10, 20 or 100 ng/mL of leptin, then were cultured for further 48 h as freshly or after vitrification. Read More

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February 2021

Cellular reprogramming with multigene activation by the delivery of CRISPR/dCas9 ribonucleoproteins via magnetic peptide-imprinted chitosan nanoparticles.

Mater Today Bio 2021 Jan 20;9:100091. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, 81148, Taiwan.

Induced pluripotent stem cells are usually derived by reprogramming transcription factors (OSKM), such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and cellular proto-oncogene (c-Myc). However, the genomic integration of transcription factors risks the insertion of mutations into the genome of the target cells. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has been used to edit genomes. Read More

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January 2021

The Diversity and Dynamics of Sex Determination in Dioecious Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2020 15;11:580488. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Großhansdorf, Germany.

The diversity of inflorescences among flowering plants is captivating. Such charm is not only due to the variety of sizes, shapes, colors, and flowers displayed, but also to the range of reproductive systems. For instance, hermaphrodites occur abundantly throughout the plant kingdom with both stamens and carpels within the same flower. Read More

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January 2021

Sox4 represses host innate immunity to facilitate pathogen infection by hijacking the TLR signaling networks.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):704-722

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jinan University , Guangzhou, China.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential for the protection of the host from pathogen infections by initiating the integration of contextual cues to regulate inflammation and immunity. However, without tightly controlled immune responses, the host will be subjected to detrimental outcomes. Therefore, it is important to balance the positive and negative regulations of TLRs to eliminate pathogen infection, yet avert harmful immunological consequences. Read More

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December 2021

microRNA-377 acts as a suppressor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through CBX3-dependent P53/P21 pathway.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jan 16;236(1):107-120. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Thoracic Surgery Oncology, Jiangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, China.

Stem cells play pivotal roles in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) recurrence and metastasis. The self-renewal ability of stem cells was associated with specific microRNAs (miRs). Herein, we identified the effects of miR-377 on ESCC stem cell activities. Read More

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January 2021

Influence of aging on the peripheral nerve repair process using an artificial nerve conduit.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Feb 21;21(2):168. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

The influence of aging on the induction of nerve regeneration in artificial nerve conduits has yet to be clarified. In the present study, artificial nerve conduit transplantation and histological analysis using the sciatic nerve of young and elderly mice were performed. Using 20 male C57BL/6 mice, an artificial nerve conduit was transplanted to the sciatic nerve at 8 weeks (Young group) or 70 weeks of age (Aged group), and the sciatic nerve was evaluated histologically at 1, 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. Read More

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February 2021

SOX2Mediates Carbon Nanotube-Induced Fibrogenesis and Fibroblast Stem Cell Acquisition.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 09 21;6(9):5290-5304. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, United States.

Certain nanosized particles like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known to induce pulmonary fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear, and efforts to prevent this disease are lacking. Fibroblast-associated stem cells (FSCs) have been suggested as a critical driver of fibrosis induced by CNTs by serving as a renewable source of extracellular matrix-producing cells; however, a detailed understanding of this process remains obscure. Here, we demonstrated that single-walled CNTs induced FSC acquisition and fibrogenic responses in primary human lung fibroblasts. Read More

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September 2020

SOX12 expression is associated with progression and poor prognosis in human breast cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(12):8162-8174. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai, China.

The sex-determining region Y-box 12 (SOX12) is implicated in several oncogenic signaling pathways of multiple types of cancer; however, the biological effects of SOX12 on breast cancer has yet to be elucidated. Here, we assessed SOX12 expression using real-time quantitative PCR in 142 pairs of breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) and immunohistochemistry in 524 breast cancer and 147 ANTs. The effects of SOX12 on breast cancer progression, clinicopathological variables, and prognostic value were then investigated. Read More

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December 2020

femaleless Controls Sex Determination and Dosage Compensation Pathways in Females of Anopheles Mosquitoes.

Curr Biol 2021 Mar 7;31(5):1084-1091.e4. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK. Electronic address:

The insect sex determination and the intimately linked dosage compensation pathways represent a challenging evolutionary puzzle that has been solved only in Drosophila melanogaster. Analyses of orthologs of the Drosophila genes identified in non-drosophilid taxa revealed that evolution of sex determination pathways is consistent with a bottom-up mode, where only the terminal genes within the pathway are well conserved. doublesex (dsx), occupying a bottom-most position and encoding sex-specific proteins orchestrating downstream sexual differentiation processes, is an ancient sex-determining gene present in all studied species. Read More

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Effect of low oxygen tension on transcriptional factor OCT4 and SOX2 expression in New Zealand rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Erma Safitri

Vet World 2020 Nov 18;13(11):2469-2476. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Veterinary Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.

Background And Aim: Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) are transcription factors whose functions are essential to maintain the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. The purpose of this study was to derive stem cells for culture and to maintain their viability and pluripotency, with the goal to obtain a cell line for transplantation in patients with degenerative diseases or injuries. This research focused on examining the effect of low oxygen tension on the ability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to express OCT4 and SOX2 . Read More

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November 2020

Sex-Determining Region Y Chromosome-Related High-Mobility-Group Box 10 in Cancer: A Potential Therapeutic Target.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 3;8:564740. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group-box 10 (), a member of the family, has recently been highlighted as an essential transcriptional factor involved in developmental biology. Recently, the functionality of SOX 10 has been increasingly revealed by researchers worldwide. It has been reported that SOX10 significantly regulates the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of tumors and is closely associated with the progression of cancer. Read More

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December 2020

New frontiers on the molecular underpinnings of hypospadias according to severity.

Arab J Urol 2020 May 24;18(4):257-266. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA.

Hypospadias, which is characterised by the displacement of the urethral meatus from its typical anatomical location in males, shows various degrees of severity. In this systematic review, we surveyed our current understanding of the genetics of isolated hypospadias in humans according to the severity of the condition. We found that sequencing and genotyping approaches were the preferred methods of study and that single nucleotide polymorphisms were the most common finding associated with hypospadias. Read More

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Molecular cytogenetic studies of a male carrier with a unique (Y;14) translocation: Case report.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Feb 14;35(2):e23614. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Center for Reproductive Medicine and Center for Prenatal Diagnosis, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Chromosome translocation is a genetic factor associated with male infertility. However, cases of Y chromosome/autosome translocation are rare. Individuals with translocation between the Y chromosome and an autosome have a variety of different clinical phenotypes. Read More

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February 2021