58,966 results match your criteria sex steroids

Use of community-based reference ranges to estimate the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome by the recognised diagnostic criteria, a cross-sectional study.

Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Women's Health Research Program, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Study Question: Does the application of reference ranges for sex steroids and the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) scale established in the community from which the study sample was drawn, combined with the most conservative polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM) criteria to the recognised diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) improve the certainty of diagnosis of PCOS in non-healthcare-seeking women?

Summary Answer: Despite application of the stringent definitions of the elements used to diagnose PCOS in a non-healthcare seeking community-based sample, the risk of diagnostic uncertainty remains.

What Is Known Already: There is heterogeneity in prevalence estimates for PCOS due, in part, to lack of standardisation of the elements comprising the recognised National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam and Androgen Excess Society (AE-PCOS) diagnostic criteria. The AE-PCOS Society proposed refinements to the definitions of biochemical androgen excess and PCOM that can now be incorporated into these sets of diagnostic criteria to estimate PCOS prevalence. Read More

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Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple early reports of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 showed that patients with chronic respiratory disease were significantly under-represented in these cohorts. We hypothesised that the widespread use of inhaled glucocorticoids among these patients was responsible for this finding, and tested if inhaled glucocorticoids would be an effective treatment for early COVID-19.

Methods: We performed an open-label, parallel-group, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (Steroids in COVID-19; STOIC) of inhaled budesonide, compared with usual care, in adults within 7 days of the onset of mild COVID-19 symptoms. Read More

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Provocative growth hormone testing in children: how did we get here and where do we go now?

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objectives: Provocative growth hormone (GH) tests are widely used for diagnosing pediatric GH deficiency (GHD). A thorough understanding of the evidence behind commonly used interpretations and the limitations of these tests is important for improving clinical practice.

Content: To place current practice into a historical context, the supporting evidence behind the use of provocative GH tests is presented. Read More

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Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a rare cause of primary amenorrhoea in adolescence-a review and update on diagnosis, management and advances in genetic understanding.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Women's and Newborn Services, Royal Brisbane and Woman's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) refers to a family of genetic disorders that affect the production and/or action of gonadotropic-releasing hormone, resulting in reduced serum levels of sex steroids. This condition has a prevalence of 1-10 cases/100 000 births and is characterised by the absence of spontaneous pubertal development. In women, the condition is characterised by the onset of normal adrenarche, with the absence of thelarche and menarche. Read More

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Impact of obesity on risk of cancer.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2021 Mar;29(1):38-44

Department of Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.

Epidemiological data consistently show sustained upward trend in the incidence of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated that in 2018 more than 18 million people were diagnosed with cancer, and in about 9.6 million cases cancer could be the cause of death. Read More

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Association of Low Serum Free Testosterone with Carotid Atherosclerosis in Male.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Apr;30(2):466-472

Dr Khondakar Alwan Nahid, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh; E-mail:

The cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was aimed to evaluate the association of serum free testosterone in 59 patients of carotid atherosclerotic male {<50% stenosis (n=26); >50% stenosis (n=33) } from March 2015 to February 2016 in the Department of Radiology & Imaging of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) & National Institute of Neurosciences (NINS), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Twenty seven patients who had normal carotid doppler findings were taken as control. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by chemiluminescence micro particle immunoassay and free testosterone was done by using Vermeulen formula. Read More

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Disability progression in multiple sclerosis is associated with plasma neuroactive steroid profile.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Neuroactive steroids (NASs) exert multiple biological effects on development and inflammation. The effects of NASs on disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) are uncertain, prompting analyses of NAS profiles during the transition from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to relapsing-remitting (RR) MS.

Methods: Subjects with CIS or RRMS and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited; demographic and clinical data as well as disability scores measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were recorded. Read More

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Association of inotrope use with neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants <29 weeks gestation: a retrospective cohort study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 7:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Paediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Objective: The primary objective was to compare neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes at 18-24 months in preterm infants <29 weeks gestational age (GA) who received versus those who did not receive inotropes in the first week of life. The secondary objective was to assess ND outcomes according to the duration of inotropic support in the first week of life (≤3 or >3 days).

Study Design: Retrospective population-based cohort study of preterm infants <29 weeks GA admitted to participating neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN) from January 2010 to September 2011 with follow-up data available at 18-24 months. Read More

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Growth Hormone/Insulin Growth Factor Axis in Sex Steroid Associated Disorders and Related Cancers.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:630503. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Endocrine Oncology Research Group, Department of Surgery, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

To date, almost all solid malignancies have implicated insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling as a driver of tumour growth. However, the remarkable level of crosstalk between sex hormones, the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its ligands IGF-1 and 2 in endocrine driven cancers is incompletely understood. Similar to the sex steroids, IGF signalling is essential in normal development as well as growth and tissue homoeostasis, and undergoes a steady decline with advancing age and increasing visceral adiposity. Read More

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Global Sex Disparity of COVID-19: A Descriptive Review of Sex Hormones and Consideration for the Potential Therapeutic Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy in Older Adults.

Aging Dis 2021 Apr 1;12(2):671-683. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

The 2019-2020 SARS-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to healthcare sectors around the world. As of November 2020, there have been over 64 million confirmed cases and approaching 2 million deaths globally. Despite the large number of positive cases, there are very limited established standards of care and therapeutic options available. Read More

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Serum concentrations of dihydrotestosterone are associated with symptoms of hypogonadism in biochemically eugonadal men.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Center of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Institute of Reproductive and Regenerative Biology, Münster, Germany.

Purpose: Symptoms of hypogonadism are often reported by subjects with normal serum testosterone (T) levels. We aimed to assess the association between clinical symptoms in andrological outpatients and sex steroids levels.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study in an Academic clinic and research unit. Read More

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Sexual Dimorphism in Glucocorticoid Stress Response.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 19;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Université Bordeaux, INRAE, UMR1286, Nutrineuro, 33076 Bordeaux, France.

Chronic stress is encountered in our everyday life and is thought to contribute to a number of diseases. Many of these stress-related disorders display a sex bias. Because glucocorticoid hormones are the main biological mediator of chronic stress, researchers have been interested in understanding the sexual dimorphism in glucocorticoid stress response to better explain the sex bias in stress-related diseases. Read More

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Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 27;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a worldwide healthcare challenge that needs an efficient response. Unfortunately, to date there is no highly effective treatment, so a deep understanding of COVID-19 risk factors could be an important step in treating the disease. Vitamin D affects the immune system in many different ways, and other authors already found that COVID-19 patients have low levels of vitamin D. Read More

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Binding of Androgen- and Estrogen-Like Flavonoids to Their Cognate (Non)Nuclear Receptors: A Comparison by Computational Prediction.

Molecules 2021 Mar 14;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Via Giuria 9, 10125 Turin, Italy.

Flavonoids are plant bioactives that are recognized as hormone-like polyphenols because of their similarity to the endogenous sex steroids 17β-estradiol and testosterone, and to their estrogen- and androgen-like activity. Most efforts to verify flavonoid binding to nuclear receptors (NRs) and explain their action have been focused on ERα, while less attention has been paid to other nuclear and non-nuclear membrane androgen and estrogen receptors. Here, we investigate six flavonoids (apigenin, genistein, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin, and resveratrol) that are widely present in fruits and vegetables, and often used as replacement therapy in menopause. Read More

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Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: There have been concerns about potential adverse consequences of assisted reproductive technology on the development of children conceived in this way. Despite multiple studies investigating the outcomes of assisted conception, data focusing specifically on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants conceived with assisted reproductive technology and born preterm are limited.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 24 months' corrected age of preterm infants born <29 weeks' gestational age who were conceived by assisted reproductive technology and those who were conceived naturally. Read More

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Efficacy of Anti-inflammatory Treatment Versus Rescue Analgesia After Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy in Nonarthritic Knees: A 3-Arm Controlled Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Mar 19;9(3):2325967121991545. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Orthopedic Department, Hasharon Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Background: There is currently no consensus regarding the appropriate treatment for postoperative pain after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). Prescribing a mild non-anti-inflammatory protocol of rescue analgesia may be sufficient to avoid the side effects of opioids or anti-inflammatories.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the efficacy of pain reduction after APM in nonarthritic knees using betamethasone or celecoxib as anti-inflammatory analgesics versus acetaminophen or tramadol as rescue analgesics. Read More

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Sexual Development of the Hermaphroditic Scallop Revealed by Morphological, Endocrine and Molecular Analysis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:646754. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Simultaneous or functional hermaphrodites possessing both ovary and testis at the same time are good materials for studying sexual development. However, previous research on sex determination and differentiation was mainly conducted in gonochoristic species and studies on simultaneous hermaphrodites are still limited. In this study, we conducted a combined morphological, endocrine and molecular study on the gonadal development of a hermaphroditic scallop aged 2-10 month old. Read More

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Baseline cardiometabolic profiles and SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK Biobank.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0248602. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a rapidly spreading coronavirus responsible for the Covid-19 pandemic, which is characterized by severe respiratory infection. Many factors have been identified as risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, with much early attention being paid to body mass index (BMI), which is a well-known cardiometabolic risk factor.

Objective: This study seeks to examine the impact of additional baseline cardiometabolic risk factors including high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes on the odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in UK Biobank (UKB) study participants. Read More

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Sex-Steroid Signaling in Lung Diseases and Inflammation.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1303:243-273

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Professions, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.

Sex/gender difference exists in the physiology of multiple organs. Recent epidemiological reports suggest the influence of sex-steroids in modulating a wide variety of disease conditions. Sex-based discrepancies have been reported in pulmonary physiology and various chronic inflammatory responses associated with lung diseases like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, and rare lung diseases. Read More

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Steroid sulfatase inhibitors: the current landscape.

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates.

Introduction: Steroid sulfatase (STS) enzyme is responsible for transforming the inactive sulfate metabolites of steroid sex hormones into the active free steroids. Both the deficiency and the over-expression of STS are associated with the pathophysiology of certain diseases. This article provides the readership with a comprehensive review about STS enzyme and its recently reported inhibitors. Read More

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Genotypic Sex and Severity of the Disease Determine the Time of Clinical Presentation in Steroid 17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency.

Horm Res Paediatr 2021 Mar 29:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Marmara University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Context: Steroid 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) is characterized by decreased sex steroids and cortisol, and excessive mineralocorticoid action. The clinical symptoms of hypocortisolemia are subtle.

Aim: The clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of patients with 17OHD were evaluated to determine the factors influencing the time of diagnosis and the management. Read More

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Ocean acidification but not hypoxia alters the gonad performance in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Mar 29;167:112282. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

International Research Center for Marine Biosciences, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China; Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Ocean acidification and hypoxia have become increasingly severe in coastal areas, and their co-occurrence poses emerging threats to coastal ecosystems. Here, we investigated the combined effects of ocean acidification and hypoxia on the reproductive capacity of the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus. Our results demonstrated low pH but not low oxygen induced decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI) in mussels. Read More

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Sex neurosteroids: Hormones made by the brain for the brain.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Mar 26;753:135849. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Neuroanatomy, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

In general, hippocampal neurons are capable of synthesizing sex steroids de novo from cholesterol, since the brain is equipped with all the enzymes required for the synthesis of estradiol and testosterone, the end products of sex steroidogenesis. Regarding estradiol, its synthesis in hippocampal neurons is homeostatically controlled by Ca transients and is regulated by GnRH. Locally synthesized estradiol and testosterone maintain synaptic transmission and synaptic connectivity. Read More

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Immune and vascular contributions to organogenesis of the testis and ovary.

FEBS J 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Division of Reproductive Sciences, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH, USA.

Gonad development is a highly regulated process that coordinates cell specification and morphogenesis to produce sex-specific organ structures that are required for fertility, such as testicular seminiferous tubules and ovarian follicles. While sex determination occurs within specialized gonadal supporting cells, sexual differentiation is evident throughout the entire organ, including within the interstitial compartment, which contains immune cells and vasculature. While immune and vascular cells have been traditionally appreciated for their supporting roles during tissue growth and homeostasis, an increasing body of evidence supports the idea that these cell types are critical drivers of sexually dimorphic morphogenesis of the gonad. Read More

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In vitro follicle culture shows that progestagens are the maturation-inducing hormones (MIH) and possible regulators of the ovulation-mediating hormone PGE2 in female Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

UR AFPA, USC INRAE 340, Université de Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

In European aquaculture, Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L., is perceived as one of the most highly valuable freshwater fish species and a strong candidate for the development of freshwater aquaculture. In the pursuit of improving the quality of reproduction in this domesticated species, investigating the hormones mediating the final oocyte maturation (FOM) is therefore indispensable. Read More

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The NIMH Intramural Longitudinal Study of the Endocrine and Neurobiological Events Accompanying Puberty: Protocol and rationale for methods and measures.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 24;234:117970. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Section on Integrative Neuroimaging, Clinical & Translational Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD USA.

Delineating the relationship between human neurodevelopment and the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during puberty is critical for investigating the increase in vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders that is well documented during this period. Preclinical research demonstrates a clear association between gonadal production of sex steroids and neurodevelopment; however, identifying similar associations in humans has been complicated by confounding variables (such as age) and the coactivation of two additional endocrine systems (the adrenal androgenic system and the somatotropic growth axis) and requires further elucidation. In this paper, we present the design of, and preliminary observations from, the ongoing NIMH Intramural Longitudinal Study of the Endocrine and Neurobiological Events Accompanying Puberty. Read More

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Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and puberty timing: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

C Freire, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, Spain.

Background: Numerous modern non-persistent pesticides have demonstrated estrogenic/anti-androgenic activity and have been classified as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Processes involved in puberty development are vulnerable to EDCs, such as compounds that interfere with the metabolism or activity of sex steroids.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the relationship between early-life exposure to non-persistent pesticides and puberty timing and/or sexual maturation in girls and boys. Read More

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Role of glial cells in the generation of sex differences in neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Mar 22;196:111473. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Diseases and aging-associated alterations of the nervous system often show sex-specific characteristics. Glial cells play a major role in the endogenous homeostatic response of neural tissue, and sex differences in the glial transcriptome and function have been described. Therefore, the possible role of these cells in the generation of sex differences in pathological alterations of the nervous system is reviewed here. Read More

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Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Estimated by Friedewald Compared to Martin-Hopkins Equation in Nigerian Population.

West Afr J Med 2021 Mar;38(3):255-261

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria.

Background: Friedewald equation for estimation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has recently been the subject of controversies. We investigated the agreement between LDL-C calculated with the Friedewald equation (LDLC F) and novel Martin-Hopkins formula (LDL-CMH), and the influence of sex, age, and triglyceride stratification on the level of biases.

Methods: We used convenience sample of data from records of 7151 adults who underwent test for plasma lipid profile from 2014 to 2017 at a tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Read More

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Steroid sulfates in domestic mammals and laboratory rodents.

G Schuler

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Feb 19;76:106622. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Veterinary Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, 35392 Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Historically steroid sulfates have been considered predominantly as inactive metabolites. It was later discovered that by cleavage of the sulfate residue by steroid sulfatase (STS), they can be (re-)converted into active forms or into precursors for the local production of active steroids. This sulfatase pathway is now a very active field of research, which has gained considerable interest particularly in connection with the steroid metabolism of human steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissue. Read More

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February 2021