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Risk factors for non-cancer death after surgery in patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr;59(3):633-640

Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Objectives: With improvements in the outcome of treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), other diseases may account for a high death rate after surgery in patients with stage I NSCLC. In the present study, we analysed the associations between the clinical factors and non-cancer death after surgery in these patients.

Methods: The records of 514 patients with stage I NSCLC who underwent surgery were retrospectively reviewed; a proportional hazards model for the subdistribution of a competing risk was conducted to define the risk factors for non-cancer death. Read More

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Influence of anthopometric variables on the mechanical properties of human rib cortical bone.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Eduard Maristany, 14, Barcelona, Catalunya, 08034, SPAIN.

Objective: The mechanical properties of ribs from a large number of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were analyzed to search for variation according to age, sex or BMI in the sample. A large sample of specimens from different donors (N = 64) with a very wide range of ages and anthropometric characteristics was tested.

Methods: Uniaxial tensile tests were used for a sample of coupons machined from cortical bone tissue in order to isolate the purely mechanical properties from the geometrically influenced properties of the rib. Read More

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Environmental enrichment improves lifelong persistent behavioral and epigenetic changes induced by early-life stress.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 6;138:107-116. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) in Wistar rats subjected to maternal deprivation (MD). MD was performed in the first post-natal days (PND) ten for 3 h/day. The groups were: control; deprived without EE; and deprived with EE. Read More

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Evolution of sexual development and sexual dimorphism in insects.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Apr 10;69:129-139. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Most animal species consist of two distinct sexes. At the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels the differences between males and females are numerous and dramatic, yet at the genomic level they are often slight or absent. This disconnect is overcome because simple genetic differences or environmental signals are able to direct the sex-specific expression of a shared genome. Read More

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Epithelial folding determines the final shape of beetle horns.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Apr 10;69:122-128. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 99163 USA. Electronic address:

The elaborate ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, such as the vast array of horns observed in scarab beetles, are some of the most striking outcomes of evolution. How these novel traits have arisen, develop, and respond to condition is governed by a complex suite of interactions that require coordination between the environment, whole-animal signals, cell-cell signals, and within-cell signals. Endocrine factors, developmental patterning genes, and sex-specific gene expression have been shown to regulate beetle horn size, shape, and location, yet no overarching mechanism of horn shape has been described. Read More

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Impact of Weight on Anti-Xa Attainment in High-Risk Trauma Patients on Enoxaparin Chemoprophylaxis.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 10;264:425-434. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacy Services, UC Health - University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; University of Cincinnati James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Serum anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) concentration may guide low molecular weight heparin chemoprophylaxis in trauma patients. Higher total body weight (TBW) is a risk factor for subprophylactic anti-Xa and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBW differences in patients with subprophylactic versus prophylactic trough anti-Xa. Read More

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Myocardial transcription of inflammatory and remodeling markers in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and systemic diseases associated with an inflammatory phenotype.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 1;136:484-494. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, 00014, Finland; Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 268, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by macrophage-driven myocardial remodeling processes in a pro-inflammatory environment. To further investigate the mechanisms behind these processes, the myocardial transcription of cytokines and remodeling enzymes was comparatively assessed in cats with HCM and cats without cardiac diseases. Sixty-seven cats were included, 17 cats with HCM (including 5 with atrial thrombus; AT), and 50 cats without cardiac diseases. Read More

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Dietary intake of B vitamins and their association with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms: A cross-sectional, population-based survey.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 26;288:92-98. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: B vitamins have vital roles in the development, maintenance, and functioning of the brain, while severe deficiencies have been linked to increased psychological disorders. However, no published studies have examined the association between dietary intake of vitamin B and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in a general population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 7387 Iranian adults aged 20-70 years within the population-based cohort study framework. Read More

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Type-Specific Incidence, Persistence and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus Infection among Female Sex workers in Benin and Mali, West Africa.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Axe Santé des Populations et Pratiques Optimales en Santé, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study in female sex workers (FSWs) aimed (1) to estimate type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) incidence and persistence in Cotonou (Benin) and Bamako (Mali); (2) to identify the factors associated with incident and persistent type-specific high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection.

Methods: A one-year prospective cohort study on cervical cancer screening, HPV and HIV infections was conducted among FSWs in Cotonou and Bamako, from 2017 to 2019. Poisson regression models assessed factors associated with HR-HPV incidence, while log-binomial regression was performed to identify factors associated with HR-HPV persistence. Read More

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Decreasing Trends in Opioid Prescribing on Discharge to Hospice Care.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of General Internal Medicine & Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.

Context: There are concerns that policies aimed to prevent opioid misuse may unintentionally reduce access to opioids for patients at end-of-life.

Objective: We assessed trends in opioid prescribing among patients on discharge from the hospital to hospice care.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study among adult (age ≥18 years) patients discharged from a 544-576 bed, academic medical center to hospice care between January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2018. Read More

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Association of circulating C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with components of sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 10:111330. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Computer Sciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Heinrich Heine Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Sarcopenia, a multi-faceted skeletal muscle disorder in the older population, has poor health outcomes. Some previous observational studies investigated the association between circulating inflammatory markers and sarcopenia components to evaluate chronic inflammation as a risk factor for sarcopenia in the elderly population. Nevertheless, the association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and hs-CRP, as the recognized markers of systemic inflammation and components of sarcopenia, is unclear. Read More

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Fall-related eye injury among older adults in the United States.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles St, Boston, MA 02114; Glaucoma Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles ST, Boston, MA 02114. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify common causes of emergency department-treated eye injury among older adults in the United States (US), and to characterize of fall-related ocular trauma in this population.

Design: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a nationally representative database of US emergency department-treated injuries, was used to assemble a cohort of adults 65 years and older with eye injuries between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Demographic information, diagnosis, disposition, injury location and consumer product associated with injury were collected. Read More

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Attitudes of US adults toward using telemedicine to prescribe medication abortion during COVID-19: a mixed methods study.

Contraception 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Indiana University Bloomington, School of Public Health, Bloomington IN, 47405.

Objectives: We explored public opinion about using telemedicine to provide medication abortion during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. We also investigated the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and support for using telemedicine in this context and explored factors that influenced respondents' attitudes on the topic.

Study Design: In a nationally representative, web-based survey of US adults (n=711), we asked open- and closed-ended questions about using telemedicine to prescribe medication abortion during COVID-19. Read More

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Prevalence of Face Mask Wearing in Northern Vermont in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Public Health Rep 2021 Apr 13:333549211009496. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

238330 Essex High School, Essex Junction, VT, USA.

Objectives: Information on the prevalence of face mask use to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to model disease spread and to assess the effectiveness of policies that encourage face mask use. We sought to (1) estimate the prevalence of face mask use in northern Vermont and (2) assess the effect of age and sex on the likelihood of face mask use.

Methods: We monitored the entrances to public businesses and visually assessed age, sex, and face mask use. Read More

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The influence of age, sex and cardiorespiratory fitness on maximal fat oxidation rate.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

University of Copenhagen, 4321, Department of biomedical sciences, Kobenhavn, Denmark;

Fat oxidation decreases age, yet, no studies have previously investigated if aging affects the maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) during exercise in men and women differently. We hypothesized that increased age would be associated with a decline in MFO and this would be more pronounced in women due to the menopause, compared to men. In this cross-sectional study design, 435 (247/188, male /female) subjects of varying ages performed a DXA-scan, a submaximal graded exercise test and a V̇O2max test, to measure MFO and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by indirect calorimetry. Read More

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Temporal Trends in the Quality of Deceased Donor Kidneys and Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Europe: an analysis by the ERA-EDTA Registry.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Kitty J. Jager Professor, : ERA, -EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Amsterdam, UMC-location, AMC, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the, Netherlands.

Background: We investigated ten-year trends in deceased donor kidney quality expressed as the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and subsequent effects on survival outcomes in a European transplant population.

Methods: Time trends in the crude and standardised KDRI between 2005-2015, by recipient age, sex, diabetic status, and country were examined in 24,177 adult kidney transplant recipients in seven European countries. We determined five-year patient and graft survival probabilities and the risk of death and graft loss by transplant cohort (cohort 1: 2005-2006, cohort 2: 2007-2008, cohort 3: 2009-2010) and KDRI quintile. Read More

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Sex-Based Differences in Symptoms with Mouthguard Use Following Pediatric Sport-Related Concussion.

J Athl Train 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Context: Current evidence regarding the protective effect of mouthguard use on symptom severity in children and adolescents who sustain sport-related concussions is insufficient to make clinical recommendations.

Objective: To compare the association between mouthguard-use and symptoms stratified by sex in the first 4-weeks after pediatric sport-related concussion. We hypothesized that mouthguard-use would be associated with lower symptoms. Read More

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Sex differences in the progression of kidney injury and risk of death in CKD patients: is different ambulatory blood pressure control the underlying cause?

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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Assessment of preparation time and 1-year Invisalign aligner attachment survival using flowable and packable composites.

Angle Orthod 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Objectives: To compare preparation time and 1-year Invisalign aligner attachment survival between a flowable composite (FC) and a packable composite (PC).

Materials And Methods: Fifty-five participants (13 men and 42 women, mean age ± SD: 24.2 ± 5. Read More

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Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in India: Evidence from the National Family Health Survey-4.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0247956. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centre for the Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

To estimate sex-specific prevalence and associated socio-economic, demographic, and lifestyle risk factors of hypertension in India. We used data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) of 2015-16. The analysis based on 6,99,686 women (15-49 years) and 1,12,122 men (15-54 years) whose blood pressure (BP) were measured during the survey. Read More

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Clinical and Prognostic Value of Immunogenetic Characteristics in Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 May 5;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

From the French Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes and Autoimmune Encephalitis (S.M.-C., L.T., A.V., A.-L.P., G.P., C.B., L.-D.D., B.J., V.R., J. Honnorat), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Neurologique, Bron, France; SynatAc Team (S.M.-C., L.T., A.V., A.-L.P., G.P., C.B., L.-D.D., B.J., V.R., J. Honnorat), Institut NeuroMyoGène, INSERM U1217/CNRS UMR 5310, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France; Clinic Research and Epidemiology Department (J. Haesebaert), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France, HESPER Team, EA 7425, Medicine School, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France; Neurology Department 2-Mazarin (G.B., D.P., A. Alentorn), Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, APHP; Brain and Spinal Cord Institute (G.B., D.P., A. Alentorn), INSERM U1127/CNRS UMR 7255, Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Universités Sorbonnes, Paris, France; HLA Laboratory (V.D.), French Blood Service, EFS Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Lyon, France; Stanford University Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine (A. Ambati, E.M.), Palo Alto, CA; and Department of Psychiatry (R.T.), Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Créteil, France, Mondor Institute for Biomedical Research, INSERM U955, Université de Paris-Est-Créteil, France.

Objective: Antibodies against leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1-Abs) characterize a limbic encephalitis (LE) strongly associated with HLA-DRB1*07:01, although some patients lack LGI1-Abs in CSF or do not carry this allele. Whether they represent a different subtype of disease or have different prognoses is unclear.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical features, IgG isotypes, and outcome according to LGI1-Ab CSF positivity and DRB1*07:01 in a cohort of anti-LGI1 LE patients. Read More

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Male bias in ACE2 basic science research: Missed opportunity for discovery in the time of COVID-19.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, United States.

Throughout the world, including the United States, men have worse outcomes from COVID-19 than women. SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of the COVID-19 pandemic, uses angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE2) to gain cellular entry. ACE2 is a member of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and plays an important role in counteracting the harmful effects mediated by the angiotensin-type-1-receptor. Read More

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Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder: comparison between sessions administered two and three times weekly.

Int Braz J Urol 2021 Jul-Aug;47(4):787-793

Departamento de Urologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA, Salvador, BA, Brasil.

Purpose: This study compares the results achieved following parasacral TENS administered using two different weekly schedules.

Materials And Methods: Children of at least four years of age with a diagnosis of pure overactive bladder were included in this randomized clinical trial and treated with parasacral TENS (2 versus 3 sessions per week). All the participants also underwent standard urotherapy. Read More

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Abnormal iron status is independently associated with reduced oscillometric lung function in schoolchildren.

Clin Respir J 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: Associations between anemia and allergic diseases have been reported, but the relationship of iron deficiency with airway dysfunction in children remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between abnormal iron parameters and lung function in schoolchildren.

Methods: Four hundred and forty-five children (10-12 years-old) from 11 elementary schools in were enrolled. Read More

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Myocardial T1 Values at 1.5 T: Normal Values for General Electric Scanners and Sex-Related Differences.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unit, Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana, Pisa, Italy.

Background: No data are available about normal ranges for native T1 in human myocardium using General Electric (GE) scanners.

Purpose: To establish normal ranges for myocardial T1 values and evaluate regional variability and the influence of physiological factors.

Study Type: Prospective. Read More

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Rising burden of multimorbidity and related socio-demographic factors: a repeated cross-sectional study of Ontarians.

Can J Public Health 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: This study aimed to provide population-level data regarding trends in multimorbidity over 13 years.

Methods: We linked provincial health administrative data in Ontario, Canada, to create 3 cross-sectional panels of residents of any age in 2003, 2009, and 2016 to describe: (i) 13-year trends in multimorbidity prevalence and constellations among residents and across age, sex, and income; and (ii) chronic condition clusters. Multimorbidity was defined as having at least any 2 of 18 selected conditions, and further grouped into levels of 2, 3, 4, or 5 or more conditions. Read More

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Metastatic Esophageal Carcinoma: Prognostic Factors and Survival.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Worldwide, esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death. At initial diagnosis, about 50% of esophageal cancer patients present with metastasis. The prognosis of metastatic esophageal cancer is poor with 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Read More

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Gender intersections identified whilst transitioning mass vitamin A supplementation into an integrated reproductive and child health programme in Sierra Leone.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Helen Keller International - Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.

Since 2006, Sierra Leone has achieved high rates of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) coverage (>88%) during mass campaigns. In 2017, campaigns started transitioning to routine VAS within a six-monthly contact point for integrated reproductive and child health (RCH) services. This contact point included improved counselling and provision of modern contraceptives; throughout this transition high VAS coverage (>85%) has been maintained. Read More

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Comparison of Two Case Definitions for Ascertaining Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder among 8-Year-Old Children.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta  Georgia.

The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network conducts population-based surveillance of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in multiple US communities among 8-year-old children. To classify ASD, ADDM sites collected text descriptions of behaviors from medical and educational evaluations which were reviewed and coded by ADDM clinicians. This process took at least four years to publish data from a given surveillance year. Read More

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Quality of health care perceived by users in Catalan prisons.

Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2021 Jan-Apr;23(1):9-19

Mas D'Enric Prison. Catalonian Institute of Health. Tarragona.

Objectives: To describe inmates' perceptions of healthcare quality in Catalonian prisons.

Material And Method: Transversal study of 6,856 inmates in Catalan prisons in September 2017. Randomized simple screening was used to randomly distribute 1,048 polls in which different aspects of perceived quality of healthcare were evaluated. Read More

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