255,382 results match your criteria sex hormones


Effect of physical activity and BMI SDS on bone metabolism in children and adolescents.

Bone 2021 Jul 24:116131. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Children with obesity are known to have reduced bone density and are at a higher risk for fractures. This may be caused by decreased physical activity or a metabolic phenomenon. In this study, we evaluated associations of physical activity with bone metabolism in children and adolescents with and without obesity. Read More

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The Association between Sex Hormones, Pubertal Milestones and Benzophenone-3 Exposure, Measured by Urinary Biomarker or Questionnaire.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Jul 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Environmental and Public Health Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Experimental studies have suggested benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a sunscreen ingredient, may have endocrine-disrupting properties. A cohort of girls were recruited at ages 6-7 years and returned semi-annually for pubertal maturation staging, provided blood for serum hormone analyses [estradiol, estrone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S)], and urine to measure BP-3 concentrations. We found a significant negative linear association between amount of reported sunscreen use and testosterone levels at the onset of puberty (N = 157, adjusted β = -0. Read More

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Resveratrol and Markers of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review of Animal and Clinical Studies.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting childbearing-age women, and is associated with reproductive and metabolic disturbances. The present study aimed to systematically review current animal studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCT) regarding the effects of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on PCOS features. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched until December 2020. Read More

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Correlations between environmental salinity levels, blood biochemistry parameters, and steroid hormones in wild juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15168. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University At Galveston, Galveston Campus, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Bldg. 3029, Galveston, TX, 77553, USA.

American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabit freshwater wetlands that are vulnerable to salinization caused by anthropogenic alterations to freshwater flow, in addition to storm surges, sea level rise, and droughts. Salinization of coastal freshwater habitats is a growing concern in a changing climate due to increased frequency and intensity of storm surges and drought conditions. This study opportunistically sampled juvenile male and female wild alligators in various salinities each month excluding November, December, and January for one year at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in coastal Louisiana. Read More

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Investigating into anti-cancer potential of lycopene: Molecular targets.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 3;138:111546. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Pharmacological Department, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Lycopene, the main pigment of tomatoes, possess the strongest antioxidant activity among carotenoids. Lycopene has unique structure and chemical properties. We searched the literature, via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Google database so on to screen citations from inception to Oct 2020 for inclusion in this study. Read More

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The influence of sex hormones on the immune response to leishmaniasis.

Parasite Immunol 2021 Jul 26:e12874. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Community Medicine Department, Federal University of Piauí, Intelligence Center in Emerging and Neglected Tropical Conditions (CIATEN).

The differences in morbidity and mortality patterns and life expectancy between the sexes are well established in different infectious and parasitic conditions, such as in leishmaniases, in which biological, genetic, sexual, and hormonal variations can modulate the immune response indicating greater infectivity, prevalence and clinical severity in men. In this regard, in seeking the understanding of factors related to protection and susceptibility to infection, this review aimed to discuss the influence of sex hormones on the immune response to leishmaniases. In the literature, sex hormone variations promote differences in the innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immune response, leading to greater susceptibility, mortality, and complications in males. Read More

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[Efficacy of vaginal administration of Crinone versus Utrogestan combined with oral dydrogesterone tablets for luteal support in PGT freeze-thaw embryo transfer cycles].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Jul;41(7):1062-1066

Center of Reproductive Medicine, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623, China.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of two vaginal progesterone formulations, Crinone gel or Utrogestan capsules, combined with dydrogesterone tablets, for luteal phase support in pre-implantation genetic testing (PGT) freeze-thaw embryo transfer (FET) cycles.

Methods: We analyzed 209 FET cycles in patients undergoing PGT-blastocyst transfer in our center between June, 2017 and June, 2020. The patients received vaginal administration of either Crinone gel (=135) or Utrogestan capsules (=74) combined with oral dydrogesterone tablets for luteal supplementation, and the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and miscarriage rate (MR) were compared between the two groups. Read More

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Oncocytic adrenocortical tumor with uncertain malignant potential in pediatric population: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(20):5675-5682

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu 610072, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Oncocytic adrenocortical tumor (OACT) is rare, with few cases reported in the literature. No more than 20 cases in children have been reported. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of children with OACT are summarized based on a literature review, in order to improve the understanding of OACT in children. Read More

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Role of Sex in the Therapeutic Targeting of p53 Circuitry.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:698946. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Research Council of Italy, Monterotondo, Italy.

Sex profoundly affects cancer incidence and susceptibility to therapy, with sex hormones highly contributing to this disparity. Various studies and omics data suggest a relationship between sex and the oncosuppressor p53 circuitry, including its regulators MDM2 and MDM4. Association of this network with genetic variation underlies sex-related altered cancer risk, age of onset, and cancer sensitivity to therapy. Read More

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Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone downregulates steroid hormone secretion and genes expressions in duck granulosa cells.

Anim Reprod 2021 19;18(2):e20210036. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangdong Guangzhou, China.

The mechanisms by which GnIH regulates the steroid synthesis pathway in duck granulosa cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured steroid hormone secretion by ELISA and reproduction-associated gene expression by quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) in duck granulosa cells treated with different concentrations of GnIH (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) for 24 h. Read More

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An overview of sex hormones in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Future Virol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1985717413, Iran.

Sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes might be explained from a sex hormones (SexHs) perspective. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched up to March 2021. Based on the literature review, the crosstalk between SexHs (estrogens, progesterone and testosterone), their receptors (estrogen α and β, androgen, and progesterone) and the immune system shaped the sex-related differences in immune responses against COVID-19. Read More

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The Effects of L. on the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate, Prolactin and Cortisol Levels in Post-Menopausal Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Study.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:654459. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran.

Menopause is the last menstrual period associated with a decline in ovarian steroid secretion and follicular loss. Hormone profile changes during menopause include a decrease in the production of estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin (PRL), and an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and cortisol. Herbal medicines are considered as alternatives to hormone therapy. Read More

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BDNF Impact on Biological Markers of Depression-Role of Physical Exercise and Training.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 15;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

CIPER, Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisboa, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal.

Depression is the most common and devastating psychiatric disorder in the world. Its symptoms, especially during the pandemic, are observed in all age groups. Exercise training (ET) is well known as a non-pharmacological strategy to alleviate clinical depression. Read More

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Intranasal oxytocin, testosterone reactivity, and human competitiveness.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 9;132:105352. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Psychology Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus Campus, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 9190501, Israel. Electronic address:

Competitiveness is an essential feature of human social interactions. Despite an extensive body of research on the underlying psychological and cultural factors regulating competitive behavior, the role of biological factors remains poorly understood. Extant research has focused primarily on sex hormones, with equivocal findings. Read More

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Fecal glucocorticoids and gastrointestinal parasite infections in wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) involved in ecotourism.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Jul 20:113859. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Wildlife ecotourism can offer a source of revenue which benefits local development and conservation simultaneously. However, habituation of wildlife for ecotourism can cause long-term elevation of glucocorticoid hormones, which may suppress immune function and increase an animal's vulnerability to disease. We have previously shown that western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) undergoing habituation in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, have higher fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGCM) levels than both habituated and unhabituated gorillas. Read More

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Compatibility of Estradiol, Estriol, Estrone, Progesterone, and Testosterone Single Formulation in Fitalite, Versatile, or HRT Supreme Cream Base.

Int J Pharm Compd 2021 Jul-Aug;25(4):336-343

Fagron US, St. Paul, Minnesota.

In this work, we focus on three ready-to-use vehicles: Fitalite, Versatile, and HRT Supreme Cream Base. Fitalite is a natural, light, hydrophilic gel-cream that contains vitamin E and oil bodies from plant sources (phytosomes), providing antioxidant and skinmoisturizing properties. Versatile is a vanishing oil-inwater cream base which retains its consistency with a broad range and high concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients, dermaceutical ingredients, and solvents. Read More

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[Clinical and molecular genetic features of 3 family cases of the central precocious puberty, due to gene defects].

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 2021 May 11;67(3):55-61. Epub 2021 May 11.

Endocrinology Research Centre; Research Centre for Medical Genetics.

Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty (central) is a condition resulting from the early (up to 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys) reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. An increase in the secretion of sex steroids by the gonads in this form is a consequence of the stimulation of the sex glands by gonadotropic hormones of the pituitary gland. In the absence of central nervous system abnormalities, CPP is classified as idiopathic and as familial in some cases, emphasizing the genetic origin of this disorder. Read More

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Energy Availability and RED-S Risk Factors in Competitive, Non-elite Male Endurance Athletes.

Transl Med Exerc Prescr 2021 7;1(1):25-32. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Exercise & Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is predicated on the assumption that low energy availability (EA) induces deficiencies-dysfunction in multiple physiologic systems. However, research on RED-S and EA in male athletes is limited in comparison to women. The aim of this study is to investigate EA and the risk factors for RED-S, and their potential associations in non-elite male endurance athletes. Read More

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The Relationship between Psychopathology, Self-esteem, Body Perception and Serum Sex Steroids in Pubertal Gynecomastia.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2021 Aug;19(3):498-506

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Trabzon Kanuni Training and Research Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the psychopathology behind gynecomastia and potential associated problems regarding self-esteem and body perception, and the relationships of these variables with sex steroid levels in adolescents with pubertal gynecomastia.

Methods: The study included 50 normal weight male adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years with gynecomastia but without any chronic organic pathology, and 50 healthy pubertal male adolescents matched for age. The adolescents underwent psychopathology assessment by Development and Well-Being Assessment interviews; self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; body perception was evaluated using the Body Image Perception Scale, and the relationship between these variables and sex steroid levels were explored. Read More

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Effects of Sex and Estrous Cycle on the Time-Course of Incubation of Cue-Induced Craving Following Extended-Access Cocaine Self-Administration.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, NJ

Cocaine addiction is a devastating public health epidemic that continues to grow. Studies focused on identifying biological factors influencing cocaine craving and relapse vulnerability are necessary in order to promote abstinence in recovering drug users. Sex and ovarian hormones are known to influence cocaine addiction liability and relapse vulnerability in both humans and rodents. Read More

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The relationship of serum testosterone levels with the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 disease in male patients: a prospective study.

Andrology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Department Of Urology, Erzurum, Turkey.

Background: A potential role of testosterone among sex hormones has been hypothesized in identifying sex-related differences in the clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Due to the high global prevalence of hypogonadism, the relationship between hypogonadism and SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes deserves an in-depth study.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of serum testosterone with other laboratory parameters on the prognosis of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in male patients with COVID-19 diagnosis. Read More

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Constitutive expression of Steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) disrupts ovarian functions, fertility, and metabolic homeostasis in female mice.

FASEB J 2021 08;35(8):e21770

Reproductive Developmental Biology Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Steroid hormones regulate various aspects of physiology, from reproductive functions to metabolic homeostasis. Steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) plays a central role in the development of steroidogenic tissues and their ability to produce steroid hormones. Inactivation of Nr5a1 in the mouse results in a complete gonadal and adrenal agenesis, absence of gonadotropes in the pituitary and impaired development of ventromedial hypothalamus, which controls glucose and energy metabolism. Read More

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A Comparative Study of the Effects of Valproate and Oxcarbazepine on Sexual Function, Sperm Quality, and Sex Hormones in Males with Epilepsy.

Biomed Res Int 2021 3;2021:6624101. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Aims: Although several studies have indicated that valproate (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) cause reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction, there remains some controversy regarding these issues in males with epilepsy. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of VPA and OXC on sexual function, sperm quality, and sex hormones in young males with epilepsy.

Methods: Males with newly diagnosed epilepsy treated with VPA and OXC were recruited, and sexual function questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5)), sperm quality, and sex hormone levels were assessed before treatment and at 6 months after treatment with VPA or OXC monotherapy. Read More

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Less Carcinogenic Chlorinated Estrogens Applicable to Hormone Replacement Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 5;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8651, USA.

Human estrogens prescribed for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are known to be potent carcinogens. To find safer estrogens, several chlorinated estrogens were synthesized and their carcinogenic potential were determined. A pellet containing either 2-chloro-17β-estradiol (2-ClE) or 4-chloro-17β-estradiol (4-ClE) was implanted subcutaneously for 52 weeks into August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats, a preferred animal model for human breast cancer. Read More

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Sex Differences and COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1327:79-91

Central Clinical School, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Biological sex and psychosocial gender both play a role in many disease outcomes, and the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is no different. Clinical observations in COVID-19 patient data delineate clear disparities between males and females, indicating males are at a higher risk for poorer disease outcomes. Although we are yet to understand the sex and gender-based disparities specific to COVID-19, there is evidence for sex-based differences in the endocrine, immune and renin-angiotensin system, all systems implicated in COVID-19 outcomes. Read More

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Sex Differences Are Here to Stay: Relevance to Prenatal Care.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 5;10(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada.

Sex differences exist in the incidence and presentation of many pregnancy complications, including but not limited to pregnancy loss, spontaneous preterm birth, and fetal growth restriction. Sex differences arise very early in development due to differential gene expression from the X and Y chromosomes, and later may also be influenced by the action of gonadal steroid hormones. Though offspring sex is not considered in most prenatal diagnostic or therapeutic strategies currently in use, it may be beneficial to consider sex differences and the associated mechanisms underlying pregnancy complications. Read More

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Sex, Pramipexole and Tiagabine Affect Behavioral and Hormonal Response to Traumatic Stress in a Mouse Model of PTSD.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:691598. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience and Drug Development, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis (HPA). Women demonstrate a more robust HPA response and are twice as likely to develop PTSD than men. The role of sex hormones in PTSD remains unclear. Read More

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Development of Hormonal Intravaginal Rings: Technology and Challenges.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2021 Jul 13;81(7):789-806. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Intravaginal rings (IVRs) are minimally invasive polymeric devices specifically designed to be used for the sustained and prolonged release of various type of drugs such as hormones. One of the benefits of using topical drug delivery systems (e.g. Read More

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Effects of Androgen Receptor Overexpression on Chondrogenic Ability of Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

College and Hospital of Stomatology, Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Background: The role of sex hormones and their receptors has drawn much attention in the process of cartilage regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effect of androgen receptor (AR) on the chondrogenic ability of articular chondrocytes and the related mechanism.

Methods: Articular chondrocytes were isolated, cultured, identified by toluidine blue staining and then transduced with lentivirus carrying the AR gene. Read More

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Hormone therapy regimens for managing the menopause and premature ovarian insufficiency.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 30:101561. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Menopause Unit, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

The transition to menopause is associated with a changing hormonal milieu, leading to bothersome menopausal symptoms in the short-term and chronic health problems in the long-term. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by the cessation of menses before the age of 40 years. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is indicated to restore sex hormones to normal premenopausal levels and prevent chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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