954 results match your criteria severe leptospirosis

Predictors of severe leptospirosis: a multicentre observational study from Central Malaysia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 19;21(1):1081. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging disease with vast clinical presentations, that ranges from subclinical or mild to severe and fatal outcomes. Leptospirosis can be managed well if diagnosed earlier, however, similar clinical presentations by several other febrile illnesses or co-infections, and laboratory diagnostic challenges due to the biphasic nature of the illness, often result in mis- or underdiagnosis, thereby lead to severe illness. Identification of clinical predictors for the severe form of the disease plays a crucial role in reducing disease complication and mortality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Comparative genome characterization of Leptospira interrogans from mild and severe leptospirosis patients.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e31. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. In Thailand, Leptospira interrogans is a major cause of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis patients present with a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, mild infections to severe illness involving organ failure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in the Era of COVID-19.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 24;2021:8800500. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Infectious Disease, Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falla, SD, USA.

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) can occur after infection with Hantavirus which can occur by inhaling aerosolized rodent urine, feces, and saliva contaminated with the virus. It presents with the rapid development of pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and cardiogenic shock with the hallmark being microvascular leakage. We report a patient with a history of alcohol abuse and recent exposure to mice and sick kittens who presented with cough with sputum production, shortness of breath, orthopnea, and new-onset lower extremity edema. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Gut microbiota involved in leptospiral infections.

ISME J 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, PR China.

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease worldwide. Intestinal bleeding is a common but neglected symptom in severe leptospirosis. The regulatory mechanism of the gut microbiota on leptospirosis is still unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Identification and validation of circulating miRNAs as potential new biomarkers for severe liver disease in patients with leptospirosis.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(9):e0257805. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Center of Excellence in Hepatitis and Liver Cancer, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease, has various clinical manifestations ranging from mild self-limiting illness to life-threatening with multi-organ damage, including liver involvement. This study was aimed at identifying circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel biomarkers for predicting severe liver involvement in patients with leptospirosis.

Methods: In a discovery set, 12 serum samples of patients with anicteric and icteric leptospirosis at initial clinical presentation were used for miRNA profiling by a NanoString nCounter miRNA assay. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Association Between Severity of Leptospirosis and Subsequent Major Autoimmune Diseases: A Nationwide Observational Cohort Study.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:721752. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Introduction: Infections play a role in autoimmune diseases (AD). Leptospirosis has been linked to the trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Objective: To investigate subsequent risk of major AD in hospitalized Taiwanese for Leptospirosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Dengue Myocarditis Complicated by COVID-19: A Case Report on Dual Viral Infection.

Cureus 2021 Aug 10;13(8):e17076. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

General Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, IND.

During the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is crucial for clinicians to have an insight into the emerging co-infections. As the dengue virus (DENV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have related symptomatology, a high index of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis of concurrent infections involving these two pathogens, especially in the areas endemic for tropical diseases, i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regional Prevalence of Intermediate spp. in Humans: A Meta-Analysis.

Pathogens 2021 Jul 27;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases caused by pathogenic . There are broad clinical manifestations due to varied pathogenicity of spp., which can be classified into three clusters such as pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix.

Malays J Pathol 2021 Aug;43(2):327-331

King Saud University, College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Small bowel volvulus is defined as the torsion of the small intestine, potentially leading to bowel obstruction, gangrene and perforation. It is a rare condition, especially in adults.

Case Presentation: A 30-year-old man was retrieved from the jungle with severe weight loss and abdominal symptoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathology and One Health implications of fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in an urbanized, free-ranging, black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in Brazil.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic neglected disease of worldwide public health concern. Leptospira species can infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and lead to a spectrum of disease, including severe and fatal forms. Herein, we report for the first time a fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in a free-ranging nonhuman primate (NHP), a black-tufted marmoset. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Longitudinal analysis to characterize classes and subclasses of antibody responses to recombinant receptor-binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients in Thailand.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(8):e0255796. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Serological assays to detect antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might contribute to confirming the suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients not detected with molecular assays. Human antibodies that target the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-binding domain of the viral spike protein are a target for serodiagnosis and therapeutics. This study aimed to characterize the classes and subclasses of antibody responses to a recombinant receptor-binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients and investigated the reactivity of these antibodies in patients with other tropical infections and healthy individuals in Thailand. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Leptospirosis in Intensive Care Unit.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 May;25(Suppl 2):S134-S137

Department of Internal Medicine, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Tropical infections constitute 20 - 30% of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in developing countries. Leptospirosis is a spectrum with mild form presenting as an acute febrile illness with jaundice, complicating in few as acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The poor prognostic markers are hemorrhagic ARDS, acute renal failure, DIC, severe metabolic acidosis, older age, chronic alcohol abuse, high SOFA score, and septic shock. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis with Leptospirosis: A Rare but Devastating Complication.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 8;2021:3451155. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Medicine, District General Hospital, Mannar, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), often associated with an array of infections, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases, is rarely seen with leptospirosis, which carries a relatively poor prognosis even with modern state-of-the-art medical care. We describe a patient with leptospirosis complicated by sHLH who succumbed to illness following multiorgan dysfunction. . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Features and Severity of Leptospirosis Cases Reported in the Hawke's Bay Region of New Zealand.

J Trop Med 2021 6;2021:5567081. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Tropical and Infectious Diseases Unit, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Aims: To record demographics, symptoms, signs, and laboratory features of confirmed leptospirosis cases in the Hawke's Bay area of New Zealand to aid clinicians in diagnosis and recognition of severity.

Methods: Review of suspected leptospirosis cases referred to the reference laboratory from hospitals in the Hawke's Bay region between March 2003 and March 2012. Inclusion criteria were IgM positivity and diagnosis confirmed with either polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute kidney injury with partial Fanconi syndrome in a patient with leptospirosis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 23;15(1):358. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Leptospirosis is an underdiagnosed bacterial infection with nonspecific symptoms, hence, a diagnostic challenge. Identifying a case of leptospirosis in Switzerland is uncommon. Although kidney complications are frequent in severe forms, including tubular dysfunction, observing this complication is rare in our country. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pica (Allotriophagy): An Underestimated Risk Factor for Severe Leptospirosis (Weil's Diseases)? Report of a Leptospira Septic Shock Successfully Managed with ECMO.

Infect Dis Rep 2021 Jul 5;13(3):619-626. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Clinical Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Cattinara University Hospital, 34148 Trieste, Italy.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by infection with pathogenic strains of the bacterium Leptospira. The disease can be complicated by pulmonary hemorrhages and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with the mortality rate increasing to 51-100%. We report the case of a 37-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency department with a 6-day history of fever, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea, followed by jaundice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biomacromolecules of chitosan - Bacopa saponin based LipL32 gene delivery system for leptospirosis therapy.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 15;202:111699. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, 50290, Thailand; College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Leptospirosis is a severe bacterial infectious disease caused by the organisms belonging to the genus of Leptospira. The chitosan/Bacopa saponin/tripolyphosphate (CS/BS/TPP) nanoparticles conjugated with recombinant DNA vaccines were designed against Leptospirosis. Chitosan, a polysaccharide is suitable for delivery of drug, and gene due to its bio-compatible and biodegradable properties. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of leptospiremia and specific immune response in severe leptospirosis.

Sci Rep 2021 07 16;11(1):14630. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Excellence Center for Critical Care Nephrology, Thai Red Cross Society, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, 1873, Rama 4 Rd., Lumphini, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Leptospirosis can cause a high mortality rate, especially in severe cases. This multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to examine both host and pathogen factors that might contribute to the disease severity. A total of 217 leptospirosis patients were recruited and divided into two groups of non-severe and severe. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine on accelerating the recovery of renal failure in patients with leptospirosis, a randomized clinical trial study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Jul 25;67:102518. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Limited studies have been conducted on patients with renal function recovery regarding severe leptospirosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in accelerating the reduction of serum creatinine in patients with leptospirosis.

Patients And Methods: This is a clinical trial study involving 64 patients with leptospirosis, with microscopic agglutination tests used to confirm the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Contributing role of TNF, IL-10, sTNFR1 and TNF gene polymorphisms in disease severity of leptospirosis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2021 Aug 23;210(4):211-219. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

The immune response is hypothesized as an important factor in the disease outcome of leptospirosis. Exaggerated immune response may promote tissue damage that lead to severe disease outcome. In this study TNF, IL-10, sTNFR1 levels were measured among sixty-two hospitalized leptospirosis confirmed patients in Sri Lanka. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular and serological characterization of pathogenic Leptospira spp. isolated from symptomatic dogs in a highly endemic area, Brazil.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jun 21;17(1):221. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Universidade Santo Amaro, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Leptospirosis is an endemic zoonosis in Brazil, with a great impact on human and animal health. Although dogs are frequently infected by pathogenic Leptospira, the current epidemiological understanding of canine leptospirosis is mainly based on serological tests that predict the infecting serogroup/serovar. Thus, the present study aimed at identifying the causative agent for severe cases of canine leptospirosis in a highly endemic area through the isolation and characterization of the isolated strains. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genetic evidence for a potential environmental pathway to spillover infection of rat-borne leptospirosis.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

In this study, we genotyped samples from environmental reservoirs (surface water and soil), colonized rat specimens and cases of human severe leptospirosis from an endemic urban slum in Brazil, to determine the molecular epidemiology of pathogenic Leptospira and identify pathways of leptospirosis infection. We identified a well-stablished population of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni common to human leptospirosis cases, and animal and environmental reservoirs. This finding provides genetic evidence for a potential environmental spillover pathway for rat-borne leptospirosis through the environment in this urban community and highlights the importance of environmental and social interventions to reduce spillover infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Retrospective Analysis of Outcome in Malaria Patients Admitted into a Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital.

Anesth Essays Res 2020 Jul-Sep;14(3):425-427. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, NRI Medical College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Introduction: Malaria is a significant public health problem with people worldwide at risk for the disease. It is a mosquito-borne disease causing high-grade fever, chills, and flu-like illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the case with severe malaria should be admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A rare case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with severe leptospirosis complicated with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury; a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 3;21(1):522. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka.

Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic state to a fatal multiorgan dysfunction. Neurological manifestations including aseptic meningitis, spinal cord and peripheral nerve involvement, cranial neuropathies and cerebellar syndrome are well recognized with varying frequencies among patients with this disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Leptospirosis with pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple organ failure: a case report and literature review.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211019665

Department of Emergency, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Pulmonary haemorrhage is an important complication of leptospirosis. We herein report an uncommon case of severe pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple organ failure caused by leptospirosis in a 49-year-old man who was previously healthy. He was a farm worker who was admitted to the hospital because of haemoptysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The correlation between three teleconnections and leptospirosis incidence in the Kandy District, Sri Lanka, 2004-2019.

Trop Med Health 2021 May 26;49(1):43. Epub 2021 May 26.

The Teaching (General) Hospital-Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Background: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis. Leptospirosis incidence (LI) in Sri Lanka is high. Infected animals excrete leptospires into the environment via their urine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A multipronged approach for the detection of leptospirosis in captive sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) in Agra and Bannerghatta sloth bear rescue centers in India.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 17;83(7):1059-1067. Epub 2021 May 17.

Krishi Bhawan, ICAR, New Delhi 110001, India.

Leptospirosis is an exacerbating factor responsible for the drastic decline of sloth bear population in India. In this study, a multipronged approach based on antigen detection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) employing G1/G2 and LigBF/LigBR primers, antibody detection using Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and recombinant LigBCon1-5 antigen based Latex Agglutination Test (rLigBCon1-5 LAT), serum biochemistry using hepatic (serum glutamate oxalo acetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and renal biomarkers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine) and gross/histopathological evidence in liver and kidneys were employed to investigate leptospirosis in captive sloth bears. A total of 133 serum samples collected from Agra (n=113) and Bannerghatta (n=20) sloth bear rescue centers were screened using MAT and rLigBCon1-5 LAT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Two Atypical Cases of Hantavirus Infection: Experience from a Tertiary Care Unit in Sri Lanka.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 21;2021:5555613. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Hospital-Kandy, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

Hantaviruses are a large family of enveloped viruses with two medically important families Cricetidae and Muridae which are known to cause rodent-borne diseases worldwide. Some strains cause clinical syndromes with multiorgan involvement in humans such as hantavirus haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which is also known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Clinical differentiation of this infection from other endemic infections in Sri Lanka such as leptospirosis and rickettsial infections is extremely difficult due to overlapping clinical and epidemiologic features such as exposure to rodents and farming. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An outbreak of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) among the Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh: Findings from enhanced epidemiological surveillance.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250505. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, Geneva, Switzerland.

In the summer of 2017, an estimated 745,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh in what has been described as one of the largest and fastest growing refugee crises in the world. Among numerous health concerns, an outbreak of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) was detected by the disease surveillance system in early 2018 among the refugee population. This paper describes the investigation into the increase in AJS cases, the process and results of the investigation, which were strongly suggestive of a large outbreak due to hepatitis A virus (HAV). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Idiopathic ileal volvulus with multiple concomitant infections in a starving man.

Malays J Pathol 2021 Apr;43(1):81-85

Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Department of Forensic Medicine, Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.

Background: Small bowel volvulus is defined as the torsion of the small intestine, potentially leading to bowel obstruction, gangrene and perforation. It is a rare condition, especially in adults.

Case Presentation: A 30-year-old man was retrieved from the jungle with severe weight loss and abdominal symptoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF