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Effect of intermittent hypoxic conditioning on inflammatory biomarkers in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 09 10;152:111478. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

University of Extremadura, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Cáceres, Spain.

Ageing is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and with a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a resistance training programme in conditions of intermittent hypoxia on inflammatory biomarkers in older people. A total of 54 older adults (aged 65-75 years), who voluntarily participated in the study, were randomly divided into three groups: the control (CON) group, the resistance training normoxia (RTN) group that performed resistance training in normoxia and resistance training hypoxia (RTH) group that trained under hypoxic conditions at a simulated altitude of 2500 m above sea level. Read More

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September 2021

Embedding supervised exercise training for men on androgen deprivation therapy into standard prostate cancer care: a feasibility and acceptability study (the STAMINA trial).

Sci Rep 2021 06 14;11(1):12470. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Allied Health Professionals, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

Lifestyle interventions involving exercise training offset the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Yet provision of integrated exercise pathways in cancer care is sparse. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of an embedded supervised exercise training intervention into standard prostate cancer care in a single-arm, multicentre prospective cohort study. Read More

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Acute Effects of a High Volume vs. High Intensity Bench Press Protocol on Electromechanical Delay and Muscle Morphology in Recreationally Trained Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 3;18(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research on Health Sciences & Technologies, University of Bologna, Via del Pilastro 8, 40127 Bologna, Italy.

The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the acute responses on muscle architecture, electromechanical delay (EMD) and performance following a high volume (HV: 5 sets of 10 reps at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM)) and a high intensity (HI: 5 sets of 3 reps at 90% of 1RM) bench press protocol in women. Eleven recreationally trained women (age = 23.3 ± 1. Read More

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Leucine Supplementation Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery from Resistance Exercise in Young Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Crossover Study.

Int J Exerc Sci 2021 1;14(2):486-497. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Research in Health Sciences, Northern University of Paraná, Londrina, PR, BRAZIL.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of free leucine supplementation on muscle recovery from resistance exercise (RE) in young adults. Fourteen untrained subjects (23.9 ± 3. Read More

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Acute Effects of Resistance Training with Blood Flow Restriction on Achilles Tendon Thickness.

J Hum Kinet 2021 Mar 31;78:101-109. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest and thickest tendons of the human body. Several studies have reported an immediate decrease in Achilles tendon thickness after a single bout of resistance training. However, the effects of blood flow restriction training on Achilles tendon thickness have not been investigated. Read More

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Contralateral training effects of low-intensity blood-flow restricted and high-intensity unilateral resistance training.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Aug 12;121(8):2305-2321. Epub 2021 May 12.

Neuromuscular Research Lab, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, Cruz Quebrada, Dafundo, 1499-002, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose: Determine whether unilateral low-intensity blood-flow restricted (LIBFR) exercise is as effective as high-intensity (HI) resistance training for improving contralateral muscle strength.

Methods: Thirty healthy adults (20-30 years) were randomly allocated to the following dynamic plantar-flexion training interventions: HI [75% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), 4 sets, 10 reps] and LIBFR [20% of 1RM, 4 sets, 30 + 15 + 15 + 15 reps]. Evoked V-wave and H-reflex recruitment curves, as well as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and panoramic ultrasound assessments of the trained and untrained soleus muscles were obtained pre-training, post-4 weeks of training and post-4 weeks of detraining. Read More

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Effects of Whole Body Electrostimulation Associated With Body Weight Training on Functional Capacity and Body Composition in Inactive Older People.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:638936. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Universidade de São Paulo Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil.

To analyze the effects of whole body electrostimulation (WB-EMS) with body weight training on functional fitness and body composition of older men. Twenty physically inactive older men were randomized into: Control group (control), performed the body weight exercise training wearing electrostimulation clothing, but without receiving electrical current stimuli ( = 10), and body weight associated with whole body electrostimulation group (BW+WB-EMS), performed the body weight exercise training wearing electrostimulation clothing plus whole body electrostimulation ( = 10). The training sessions were performed twice a week for 6 weeks and included eight exercises using body weight, performed in two sets of eight repetitions. Read More

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The Effects of Spirulina Supplementation on Redox Status and Performance Following a Muscle Damaging Protocol.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, 42100 Trikala, Greece.

Spirulina plantensis is a popular supplement which has been shown to have antioxidant and performance enhancing properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of spirulina supplementation on (a) redox status (b) muscle performance and (c) muscle damage following an eccentric bout of exercise that would induce muscle damage. Twenty-four healthy, recreationally trained males participated in the study and were randomly separated into two groups: a spirulina supplementation (6 g per day) and a placebo group. Read More

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Acute Inflammatory, Cortisol, and Soreness Responses to Supramaximal Accentuated Eccentric Loading.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Feb;35(Suppl 1):S107-S113

School of Kinesiology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia.

Abstract: Merrigan, JJ and Jones, MT. Acute inflammatory, cortisol, and soreness responses to supramaximal accentuated eccentric loading. J Strength Cond Res 35(2S): S107-S113, 2021-The purpose was to determine differences in time under tension, cortisol, inflammation, and perceived soreness between accentuated eccentric (AEL) and traditional loading (TRA) resistance exercise protocols. Read More

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February 2021

Implementation of the COVID-19 Vulnerability Index Across an International Network of Health Care Data Sets: Collaborative External Validation Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Apr 5;9(4):e21547. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is straining health care systems globally. The burden on hospitals during the pandemic could be reduced by implementing prediction models that can discriminate patients who require hospitalization from those who do not. The COVID-19 vulnerability (C-19) index, a model that predicts which patients will be admitted to hospital for treatment of pneumonia or pneumonia proxies, has been developed and proposed as a valuable tool for decision-making during the pandemic. Read More

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Hydrogen Rich Water Consumption Positively Affects Muscle Performance, Lactate Response, and Alleviates Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness After Resistance Training.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Faculty of Health, UC-Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia; and Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Abstract: Botek, M, Krejčí, J, McKune, A, Valenta, M, and Sládečková, B. Hydrogen rich water consumption positively affects muscle performance, lactate response, and alleviates delayed onset of muscle soreness after resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Positive outcomes of hydrogen rich water (HRW) supplementation on endurance performance have been shown, but the effects of HRW in resistance training are unclear. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of Exercise Mode on Arterial Stiffness in Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Patients: A Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jul 5;74:382-388. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Exercise program has been recommended for the treatment of symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. However, whether exercise promotes reduction in arterial stiffness in these patients, who exhibit high arterial stiffness, is poor known.

Aim: To analyze the effects of a single session of resistance, walking, and combined exercises on arterial stiffness in symptomatic PAD patients and to describe individual responses and identify clinical predictors of arterial stiffness responses after exercises. Read More

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Order of concentric and eccentric muscle actions affects metabolic responses.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Laboratory for Human Performance, School of Health Sciences, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA -

Background: Resistance exercise provides an effective stimulus for improving the metabolic plasticity of skeletal muscle, and the type of acute muscle contraction plays an important role in determining specific responses and adaptations. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of contraction order on metabolic responses by comparing monophasic concentric and eccentric squats versus a protocol incorporating alternated concentric and eccentric repetitions.

Methods: Twelve recreationally active men (21. Read More

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January 2021

Muscles adaptation to aging and training: architectural changes - a randomised trial.

BMC Geriatr 2021 01 13;21(1):48. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Sorbonne Universités, Biomécanique et Bioingénierie, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, UMR CNRS 7338, Compiègne, France.

Background: To investigate how anatomical cross-sectional area and volume of quadriceps and triceps surae muscles were affected by ageing, and by resistance training in older and younger men, in vivo.

Methods: The old participants were randomly assigned to moderate (O55, n = 13) or high-load (O80, n = 14) resistance training intervention (12 weeks; 3 times/week) corresponding to 55% or 80% of one repetition maximum, respectively. Young men (Y55, n = 11) were assigned to the moderate-intensity strengthening exercise program. Read More

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January 2021

Massage enhances recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage in older adults.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Mar 2;31(3):623-632. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK.

To examine efficacy of cold water immersion (CWI) and massage as recovery techniques on joint position sense, balance, and fear of falling following exercise-induced muscle damage in older adults. Seventy-eight older men and women performed a single bout of strength training on the calf muscles (3 exercises with 4 sets of 10 reps with 75% of 1RM) to induce muscle damage. After the damaging exercise, participants received either a 15-minute massage on calf muscles, or a CWI of the lower limb in cold water (15 ± 1°C) for 15 minute, or passive rest. Read More

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Mud Pack With Menthol and Arnica Montana Accelerates Recovery Following a High-Volume Resistance Training Session for Lower Body in Trained Men.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Biomedical and Neuoromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Bartolomei, S, Nigro, F, D'Amico, A, Cortesi, M, and Di Michele, R. Mud pack with menthol and Arnica montana accelerates recovery following a high-volume resistance training session for lower body in trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mud pack, containing menthol and Arnica montana, on the recovery responses following a high-volume resistance protocol. Read More

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September 2020

The Effect of Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acid Supplementation on Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle after Acute Resistance Exercise: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Comparison Trial.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 12;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, 525-8577, Japan.

Resistance exercise transiently activates anabolic and catabolic systems in skeletal muscle. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) are reported to stimulate the muscle anabolic response at a lower dose than whey protein. However, little is known regarding the effect of LEAA supplementation on the resistance exercise-induced responses of the anabolic and catabolic systems. Read More

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Photobiomodulation Therapy Effects on Resistance Training Volume and Discomfort in Well-Trained Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2020 Dec 31;38(12):720-726. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Physical Education, Sports Center, Biomechanics Laboratory, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

To investigate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on resistance training volume and discomfort of well-trained adults. PBMT has been used to attenuate fatigue in several physical exercise topics. However, it is unclear if PBMT can increase volume and reduce discomfort in resistance training well-trained individuals. Read More

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December 2020

Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Resistance Exercise Performance.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, Troy University, Troy, Alabama.

Green, MS, Kimmel, CS, Martin, TD, Mouser, JG, and Brune, MP. Effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-A carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) has been shown to enhance short duration endurance performance and raises the possibility that a similar strategy could improve performance during resistance exercise. Read More

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Effectiveness of a 2-Week Strength Training Learning Intervention on Self-selected Weight-Training Intensity.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Sep;34(9):2443-2448

Department of Movement Science, Human Performance Laboratory, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan.

Glass, SC, Ahmad, S, and Gabler, T. Effectiveness of a 2-week strength training learning intervention on self-selected weight-training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2443-2448, 2020-The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an imposed (IM) vs. Read More

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September 2020

Blood Pressure Increase in Hypertensive Individuals During Resistance Training Protocols With Equated Work to Rest Ratio.

Front Physiol 2020 29;11:481. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Despite growing evidence regarding the benefits of resistance training in hypertension, the large and abrupt rise of systolic blood pressure (SBP) observed during resistance exercise execution has resulted in concern about its safety. However, the manipulation of the resistance training protocol (RTP) organization, maintaining the work to rest ratio equated between protocols (W:R-equated), may reduce the SBP increase. To compare cardiovascular responses during two W:R-equated RTPs (3 × 15:88 s vs. Read More

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Post high intensity pull-over semi-tethered swimming potentiation in national competitive swimmers.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Dec 30;60(12):1526-1535. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Aquatics Lab, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Background: The swimming community has shown considerable interest in using dry-land warm-ups as a method of impacting performance. This study compared the effects of high-resistance pull-over and swimming warm-up in semi-tethered resisted swimming.

Methods: An incremental-load semi-tethered swimming test was individually administered in 20 national-competitive swimmers to determine the load maximizing swimming power. Read More

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December 2020

Effects of 6 Weeks of Traditional Resistance Training or High Intensity Interval Resistance Training on Body Composition, Aerobic Power and Strength in Healthy Young Subjects: A Randomized Parallel Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 8;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy.

Consistent practice of physical activity has well known positive effects on general health; however, time for exercise remains one major barrier for many. An acute bout of high intensity interval resistance training (HIIRT) increases acute resting energy expenditure (REE) and decreases respiratory ratio (RR), suggesting its potential role on weight loss and increased fatty acid oxidation. The aim of this study was to test the long-term effect of HIIRT on body composition, lipid profile and muscle strength using a randomized parallel trial. Read More

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Effect of Body Fat Percentage on Muscle Damage Induced by High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 16;17(10). Epub 2020 May 16.

Office of Academic Affairs, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the impact of percent body fat (%BF) on muscle damage after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Thirty healthy male undergraduates (mean age: 22.0 ± 2 years, height: 176. Read More

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Adaption of Maximal Glycolysis Rate after Resistance Exercise with Different Volume Load.

Sports Med Int Open 2020 Aug 23;4(2):E39-E44. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institute of Human Movement Science and Health, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six-weeks of resistance training with different volume load on the maximum glycolysis rate. 24 male strength-trained volunteers were assigned in a high volume low load (50% of their 1RM with 5 sets and reps up to muscle failure) and a low volume high load (70% of their 1RM with 5 sets of ten reps) resistance exercise group. The resistance training performed 3 days per week over 6 weeks. Read More

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Hyperventilation-Aided Recovery for Extra Repetitions on Bench Press and Leg Press.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 May;34(5):1274-1284

Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia.

Sakamoto, A, Naito, H, and Chow, CM. Hyperventilation-aided recovery for extra repetitions on bench press and leg press. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1274-1284, 2020-Hyperventilation (HV)-induced alkalosis, an ergogenic strategy, improved repeated pedaling sprint performance through enhanced H removal. Read More

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Effects of strength training on physical fitness and sport-specific performance in recreational, sub-elite, and elite rowers: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

J Sports Sci 2020 May 27;38(10):1186-1195. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognitive Sciences, University of Potsdam , Potsdam, Germany.

The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to examine the effects of strength training (ST) on selected components of physical fitness (e.g., lower/upper limb maximal strength, muscular endurance, jump performance, cardiorespiratory endurance) and sport-specific performance in rowers. Read More

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The Effects of Combined Exercise Training (Resistance-Aerobic) on Serum Kinesin and Physical Function in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (Randomized Controlled Trials).

J Diabetes Res 2020 6;2020:6978128. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetics which causes nerve damage and muscle strength decrease in patients. This in turn results in imbalance leading to the diabetic patients' daily activity disparity. The present investigation was conducted to specifically study the effects of combined training (resistance-aerobic) on serum kinesin-1 and physical function in type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of Rest Interval Duration on the Volume Completed During a High-Intensity Bench Press Exercise.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Feb 27. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Kinesiology and Recreation Administration, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California.

Hernandez, DJ, Healy, S, Giacomini, ML, and Kwon, YS. Effect of rest interval duration on the volume completed during a high-intensity bench press exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Between-set rest intervals (RIs) are one of the most important variables in resistance training; however, no known research has investigated the effects of RIs greater than 5 minutes during high-intensity strength training. Read More

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February 2020

Progressive Resistance Training Volume: Effects on Muscle Thickness, Mass, and Strength Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Individuals.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Feb 13. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida.

Aube, D, Wadhi, T, Rauch, J, Anand, A, Barakat, C, Pearson, J, Bradshaw, J, Zazzo, S, Ugrinowitsch, C, and De Souza, EO. Progressive resistance training volume: effects on muscle thickness, mass, and strength adaptations in resistance-trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study investigated the effects of 12-SET, 18-SET, and 24-SET lower-body weekly sets on muscle strength and mass accretion. Read More

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February 2020