2,569 results match your criteria serve cholesterol

Prevalence of subclinical retinal ischemia in patients with cardiovascular disease - a hypothesis driven study.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Mar 2;33:100775. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California USA.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. A noninvasive test that can detect underlying cardiovascular disease has the potential to identify patients at risk prior to the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether an easily observed imaging finding indicative of retinal ischemia, which we term ' (RIPLs), could serve as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 19 level is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):376

Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a regulator of glucose metabolism and may provide a new therapeutic target for type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the clinical relevance of FGF19 in T1D remains unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between the serum FGF19 concentration and T1D. Read More

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Associations of Mitochondrial Variants With Lipidomic Traits in a Chinese Cohort With Coronary Artery Disease.

Front Genet 2021 25;12:630359. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Plasma lipids have been at the center stage of the prediction and prevention strategies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and novel lipidomic traits have been recognized as reliable biomarkers for CVD risk prediction. The mitochondria serve as energy supply sites for cells and can synthesize a variety of lipids autonomously. Therefore, investigating the relationships between mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and plasma lipidomic traits is meaningful. Read More

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Effect of Methanol Extract of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Fruit Pulp on N-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) Induced Hypertension in Rats.

High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Introduction: Most available drugs used for management of hypertension have presented a plethora of challenges which genuinely called for development of therapies from natural sources.

Aim: This study investigated the effect of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata fruit (MEADF) pulp on N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertension in rats.

Methods: Fourty eight (48) wistar rats divided into six (6) groups (eight rats each) were employed. Read More

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Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) Parameters in a Black Diabetic Population and Correlations with Systemic Diseases.

Cells 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

This is a cross-sectional, prospective study of a population of black diabetic participants without diabetic retinopathy aimed to investigate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) characteristics and correlations with systemic diseases in this population. These parameters could serve as novel biomarkers for microvascular complications; especially in black populations which are more vulnerable to diabetic microvascular complications. Linear mixed models were used to obtain OCTA mean values ± standard deviation and analyze statistical correlations to systemic diseases. Read More

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Riboflavin-Sensitized Photooxidation of Low-Density-Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol: A Culprit in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs).

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Canada.

The oxidation of human low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles is responsible for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In the present study, the occurrence of riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of LDL particles was examined in an system. The presence of light, oxygen, and photosensitizer (50 μM riboflavin) caused the riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of human LDL particles thereby increasing in the conjugated dienes (CDs) by 32. Read More

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Sorting sub-150-nm liposomes of distinct sizes by DNA-brick-assisted centrifugation.

Nat Chem 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

In cells, myriad membrane-interacting proteins generate and maintain curved membrane domains with radii of curvature around or below 50 nm. To understand how such highly curved membranes modulate specific protein functions, and vice versa, it is imperative to use small liposomes with precisely defined attributes as model membranes. Here, we report a versatile and scalable sorting technique that uses cholesterol-modified DNA 'nanobricks' to differentiate hetero-sized liposomes by their buoyant densities. Read More

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Fluid shear stress-mediated mechanotransduction in circulating leukocytes and its defect in microvascular dysfunction.

J Biomech 2021 Mar 23;120:110394. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes) in the active circulation exhibit multiple phenotypic indicators for a low level of cellular activity, like lack of pseudopods and minimal amounts of activated, cell-adhesive integrins on their surfaces. In contrast, before these cells enter the circulation in the bone marrow or when they recross the endothelium into extravascular tissues of peripheral organs they are fully activated. We review here a multifaceted mechanism mediated by fluid shear stress that can serve to deactivate leukocytes in the circulation. Read More

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Differential mode of cholesterol inclusion with 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins impacts safety margin in treating Niemann-Pick disease type C.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Informatics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lysosomal storage disorder with disrupted intracellular cholesterol trafficking. A cyclic heptasaccharide, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), is a cholesterol solubilizer that is being developed to treat NPC, but its ototoxicity and pulmonary toxicity remain important issues. We have characterized 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD), a cyclic octasaccharide with a larger cavity than HP-β-CD, as a candidate drug to treat NPC. Read More

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Serious adverse events following treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 29;15(3):e0009302. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Infectious Diseases Data Observatory - IDDO, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Despite a historical association with poor tolerability, a comprehensive review on safety of antileishmanial chemotherapies is lacking. We carried out an update of a previous systematic review of all published clinical trials in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from 1980 to 2019 to document any reported serious adverse events (SAEs).

Methods: For this updated systematic review, we searched the following databases from 1st Jan 2016 through 2nd of May 2019: PUBMED, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, clinicaltrials. Read More

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Effects of excessive dietary zinc or zinc/cadmium and tapeworm infection on the biochemical parameters in rats.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

The main objective of this study was to determine which biochemical blood parameters can serve as indicators of Zn or Zn/Cd burden and tapeworm infection. This study was performed on 44 Wistar male rats during a 6-week period, when rats were or were not fed a zinc/cadmium rich diet and were or were not infected with tapeworms (Hymenolepis diminuta). Total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, Mg, Ca, P and Zn levels were analysed. Read More

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NPC1L1-Dependent Transport of 27-Alkyne Cholesterol in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1 (NPC1L1) mediates the uptake of micellar cholesterol by intestinal epithelial cells and is the molecular target of the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe (EZE). The detailed mechanisms responsible for intracellular shuttling of micellar cholesterol is not fully understood due to the lack of a suitable NPC1L1-substrate that can be traced by fluorescence imaging and biochemical methods. 27-alkyne cholesterol has been previously shown to serve as a substrate for different cellular processes similar to native cholesterol. Read More

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Causal effect of education on type 2 diabetes: A network Mendelian randomization study.

World J Diabetes 2021 Mar;12(3):261-277

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: The causality between education and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains unclear.

Aim: To identify the causality between education and T2DM and the potential metabolic risk factors [coronary heart disease (CHD), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides (TG), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin] from summarized genome-wide association study (GWAS) data used a network Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Two-sample MR and network MR were performed to obtain the causality between education-T2DM, education-mediator, and mediator-T2DM. Read More

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Identification and characterization of circRNAs encoded by MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2.

Brief Bioinform 2021 03;22(2):1297-1308

College of Biology, Hunan University.

The life-threatening coronaviruses MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-1/2) have caused and will continue to cause enormous morbidity and mortality to humans. Virus-encoded noncoding RNAs are poorly understood in coronaviruses. Data mining of viral-infection-related RNA-sequencing data has resulted in the identification of 28 754, 720 and 3437 circRNAs encoded by MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Read More

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Short chain fatty acids and bile acids in human faeces are associated with the intestinal cholesterol conversion status.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, via Moruzzi 1, 5624, Pisa, Italy.

Background And Purpose: The analysis of human faecal metabolites can provide an insight into metabolic interactions between gut microbiota and host organism. The creation of metabolic profiles in faeces has received little attention until now and reference values, especially in the context of dietary and therapeutic interventions, are missing. Exposure to xenobiotics significantly affects the physiology of the microbiome and microbiota manipulation as well as short chain fatty acids administration have been proposed as treatment targets for several diseases. Read More

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Statin Use and Benefits of Thyroid Function: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:578909. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Purpose: Previous studies have suggested that cholesterol may influence thyroid function. Since statins are widely used for their cholesterol-lowering effect, we aimed to assess the association between statin use and thyroid function, and also to explore the role of the cholesterol-lowering effect in it.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study derived from REACTION study. Read More

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Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 Heightens Anti-Melanoma Immune Responses and Anti-PD-1 Therapy Efficacy.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

INSERM UMR 1037, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse (CRCT), Toulouse, France.

Dysregulation of lipid metabolism affects the behavior of cancer cells, but how this happens is not completely understood. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), encoded by , catalyzes the breakdown of sphingomyelin to produce the anti-oncometabolite ceramide. We found that this enzyme was often downregulated in human metastatic melanoma, likely contributing to immune escape. Read More

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The occurrence and potential predictive factors of major adverse cardiac and cerebral events in end-stage renal disease patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: A prospective cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e24616

Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen.

Abstract: Major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE) are common complications, which prolong hospitalization and increase mortality rate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate MACCE occurrence and its potential predictive factors in those patients.In this prospective cohort study, 196 diagnosis of ESRD patients who underwent CAPD treatment in our hospital were eligible, and their clinical data (including demographic data and biochemical indexes) were documented. Read More

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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Older Adults at Risk for Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Randomized Trial.

Clin Gerontol 2021 Mar 15:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Research Centre, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

: Stress influences metabolic activity and increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to a) examine feasibility and acceptability of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in older adults at risk for CVD, and b) obtain preliminary data on its metabolic impact.: A pilot RCT was conducted using a pre-post, 2-month follow-up design. Read More

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Lipid rafts as signaling hubs in cancer cell survival/death and invasion: implications in tumor progression and therapy: Thematic Review Series: Biology of Lipid Rafts.

J Lipid Res 2020 05 7;61(5):611-635. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Laboratory of Cell Death and Cancer Therapy, Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), E-28040 Madrid, Spain.

Cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich membrane domains, known as lipid rafts or membrane rafts, play a critical role in the compartmentalization of signaling pathways. Physical segregation of proteins in lipid rafts may modulate the accessibility of proteins to regulatory or effector molecules. Thus, lipid rafts serve as sorting platforms and hubs for signal transduction proteins. Read More

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Severe Genotype, Pancreatic Insufficiency and Low Dose of Pancreatic Enzymes Associate with Abnormal Serum Sterol Profile in Cystic Fibrosis.

Biomolecules 2021 Feb 19;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-572 Poznań, Poland.

Background: Several factors could lead to lipid disturbances observed in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to assess sterol homeostasis in CF and define potential exogenous and endogenous determinants of lipid dysregulation.

Methods: The study involved 55 CF patients and 45 healthy subjects (HS). Read More

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February 2021

Osteopontin Serum Concentration and Metabolic Syndrome in Male Psoriatic Patients.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 13;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Pediatric Dermatology, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Staszica 11, 20-081 Lublin, Poland.

Psoriasis (Ps) is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that is widely associated with the clinical features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), including hypertension, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein involved in the modulation of inflammatory processes, may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and MetS. Therefore, the aim of the study was the assessment of the correlation between OPN concentration in the peripheral blood and the presence of MetS as well as its particular components in the Ps patients. Read More

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February 2021

Intracoronary monocyte expression pattern and HDL subfractions after non-ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 2;1867(6):166116. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, "Aldo Moro" University of Bari, Bari, Italy; INBB, National Institute for Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Aims: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is described as a range of clinical conditions including myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina. Lipid and apolipoprotein profiles together with the study of cholesterol deposit and efflux serve to identify novel pre and post infarct scenarios for the treatment of these patients. In (non-ST elevation myocardial infarction) NSTEMI patients, we analysed both systemic and intracoronary serum ability to accept cholesterol as well as cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of monocytes in terms of expression of genes involved in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Read More

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Early differences in membrane properties at the neuromuscular junctions of ALS model mice: Effects of 25-hydroxycholesterol.

Life Sci 2021 May 2;273:119300. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Laboratory of Biophysics of Synaptic Processes, Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Federal Research Center "Kazan Scientific Center of RAS", 2/31 Lobachevsky Street, box 30, Kazan 420111, Russia; Institute of Neuroscience, Kazan State Medial University, 49 Butlerova Street, Kazan, 420012, Russia. Electronic address:

Aims: Plasma hyperlipidemia is a protective factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) while cholesterol-lowering drugs aggravate the pathology. We hypothesize that this phenomenon can be linked with membrane lipid alterations in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) occurring before motor neuron loss.

Methods: Neurotransmitter release in parallel with lipid membrane properties in diaphragm NMJs of SOD1G93A (mSOD) mice at nine weeks of age (pre-onset stage) were assessed. Read More

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Direct Visualization of Chiral Amplification of Chiral Aggregation Induced Emission Molecules in Nematic Liquid Crystals.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 4;15(3):4956-4966. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Chiral amplification in liquid crystals (LCs) is a well-known strategy. However, current knowledge about the underlying mechanism was still lacking; in particular, how it was realized at the nano scale still remained to be revealed. Here, we provide systematical exploration of chiral amplification of chiral aggregation induced emission (AIE) molecules in LCs from direct visualization of their co-assemblies at the nano scale to theoretical calculation of the molecular packing modes on a single molecular level. Read More

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Therapeutic potential of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth infusion into patients with type 2 diabetes depends on basal lipid levels and islet function.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great potential in treating patients with diabetes, but the therapeutic effects are not always achieved. Particularly, the clinical factors regulating MSC therapy in this setting are largely unknown. In this study, 24 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with insulin were selected to receive three intravenous infusions of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) over the course of 6 weeks and were followed up for 12 months. Read More

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Transcriptomic Changes Associated with Loss of Cell Viability Induced by Oxysterol Treatment of a Retinal Photoreceptor-Derived Cell Line: An In Vitro Model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 26;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Ophthalmology (Ross Eye Institute), Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, SUNY-University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14209, USA.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) results from mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme DHCR7, which catalyzes conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to cholesterol (CHOL). Rats treated with a DHCR7 inhibitor serve as a SLOS animal model, and exhibit progressive photoreceptor-specific cell death, with accumulation of 7DHC and oxidized sterols. To understand the basis of this cell type specificity, we performed transcriptomic analyses on a photoreceptor-derived cell line (661W), treating cells with two 7DHC-derived oxysterols, which accumulate in tissues and bodily fluids of SLOS patients and in the rat SLOS model, as well as with CHOL (negative control), and evaluated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for each treatment. Read More

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February 2021

Development of a novel, fully human, anti-PCSK9 antibody with potent hypolipidemic activity by utilizing phage display-based strategy.

EBioMedicine 2021 Mar 26;65:103250. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Life Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Druggability of Biopharmaceuticals, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by facilitating the degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR) and is an attractive therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia intervention. Herein, we generated a novel fully human antibody with favourable druggability by utilizing phage display-based strategy.

Methods: A potent single-chain variable fragment (scFv) named AP2M21 was obtained by screening a fully human scFv phage display library with hPCSK9, and performing two in vitro affinity maturation processes including CDR-targeted tailored mutagenesis and cross-cloning. Read More

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