19,163 results match your criteria serum titers


Therapy outcome related to adalimumab trough levels in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 21:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Helsinki, Children's Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: We evaluated the relationship between serum concentration and efficacy of adalimumab (ADA), an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agent, in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD).

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study traced 75 patients with PIBD (Crohn's disease,  = 57) treated with ADA at two tertiary centers in Finland in 2012-2018. Drug levels and drug antibody titers were chart-reviewed, and the treatment continuation rate of ADA therapy was evaluated. Read More

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September 2021

Factors associated with the antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases in ANA-positive patients after treatment: a retrospective study.

Clin Exp Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Center of Clinical Laboratory, School of Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361004, China.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a serological hallmark of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs); however, few studies have investigated their post-treatment levels. The mechanism by which ANA titers are upregulated in SARDs remains unclear. We assessed factors associated with the ANA titer after treatment. Read More

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September 2021

The mRNA-1273 Vaccine Induces Cross-Variant Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 With Distinct Profiles in Individuals With or Without Pre-Existing Immunity.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:737083. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Translational Clinical Research Program, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain.

mRNA-based vaccines effectively induce protective neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. Yet, the kinetics and compositional patterns of vaccine-induced antibody responses to the original strain and emerging variants of concern remain largely unknown. Here we characterized serum antibody classes and subclasses targeting the spike receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 wild type and α, β, γ and δ variants in a longitudinal cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naïve and COVID-19 recovered individuals receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies decline after one year and patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia display a unique cytokine profile.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

Objectives: As COVID-19 rages on worldwide, there is an urgent need to characterize immune correlates of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and to identify immune determinants of COVID-19 severity.

Methods: We present longitudinal profiles of neutralizing antibody titers in hospitalized COVID-19 patients clinically diagnosed with mild symptoms, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia up to 12 months after illness onset, using live-virus neutralization. Multiplex, correlation, and network analyses were used to characterize serum-derived inflammatory cytokine profiles in all severity groups. Read More

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September 2021

Intrauterine immunizations trigger antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immunity in pigs and passive protection in suckling piglets.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO), University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5E3, Canada; Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada. Electronic address:

We assessed whether vaccines administered to the uterus at breeding can lead to sufficient colostral antibodies to protect suckling piglets against Porcine Endemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). An antigen from Lawsonia intracellularis, a disease that impacts weanling intestinal health, was also included because we have extensive knowledge on the pig immune response to this antigen. Gilts were mock-bred at 2nd estrus with killed sperm including an intrauterine (i. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and antibody response in lactating women: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Sep 17;21(1):632. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central (CHULC), Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: Immunological protection via breastfeeding is well known. The immunological profile of human milk changes during lactation. No clinical trials have been conducted in lactating women with the newest mRNA vaccines against SARS- CoV-2. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Pre-Season Antibodies against Influenza Virus on Risk of Influenza Infection among Health Care Personnel.

J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biology and the Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: The association of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies with protection from influenza among healthcare personnel (HCP) with occupational exposure to influenza viruses has not been well-described.

Methods: The Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial was a cluster-randomized, multi-site study that compared medical masks to N95 respirators in preventing viral respiratory infections among HCP in outpatient healthcare settings for 5,180 participant-seasons. Serum HAI antibody titers before each influenza season and influenza virus infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction were studied over four study years. Read More

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September 2021

Protective and immunostimulatory effects of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, a probiotic, a vitamin-selenium complex, and Ferulago angulata extract in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria species.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Sep 15;17(1):307. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

Background: Two experiments were conducted to compare the growth-promoting (experiment 1), protective, and immunostimulatory effects (experiment 2) of salinomycin, probiotic, a vitamin-selenium complex, and Ferulago angulata hydroalcoholic extract (FAE) against coccidiosis in broilers. In each experiment, 350 1-day-old broiler chickens were equally divided in 7 groups: uninfected negative control (NC); infected positive control (PC); or PC supplemented with salinomycin (Sal); probiotic (Pro); a combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium (ECSe); 200 mg/kg of FAE (FAE200); or 400 mg/kg of FAE (FAE400). All these groups (except NC) were challenged via oral gavage with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of an Anti-Zika Virus DNA Vaccine.

N Engl J Med 2021 09;385(12):e35

From the Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania (P.T.), and Wistar Institute (K.M., E.L.R., S.B.K., F.I.Z., H.C., D.B.W.), Philadelphia, and Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting (S.W., A.S.K., J.B., M.B.) - all in Pennsylvania; GeneOne Life Science, Seoul, South Korea (C.C.R., Y.K.P., C.R., S.E.S., J.N.M.); Infectious Diseases Research Centre-Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada (T.R., S.T., G.P.K.); QPS-Miami Research Associates, Miami, (D.K.); and the Department of Medicine, Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ (J.N.M.).

Background: Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is typically self-limiting, other associated complications such as congenital birth defects and the Guillain-Barré syndrome are well described. There are no approved vaccines against ZIKV infection.

Methods: In this phase 1, open-label clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic, consensus DNA vaccine (GLS-5700) encoding the ZIKV premembrane and envelope proteins in two groups of 20 participants each. Read More

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September 2021

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Animal Studies Investigating the Relationship Between Serum Antibody, T Lymphocytes, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease.

J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections occur in human populations around the globe, causing disease of variable severity, disproportionately affecting infants and older adults (>65 years of age). Immune responses can be protective but also contribute to disease. Experimental studies in animals enable detailed investigation of immune responses, provide insights into clinical questions, and accelerate the development of passive and active vaccination. Read More

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September 2021

High titers of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody are only observed close to clinical events in pediatrics.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Sep 4;56:103253. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG is increasingly detected in children with CNS demyelinating diseases. Due to the clinical overlap in children with CNS demyelination with and without MOG-IgG positivity, identifying distinct characteristics would help early diagnosis.

Objective: To compare the specific features that may help differentiate MOG-IgG positive from negative children with CNS demyelinating diseases. Read More

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September 2021

infections in mice: Immunological responses to contemporary genotypes found in the US.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):2461-2473

Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States.

is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the human disease Q fever, which can manifest as an acute flu-like illness or a long-term chronic illness, such as endocarditis. Three genotypes (ST8, ST16, and ST20) of are commonly found in the contemporary US and are associated with specific animal hosts. Although all three genotypes have been isolated from humans with Q fever, studies comparing virulence between sequence types have been rare. Read More

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December 2021

Maternal immunization with Group B Streptococcus six-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine supported by lack of toxicity in rat and rabbit fertility and developmental toxicity studies.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA.

A maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) six-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (GBS6) is being developed to protect neonates and infants up to 3 months of age through passive transfer of antibodies from the mother to the infant. Fertility and developmental toxicity studies were conducted in female Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits with GBS6 (20 μg capsular polysaccharide/serotype formulated with or without AlPO , the highest clinical dose). Females were administered the full human dose of the GBS6 formulation intramuscularly twice prior to mating and twice during gestation, to ensure that high antibody levels were maintained throughout gestation and lactation. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Immunogenicity of a Brazilian Glycoconjugate vaccine against Meningococcal W in a Pilot Scale.

Glycoconj J 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Laboratório de Tecnologia Bacteriana, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Bio-ManguinhosRio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Recent changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal have been reported and meningococcal group W (MenW) has become the third most prevalent group isolated in Brazil in the last 10 years. In this study we have developed a conjugate vaccine for MenW using a modified reductive amination conjugation method through a covalent linkage between periodate-oxidized MenW non-O-acetylated polysaccharide and hydrazide-activated monomeric tetanus toxoid. Process control of bulks was done by physicochemical analysis including polysaccharide and protein quantification, high performance liquid chromatography - size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. Read More

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September 2021

Tetravalent Influenza Vaccine Is Not Associated With Neuroaxonal Damage in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:718895. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler University Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Efficacy of vaccines and disease activity linked to immunization are major concerns among people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).

Objective: To assess antibody responses to seasonal influenza antigens and vaccine-associated neuroaxonal damage utilizing serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) in pwMS receiving dimethyl fumarate (DMF).

Methods: In this prospective study, the 2020/2021 seasonal tetravalent influenza vaccine was administered to 20 pwMS treated with DMF and 15 healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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September 2021

Decline of antibody titres three months after two doses of BNT162b2 in non-immunocompromised adults.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory, Hospital Asepeyo, Coslada, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: To assess the antibody response in non-immunocompromised adults after two doses of BNT162b2.

Methods: Prospective, single-centre observational study in non-immunocompromised adults > 18 years of age who received two doses of BNT162b2. The study contemplates analyses of serum samples collected 1. Read More

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September 2021

Dengue pre-vaccination screening test evaluation for the use of dengue vaccine in an endemic area.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257182. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Excellence Center for Critical Care Nephrology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) is only recommended for individuals with prior dengue infection (PDI). This study aimed to perform a serosurvey to inform decision-making for vaccine introduction and identify appropriate target populations. We also evaluated the performance of the serological tests using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) as a reference test in identifying PDI to determine suitability for pre-vaccination screening. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in goats slaughtered for human consumption in the semi-arid of northeastern Brazil.

Parasitol Int 2021 Sep 8;86:102457. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-UFCG, Patos, PB, Brazil; Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba, IFPB, Sousa, PB, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and factors associated with infection in goats, and to isolate protozoan strains in tissue samples from seropositive goats that were destined for human consumption in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 229 slaughtered goats were tested using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cutoff point of 1:64. Epidemiological questionnaires were applied to the producers, to acquire information about the sanitary management used in their herds. Read More

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September 2021

Desensitization Regimen Consisting of High-Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin, Plasmapheresis, and Rituximab (an Anti-CD20 Antibody), Without Eculizumab and/or Bortezomib, in 41 Highly Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

From the Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Antibody-mediated rejection in patients with positive crossmatches can be severe and result in sudden onset of oliguria, leading to graft loss. In an attempt to prevent posttransplant oliguria, we adopted a preoperative desensitization protocol involving the use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin/plasmapheresis and the anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, in 41 transplant recipients with positive crossmatch test results.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively examined the clinical courses of the 41 kidney transplant recipients, paying special attention to renal graft function, urine volume, and changes in the titers of donor-specific antibodies. Read More

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September 2021

Long-Term Persistence and Relevant Therapeutic Impact of High-Titer Viral-Neutralizing Antibody in a Convalescent COVID-19 Plasma Super-Donor: A Case Report.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:690322. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Research, Technological Innovation & Advanced Diagnostics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute - IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

A convalescent, non-severe, patient with COVID-19 was enrolled as a hyper-immune plasma voluntary donor by the Immuno-Hematology and Transfusion Unit of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome, under the TSUNAMI national study criteria. During a nearly 6-month period (May-October 2020), the patient was closely monitored and underwent four hyperimmune plasma collections. Serum SARS-CoV-2 (anti-S + anti-N) IgG and IgM, anti-S1 IgA, and neutralizing titers (NTs) were measured. Read More

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September 2021

Hepatitis B Viral Markers in the Human Milk of HBsAg-Positive Mothers: An Observational Study.

J Hum Lact 2021 Sep 8:8903344211043066. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Quantification of viral antigens and viral loads in human milk samples from mothers infected with hepatitis B virus is largely unknown.

Research Aim: The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the levels of viral antigens and deoxyribonucleic acid of hepatitis B virus in human milk from mothers infected with hepatitis B virus.

Methods: Fifty-five pairs of milk and serum samples from mothers with positive hepatitis B surface antigen, including 11 hepatitis B e antigen positive, were quantitatively tested to measure viral antigens by microparticle enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Read More

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September 2021

Cytoplasmic tail truncation of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein enhances titer of pseudotyped vectors but masks the effect of the D614G mutation.

J Virol 2021 Sep 8:JVI0096621. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The high pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 requires it to be handled under biosafety level 3 conditions. Consequently, Spike protein pseudotyped vectors are a useful tool to study viral entry and its inhibition, with retroviral, lentiviral (LV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors the most commonly used systems. Methods to increase the titer of such vectors commonly include concentration by ultracentrifugation and truncation of the Spike protein cytoplasmic tail. Read More

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September 2021

Anti-MOG autoantibody-associated schizophreniform psychosis.

Acta Neuropsychiatr 2021 Sep 8:1-21. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Objective: Autoimmune mechanisms are related to disease development in a subgroup of patients with psychosis. The contribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is mainly unclear in this context.

Methods: Therefore, two patients with psychosis and anti-MOG antibodies-detected in fixed cell-based and live cell-based assays-are presented. Read More

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September 2021

Cytokine Signature Associated With Disease Severity in COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:681516. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out and then became a global epidemic at the end of 2019. With the increasing number of deaths, early identification of disease severity and interpretation of pathogenesis are very important. Aiming to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19, 75 COVID-19 patients, 34 healthy controls and 23 patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) were recruited in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Serological Testing for COVID-19, Immunological Surveillance, and Exploration of Protective Antibodies.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:635701. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory, Center for Research in Energy and Materials, Campinas, Brazil.

Serological testing is a powerful tool in epidemiological studies for understanding viral circulation and assessing the effectiveness of virus control measures, as is the case of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic agent of COVID-19. Immunoassays can quantitatively reveal the concentration of antiviral antibodies. The assessment of antiviral antibody titers may provide information on virus exposure, and changes in IgG levels are also indicative of a reduction in viral circulation. Read More

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September 2021

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of V114, a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, followed by sequential PPSV23 vaccination in healthy adults aged ≥50 years: A randomized phase III trial (PNEU-PATH).

Vaccine 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumococcal disease, and older adults are at an increased risk. Sequential vaccination of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for broad protection against pneumococcal disease in some countries.

Methods: This phase III trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of sequential administration of either V114 (a 15-valent PCV containing serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 22F, 23F, and 33F) or PCV13, followed 12 months later by PPSV23, in healthy adults aged ≥50 years (NCT03480763). Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the Delta variant on vaccine efficacy and response strategies.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Sep 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Division of Hepatitis and Enterovirus Virus Vaccines, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

Introduction: The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a new wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in many countries. It is the most infectious variant of SARS-CoV-2 to date, and its high infectivity means that a higher proportion of the population needs to be vaccinated to reduce the disease burden, which poses a substantial public health challenge.

Areas Covered: The evolution of the Delta variant is reviewed, including an overview of the Delta Plus variant with a K417N mutation in the RBD, which may confer an improved immune evasion ability. Read More

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September 2021

Detection of a novel antigen for Crohn's disease.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 6:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, the Key Laboratory of Digestive Diseases of Anhui Province, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background And Aims: Accurate serological assays are desirable for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We identify an antigen-like substance called Crohn's disease (CD) antibody binding polypeptide (CABP). As a serological marker, anti-CABP may contribute to the diagnosis of IBD. Read More

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September 2021

Report of a fulminant anti-pan-neurofascin-associated neuropathy responsive to rituximab and bortezomib.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Neurology, St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Inflammatory neuropathies with pathogenic involvement of the nodes of Ranvier through autoantibodies have been increasingly characterized in the past years. The so-called anti-pan-NF-associated neuropathies caused by the simultaneous existence of anti-Neurofascin-186/-140 and -155-antibodies are extremely rare and cause life-threatening symptoms. Therapeutic strategies are needed as symptoms may be life-threatening and may not respond to standard first-line CIDP treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical variability of recurrent oral HSV-1 infection with a high level of serum IgG antibody: Three case reports.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Sep 30;9(9):e04735. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Oral Medicine Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung Indonesia.

Recurrent HSV-1 infection has various clinical features. This case report addresses three differences in the oral clinical manifestation of HSV-1 with the same high level of IgG titers reaching 200 U/mL. IgG antibody level indicates the state of recurrency but does not correlate with clinical features. Read More

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September 2021