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Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of in Cattle, Goats, and Horses in the Republic of Korea.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology and College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Republic of Korea.

is an obligate intracellular zoonotic bacterium with a global distribution. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of in different animals and to assess the potential role of these species as reservoirs of infection and transmission to humans. A total of 592 blood samples (105 beef cattle, 61 dairy cattle, 110 Korean native goats, 83 Boer goats, and 233 horses) were collected in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Read More

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Melatonin synthesis genes N-acetylserotonin methyltransferases evolved into caffeic acid O-methyltransferases and both assisted in plant terrestrialization.

J Pineal Res 2021 Apr 12:e12737. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health, Long School of Medicine, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Terrestrialization is one of the most momentous events in the history of plant life, which led to the subsequent evolution of plant diversity. The transition species, in this process, had to acquire a range of adaptive mechanisms to cope with the harsh features of terrestrial environments compared to that of an aquatic habitat. As an ancient antioxidant, a leading regulator of ROS signaling or homeostasis, and a presumed plant master regulator, melatonin likely assisted plants transition to land and their adaption to terrestrial ecosystems. Read More

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in cattle and their human contacts in a gaushala (cattle shelter) from India and its partial 1 gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Apr 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

Q fever caused by is an important zoonosis and has great public health significance. A total of 905 clinical samples from 387 cattle [serum ( = 387); vaginal swabs ( = 387); milk ( = 131)] and 59 serum samples from humans were collected from gaushala (cattle shelter) and screened for anti- IgG antibodies in the sera using an indirect-ELISA kit. Further, the samples were tested for DNA employing TaqMan real-time and conventional PCR assays targeting the 1 gene. Read More

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Genomic Analysis of of the Lineage CC130, Including -Carrying MRSA and MSSA Isolates Recovered of Animal, Human, and Environmental Origins.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:655994. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Area of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, OneHealth-UR Research Group, University of La Rioja, Logroño, Spain.

Most methicillin resistant (MRSA) isolates harboring gene belong to clonal complex CC130. This lineage has traditionally been regarded as animal-associated as it lacks the human specific immune evasion cluster (IEC), and has been recovered from a broad range of animal hosts. Nevertheless, sporadic -MRSA human infections have been reported, with evidence of zoonotic transmission in some cases. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Isolates From Different Sources in Estonia Reveals Potential Transmission of Resistance Genes Among Different Reservoirs.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:601490. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

In this study, we aimed to characterize the population structure, drug resistance mechanisms, and virulence genes of isolates in Estonia. Sixty-one and 34 isolates were collected between 2012 and 2014 across the country from various sites and sources, including farm animals and poultry ( = 53), humans ( = 12), environment ( = 24), and wild birds ( = 44). Clonal relationships of the strains were determined by whole-genome sequencing and analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing. Read More

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The Common Occurrence of Theileria ovis in Tibetan Sheep and the First Report of Theileria sinensis in Yaks from Southern Qinghai, China.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

National Research Center for Wildlife Borne Diseases, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China.

Purpose: The tick-borne protozoa piroplasms, including Theileria and Babesia, are the cause of substantial economic losses to the livestock industry. However, in southern Qinghai province, China, there are limited information on the molecular characteristics of piroplasms. This study therefore aimed at determining the prevalence and genetic diversity of piroplasms. Read More

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Isolation and characterization of mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 from a fecal sample from a wild boar in Japan.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan.

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) have been identified in various mammalian species, including humans, bats, and pigs. However, isolation and complete genome sequences of MRVs from wild boars have not yet been reported. In this study, we isolated, sequenced, and analyzed an MRV from a free-living wild boar in Japan using the porcine-sapelovirus-resistant cell line N1380. Read More

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Transmission dynamics and molecular characterization of HIV-1 epidemic among therapeutic failure patients in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 8:104854. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:

The HIV-1 epidemic in southern Brazil is mostly caused by subtype C, which contrasts the dominance of subtype B in the other regions of the country. Santa Catarina (SC), although the smallest state in the southern region, presents one of the highest incidences and mortality rates in Brazil due to AIDS. This work investigated the HIV-1 molecular diversity and phylogenetic transmission networks in SC state by analyzing a database of 3070 sequences of the national genotyping service. Read More

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Molecular identification of yeasts from the order Trichosporonales causing superficial infections.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca, Edo. Méx., Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: The molecular reclassification of the order Trichosporonales placed the medically relevant Trichosporon species into three genera of the family Trichosporonaceae: Cutaneotrichosporon, Trichosporon, and Apiotrichum. From the clinical and epidemiological standpoint, it is important to identify any species of the family Trichosporonaceae because they present different antifungal susceptibility profiles. In Mexico, little is known about trichosporonosis etiology because the fungi are identified through phenotypic methods. Read More

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Identification and evolution analysis of the JAZ gene family in maize.

Yang Han Dawn Luthe

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 10;22(1):256. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The Pennsylvania State University, Plant Science, University Park, PA, USA.

Background: Jasmonates (JAs) are important for plants to coordinate growth, reproduction, and defense responses. In JA signaling, jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins serve as master regulators at the initial stage of herbivores attacks. Although discovered in many plant species, little in-depth characterization of JAZ gene expression has been reported in the agronomically important crop, maize (Zea mays L. Read More

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Pseudomonas anatoliensis sp. nov and Pseudomonas iridis sp. nov. isolated from fish.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 Mar 26;44(3):126198. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Microbiologia, Departament de Biologia, Edifici Guillem Colom, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Campus UIB, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (IMEDEA, CSIC-UIB), Campus UIB, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Electronic address:

In a study carried out between 2013 and 2018 in fish farms in Turkey, several putative novel species were isolated. The 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of fourteen strains of Gram-negative rods, which were isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic rainbow trouts (Onchorhynchus mykiss), placed them under the genus Pseudomonas. The similarity values of the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the rpoD, rpoB, gyrB and 16S rRNA genes clustered these isolates into the P. Read More

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EntroPhylo: An entropy-based tool to select phylogenetic informative regions and primer design.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 7:104857. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology (GMBio), Department of Biology, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

We present a novel entropy-based computational tool that selects phylogenetic informative genomic regions associated with degenerate primer design. This tool identifies proper phylogenetic markers and proposes suitable degenerate primers to amplify and sequence them. The algorithm calculates the entropy value per site, and the selected region is used for primer design. Read More

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Characterization of Prototheca CYP51/ERG11 as a possible target for therapeutic drugs.

Med Mycol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Microbiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan.

Prototheca spp. are achlorophyllous algae, ubiquitous in nature. An increasing number of human and animal cases of Prototheca infection (protothecosis) are reported, and antifungal azoles, which inhibit sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51/ERG11) involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, have empirically been used for the treatment of protothecosis. Read More

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Novel Dicistroviruses in an Unexpected Wide Range of Invertebrates.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Dicistroviruses are members of a rapidly growing family of small RNA viruses. Related sequences have been discovered in many environmental samples, indicating that our knowledge about dicistrovirus diversity and host range is still limited. In this study, we performed a systematic search against the publicly available transcriptome database, and identified large numbers of dicistrovirus-like sequences in a wide variety of eukaryotic species. Read More

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Computational characterizations of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (NoeL) Rhizobial proteins.

Curr Genet 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, 10300, Thailand.

A growing body of evidence suggests that Nod Factors molecules are the critical structural components in nitrogen fixation. These molecules have been implicated in plant-microbe signaling. Many enzymes involved in Nod factors biosynthesis; however, the enzymes that decorate (modify) nod factor main structure play a vital role. Read More

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Inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases I and II applied to Candida dubliniensis reduce growth, viability, the generation of petite mutants and toxicity, while acting synergistically with fluconazole.

FEMS Yeast Res 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Bacterias y Levaduras, Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prol. de Carpio y Plan de Ayala. Col. Sto. Tomás, 11340 México City, México.

The increasing resistance of Candida species to azoles emphasizes the urgent need for new antifungal agents with novel mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three DNA topoisomerase inhibitors of plant origin (camptothecin, etoposide and curcumin) on the growth of Candida dubliniensis. The phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the topoisomerase enzymes of C. Read More

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Functional leaf traits indicate phylogenetic signals in forests across an elevational gradient in the central Himalaya.

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Global Ecology Unit, CSIC, CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Bellaterra, Catalonia, 08913, Spain.

Traits are the primary attributes that distinguish a species niche. Species and higher taxa are part of a structured phylogeny, and variation in plant traits depends on lineage as well as on environmental conditions. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate linkages between taxonomic identity, shared ancestry, and environment for understanding the variation in leaf traits. Read More

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Metagenomic characterization of soil microbial communities in the Luquillo experimental forest (Puerto Rico) and implications for nitrogen cycling.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

The phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities in tropical rainforests, and how these differ from temperate communities remain poorly described but are directly related to the increased fluxes of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide (NO) from the tropics. Towards closing these knowledge gaps, we analyzed replicated shotgun metagenomes representing distinct life zones and an elevation gradient from four locations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico. These soils had a distinct microbial community composition and lower species diversity when compared to temperate grasslands or agricultural soils. Read More

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Bayesian Phylogeographic Analysis Incorporating Predictors and Individual Travel Histories in BEAST.

Curr Protoc 2021 Apr;1(4):e98

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Laboratory of Clinical and Evolutionary Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

Advances in sequencing technologies have tremendously reduced the time and costs associated with sequence generation, making genomic data an important asset for routine public health practices. Within this context, phylogenetic and phylogeographic inference has become a popular method to study disease transmission. In a Bayesian context, these approaches have the benefit of accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty, and popular implementations provide the possibility to parameterize the transition rates between locations as a function of epidemiological and ecological data to reconstruct spatial spread while simultaneously identifying the main factors impacting the spatial spread dynamics. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from charcoal.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Institut für Mikrobiologie, Veterinärmedizinische Universität, A-1210 Wien, Austria.

A beige-pigmented, oxidase-positive bacterial isolate, Wesi-4, isolated from charcoal in 2012, was examined in detail by applying a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of the isolates were rod shaped and Gram-stain negative. Examination of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed highest sequence similarities to the type strains of and (both 97. Read More

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and : Two new truffles encased in tomentose mycelium from Japan.

Mycologia 2021 Apr 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8563, Japan.

We describe two new Japanese truffle species, and , based on molecular and morphological analyses. Both species are clearly distinguishable from other species by the ocher tomentose mycelium covering the ascoma surfaces. has one-spored asci that each contain a large (68-97 × 51-80 µm), reddish-brown ascospore; these microscopic characters are similar to those of closely related Chinese species, , and forms one to four ascospores per ascus with a reddish-brown color similar to that of ascospores of and , although their spores are much larger than those of (27‒64 × 26‒55 µm). Read More

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First report of bacterial leaf spot disease on sunflower () caused by in South Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Chungnam National University, 26715, Department of Applied Biology, Daejeon, N/A, Korea (the Republic of);

In September 2019, bacterial leaf spot symptoms were observed on sunflowers in an experimental field in Eumseong, South Korea. The leaves of infected plants initially showed irregular brown spots surrounded by haloes; as the disease progressed, the spots became enlarged and darkened (eXtra Fig. 1a). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Iran; the dynamics of the epidemic and evidence on two independent introductions.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been rapidly spreading globally since December 2019, triggering a pandemic, soon after its emergence. While Iran was among the first countries confronted with rapid spread of virus in February 2020, no real-time SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome tracking in early phase of outbreak was performed in the country. To address this issue, we provided 50 whole-genome sequences of viral isolates ascertained from different geographical locations in Iran during March-July 2020. Read More

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New arrangement of three genera of fish tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) in catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Neotropical Region: taxonomic implications of molecular phylogenetic analyses.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) are the dominant component of communities of intestinal parasites in pimelodid and other catfishes (Siluriformes) from South America. Even though these parasites have been studied intensively over more than one century, molecular taxonomy and phylogenetics have questioned their morphology-based classification, thus raising doubts about the systematic value of traits commonly used to circumscribe individual taxa. In the present study, members of three morphologically well-characterized genera of proteocephalids from pimelodid (Hemisorubim platyrhynchos and Sorubim lima) and auchenipterid (Ageneiosus inermis) catfishes from the Paraná or Amazon River basins were subjected to DNA sequencing of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA (lsrDNA) and complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Read More

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Marivivens aquimaris sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Microbial Biotechnology Research Center, Jeonbuk Branch Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 181 Ipsin-gil, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk, 56212, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designated GSB7, was isolated from seawater collected at the Yellow Sea coast of South Korea. Catalase and oxidase activities were positive. Growth occurred at pH 6. Read More

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First Report of Wilt of European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) Caused by in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Nanjing Forestry University, 74584, College of Forestry, No.159, Longpan Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing, China, 210037.

European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) has been used as an important ornamental species for urban landscaping since the Italian Renaissance (Rocchi et al. 2010). Read More

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Inhella proteolytica sp. nov. and Inhella gelatinilytica sp. nov., two novel species of the genus Inhella isolated from aquaculture water.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangdong Microbial Culture Collection Center (GDMCC), Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510070, People's Republic of China.

The two novel bacterial strains designated 1Y17 and 4Y10 from aquaculture water were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains 1Y17 and 4Y10 belonged to the genus Inhella and were close to Inhella crocodyli CCP-18, Inhella inkyongensis IMCC1713 and Inhella fonticola TNR-25. Strains 1Y17 and 4Y10 shared 98. Read More

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Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary and Gene Regulatory Regions Analysis of Casein Gene Family in .

Front Genet 2021 23;12:662609. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Buffalo is a luxurious genetic resource with multiple utilities (as a dairy, draft, and meat animal) and economic significance in the tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. The excellent potential to survive and perform on marginal resources makes buffalo an important source for nutritious products, particularly milk and meat. This study was aimed to investigate the evolutionary relationship, physiochemical properties, and comparative genomic analysis of the casein gene family (, and ) in river and swamp buffalo. Read More

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Morpho-Phylo Taxonomy of Novel Dothideomycetous Fungi Associated With Dead Woody Twigs in Yunnan Province, China.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:654683. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography of East Asia (KLPB), Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Within the field of mycology, macrofungi have been relatively well-studied when compared to microfungi. However, the diversity and distribution of microfungi inhabiting woody material have not received the same degree of research attention, especially in relatively unexplored regions, such as Yunnan Province, China. To help address this knowledge gap, we collected and examined fungal specimens from different plants at various locations across Yunnan Province. Read More

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New vectors that are early feeders for Plasmodium knowlesi and other simian malaria parasites in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7739. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Malaria Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Plasmodium knowlesi is the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, where studies on vectors of P. knowlesi have been conducted in only two districts. Anopheles balabacensis and An. Read More

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