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Are There Only Fold Catastrophes in the Diels-Alder Reaction Between Ethylene and 1,3-Butadiene?

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avenida República 275, 8370146 Santiago, Chile.

This work revisits the topological characterization of the Diels-Alder reaction between 1,3-butadiene and ethylene. In contrast to the currently accepted rationalization, we here provide strong evidence in support of a representation in terms of seven structural stability domains separated by a sequence of 10 elementary catastrophes, but all are only of the fold type (F and F), that is, CH + CH:1-7-[FF]F[FF][FF][]F-0: CH. Such an unexpected finding provides fundamental new insights opening simplifying perspectives concerning the rationalization of the CC bond formation in pericyclic reactions in terms of the simplest Thom's elementary catastrophe, namely, the one-(state) variable, one-(control) parameter function. Read More

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Development of a new method for isolation of urban air particulates deposited in the human lung tissue.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130585. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Particulate matters (PMs) are important pollutants in urban air pollution because of their variable composition. The pulmonary clearance of PMs is critical to prevent long-term immunological responses. This study established a new method for the isolation of probably deposited urban air particulates from the human lung tissue, to investigate the features of uncleared particulates. Read More

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In search of the still unknown function of FW2.2 / CELL NUMBER REGULATOR, a major regulator of fruit size in tomato.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE, UMR1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, F-33882 Villenave d'Ornon, France.

The FW2.2 gene is associated with the major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) governing fruit size in tomato, and acts by negatively controlling cell division during fruit development. FW2. Read More

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Variable-weighted FDA combined with t-SNE and multiple extreme learning machines for visual industrial process monitoring.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Intelligent Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200237, PR China. Electronic address:

The visualization of an operating state of industrial processes allows operators to identify and diagnose faults intuitively and quickly. The identification and diagnosis of faults are important for ensuring industrial production safety. A method that combines variable-weighted Fisher discriminant analysis (VWFDA), t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), and multiple extreme learning machines (ELMs) is proposed for visual process monitoring. Read More

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Analysis of boswellic acids in dietary supplements containing Indian frankincense (Boswellia serrata) by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 27;201:114106. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy, Center for Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Boswellic acids, a class of triterpenes, are the bioactive constituents in Indian frankincense, an herbal drug with pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. In this study their separation and quantification in B. serrata extracts is reported for the first time by using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Read More

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Virtual Reality Augments Movement during Physical Therapy: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Pediatric Anesthesia; Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine; Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, USA. ATI Physical Therapy, Palo Alto, CA.

Objective: Virtual reality (VR) facilitates physical therapy (PT) via improved engagement. While shown to benefit specific patient populations, such as stroke patients, it is less established in otherwise healthy adults and children receiving outpatient PT. The primary objective was to compare total PT-guided Movement supplemented with VR (PTMVR) to PT guided Movement alone, without VR (PTM). Read More

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Can first trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A predict the surfactant needs of preterm neonates?

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Health Sciences School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Low values of pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), have been shown to be associated with some poor gestational outcomes, especially those related to placental deficiency such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction as well as preterm labor. The aim of this study was to compare first trimester PAPP-A MoM values with the surfactant needs of newborns of pregnant women who had a preterm delivery.

Methods: This study included 216 pregnant women who had a preterm delivery, who were found to be in the low-risk group based on their aneuploidy screening. Read More

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Morphological and Motor Fitness Determinants of Shotokan Karate Performance.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 21;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznan University of Physical Education, 61-871 Poznań, Poland.

The achievement of high performance levels in a complex structured sport such as karate is determined by the competitor's physical fitness, fighting technique, tactics and mental state. This study aimed to identify the most important determinants of top-level performance in karate.

Methods: The participants were 32 karate competitors (12 women and 20 men) aged 18-25 years. Read More

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Distinguishing Transdiagnostic versus Disorder-Specific Pathways between Ruminative Brooding and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents: A Latent Variable Modeling Approach.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Rochester, 491 Meliora Hall, Box 270266, Rochester, NY, 14627-0266, USA.

Rumination is correlated with diverse types of internalizing problems, but the extent to which it relates to a higher-order internalizing spectrum versus disorder-specific pathology is unclear. Using a quantitative model of the internalizing dimension, we compared the strength of transdiagnostic versus diagnosis-specific pathways from brooding-the most depressogenic component of rumination-to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. Community-recruited mid-adolescents (N = 241, M = 15. Read More

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Correlates of bullying perpetration among Lebanese adolescents: a national study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Apr 28;21(1):204. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

INSPECT-LB: National Institute of Public Health, Clinical Epidemiology and Toxicology, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Presently, 1 in 4 Lebanese adolescents is involved in bullying, with 12% being perpetrators. In Lebanon, around 90% of bullying incidents occur in schools. Given the lack of studies tackling bullying perpetration in Lebanon, this study aims to identify and target risk factors of bullying perpetration among Lebanese adolescents, which would serve future prevention and intervention programs. Read More

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Hospital volume is associated with cost and outcomes variation in 2,942 pelvic reconstructions.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Complex pelvic reconstruction is challenging for plastic and reconstructive surgeons following surgical resection of the lower gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Complication rates and hospital costs are variable and may be linked to the hospital case volume of pelvic reconstructions performed. A comprehensive examination of these factors has yet to be performed. Read More

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Variable branching characteristics of peripheral taste neurons indicates differential convergence.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202

Taste neurons are functionally and molecularly diverse, but their morphological diversity remains completely unexplored. Using sparse cell genetic labeling, we provide the first reconstructions of peripheral taste neurons. The branching characteristics across 96 taste neurons show surprising diversity in their complexities. Read More

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Migration after union dissolution in the United States: The role of non-resident family.

Soc Sci Res 2021 May 13;96:102539. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Geography, University of Connecticut, 215 Glenbrook Road, U-4148, Storrs, CT 06269, 4148, United States. Electronic address:

Separation from a spouse or cohabiting partner is associated with a high likelihood of moving, even over long distances. In this paper, we use longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the United States to analyze the role of non-resident family in the migration of separated people immediately after and in the years following union dissolution. We explore both migration in general and return migration among separated people, drawing comparisons to married and never-married people. Read More

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Differential Levels of Fatty Acid-Amino Acid Conjugates in the Oral Secretions of Lepidopteran Larvae Account for the Different Profiles of Volatiles.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Plants have evolved sophisticated defense responses to insect herbivore attack, which often involve elicitors in the insects' oral secretions. The major eliciting compounds in insect oral secretions across different species and their potency in inducing volatile emissions have not yet been fully characterized and compared.

Results: Seven lepidopteran insects with variable duration of association with maize were selected, five species known as pests for a long time (Ostrinia furnacalis, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura, Mythimna separata, and Helicoverpa armigera) and two newly emerging pests (Athetis lepigone and Athetis dissimilis). Read More

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Voltage tunable mid-wave infrared reflective varifocal metalens via an optomechanic cavity.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1930-1933

Metalenses enable the multifunctional control of light beams with an optically thin layer of nanoantennas. Efficient on-chip voltage tuning of the focal length is the crucial step toward the integration of metalenses into dynamically tunable optical systems. We propose and numerically investigate the on-chip electrical tuning of a reflective metalens via an optomechanic cavity. Read More

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Structural Insights into the Vapochromic Behavior of Pt- and Pd-Based Compounds.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 15;60(9):6349-6366. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Amendola 122/o, Bari 70126, Italy.

Anionic complexes having vapochromic behavior are investigated: [K(HO)][M(ppy)(CN)], [K(HO)][M(bzq)(CN)], and [Li(HO)][Pt(bzq)(CN)], where ppy = 2-phenylpyridinate, bzq = 7,8-benzoquinolate, and M = Pt(II) or Pd(II). These hydrated potassium/lithium salts exhibit a change in color upon being heated to 380 K, and they transform back into the original color upon absorption of water molecules from the environment. The challenging characterization of their structure in the vapochromic transition has been carried out by combining several experimental techniques, despite the availability of partially ordered and/or impure crystalline material. Read More

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Human-recognizable CT image features of subsolid lung nodules associated with diagnosis and classification by convolutional neural networks.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Radiology Department, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Haining Rd.100, Shanghai, 200080, China.

Objectives: The interpretability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for classifying subsolid nodules (SSNs) is insufficient for clinicians. Our purpose was to develop CNN models to classify SSNs on CT images and to investigate image features associated with the CNN classification.

Methods: CT images containing SSNs with a diameter of ≤ 3 cm were retrospectively collected. Read More

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The complete chloroplast genome of var. (Rosaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 28;6(3):1256-1258. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Biology, Daejeon University, Daejeon, Korea.

var. is an economically important herb in the cold temperate regions of East Asia, and displays highly variable morphological features. Completed chloroplast genome of var. Read More

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Application of a strain-level shotgun metagenomics approach on food samples: resolution of the source of a food-borne outbreak.

Microb Genom 2021 Apr;7(4)

Transversal Activities in Applied Genomics, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

Food-borne outbreak investigation currently relies on the time-consuming and challenging bacterial isolation from food, to be able to link food-derived strains to more easily obtained isolates from infected people. When no food isolate can be obtained, the source of the outbreak cannot be unambiguously determined. Shotgun metagenomics approaches applied to the food samples could circumvent this need for isolation from the suspected source, but require downstream strain-level data analysis to be able to accurately link to the human isolate. Read More

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Parameter identification of Hammerstein-Wiener nonlinear systems with unknown time delay based on the linear variable weight particle swarm optimization.

ISA Trans 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Electrical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, PR China. Electronic address:

This paper deals with the parameter estimation of Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W) nonlinear systems which have unknown time delay. The linear variable weight particle swarm method is formulated for such time delay systems. This algorithm transforms the nonlinear system identification issue into a function optimization issue in the parameter space, then utilizes the parallel searching ability of the particle swarm optimization and the iterative identification technique to realize the simultaneous estimation of all parameters and the unknown time delay. Read More

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A Novel End-To-End Feature Selection and Diagnosis Method for Rotating Machinery.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 15;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Information and Control Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221000, China.

Feature selection is to obtain effective features from data, also known as feature engineering. Traditional feature selection and predictive model learning are separated, and there is a problem of inconsistency of criteria. This paper presents an end-to-end feature selection and diagnosis method that organically unifies feature expression learning and machine prediction learning into one model. Read More

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Effect of Foliar Micronutrients (B, Mn, Fe, Zn) on Maize Grain Yield, Micronutrient Recovery, Uptake, and Partitioning.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915, USA.

Timing of micronutrient demand and acquisition by maize ( L.) is nutrient specific and associated with key vegetative and reproductive growth stages. The objective of this study was to determine the fate of foliar-applied B, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Fe/Zn together, evaluate the effect of foliar micronutrients applied at multiple rates and growth stages on maize grain yield, and determine their apparent nutrient recovery efficiency (ANR). Read More

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Light-Adapted Charge-Separated State of Photosystem II: Structural and Functional Dynamics of the Closed Reaction Center.

Plant Cell 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, Szeged, Hungary.

Photosystem II (PSII) uses solar energy to oxidize water and delivers electrons for life on Earth. The photochemical reaction center of PSII is known to possess two stationary states. In the open state (PSIIO), the absorption of a single photon triggers electron-transfer steps, which convert PSII into the charge-separated closed state (PSIIC). Read More

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January 2021

Metabolic Flexibility in Response to Within-Season Temperature Variability in House Sparrows.

Integr Org Biol 2020 5;2(1):obaa039. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) posits that more flexible phenotypes should provide a fitness advantage for organisms experiencing more variable climates. While typically applied across geographically separated populations, whether this principle applies across seasons or other conditions (e.g. Read More

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November 2020

W' Recovery Kinetics following Exhaustion: A Two-Phase Exponential Process Influenced by Aerobic Fitness.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Center of Sports Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: The aims of this study were [1] to model the temporal profile of W' recovery following exhaustion, [2] to estimate the contribution of changing V˙O2 kinetics to this recovery, and [3] to examine associations with aerobic fitness and muscle fiber type (MFT) distribution.

Methods: 21 men (age=25±2 yr, V˙O2peak=54.4±5. Read More

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Balancing Positive and Negative Selection: Evolution of Candida lusitaniae .

mBio 2021 03 30;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA

The evolution of pathogens in response to selective pressures present during chronic infections can influence their persistence and virulence and the outcomes of antimicrobial therapy. Because subpopulations within an infection can be spatially separated and the host environment can fluctuate, an appreciation of the pathways under selection may be most easily revealed through the analysis of numerous isolates from single infections. Here, we continued our analysis of a set of clonally derived () isolates from a single chronic lung infection with a striking enrichment in the number of alleles of Genetic and genomic analyses found evidence for repeated acquisition of gain-of-function mutations that conferred constitutive Mrr1 activity. Read More

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Syllable Inference as a Mechanism for Spoken Language Understanding.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Apr 29;13(2):351-398. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

A classic problem in spoken language comprehension is how listeners perceive speech as being composed of discrete words, given the variable time-course of information in continuous signals. We propose a syllable inference account of spoken word recognition and segmentation, according to which alternative hierarchical models of syllables, words, and phonemes are dynamically posited, which are expected to maximally predict incoming sensory input. Generative models are combined with current estimates of context speech rate drawn from neural oscillatory dynamics, which are sensitive to amplitude rises. Read More

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Bronchus-like Structures in Ovarian Teratomas: Report of a Series of a Previously Unreported Phenomenon With Potential For Misdiagnosis.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (S.R., C.B., W.G.M.) Department of Pathology, Craigavon Area Hospital, Craigavon (R.S.), UK School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia (C.J.R.S.).

We report 10 cases of a previously undescribed lesion within ovarian teratomas which we designate bronchus-like structures. The lesions occurred in patients aged 16 to 56 yr (mean: 36) and involved the left ovary (n=5) or right ovary (n=5). Nine cases were mature teratomas (dermoid cysts/mature cystic teratomas or mature solid teratomas), 1 with somatic malignant transformation, and 1 was an immature teratoma. Read More

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Strawberry Consumption, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Vascular Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia.

J Nutr 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Center for Nutrition Research, Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Certain fruits, such as strawberries, may impart cardiometabolic benefits due to their phytochemical content.

Objectives: Study aims were to assess the effects of strawberry intake on cardiometabolic risk factors and vascular endothelial function in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia.

Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, 2-arm, 2-period (4-wk/period) crossover trial. Read More

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