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Assessing Sleep Architecture With Polysomnography During Posttraumatic Amnesia After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 May 12:15459683211011241. Epub 2021 May 12.

Epworth HealthCare, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Early-onset sleep disturbance is common following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and often emerges while patients are in posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). However, sleep disruptions during this subacute recovery phase are not well-defined, and research often utilizes indirect measures (actigraphy) that quantify sleep based on activity. This study aims to examine sleep macro-architecture and sleep quality directly with ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) and measure endogenous salivary melatonin levels for patients experiencing PTA following moderate to severe TBI. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 and Partial Lockdown on Access to Care, Self-Management and Psychological Well-being among People with Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 11:e14319. Epub 2021 May 11.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The impact of lockdown measures can be widespread, affecting both clinical and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aims to assess changes in health services access, self-care, behavioral and psychological impact of COVID-19 and partial lockdown amongst diabetes patients in Singapore.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey amongst people with diabetes with the Diabetes Health Profile-18 (DHP-18). Read More

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Comprehensive pregnancy monitoring with a network of wireless, soft, and flexible sensors in high- and low-resource health settings.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599;

Vital signs monitoring is a fundamental component of ensuring the health and safety of women and newborns during pregnancy, labor, and childbirth. This monitoring is often the first step in early detection of pregnancy abnormalities, providing an opportunity for prompt, effective intervention to prevent maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Contemporary pregnancy monitoring systems require numerous devices wired to large base units; at least five separate devices with distinct user interfaces are commonly used to detect uterine contractility, maternal blood oxygenation, temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and fetal heart rate. Read More

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Abnormal Coagulation as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Complications After Primary and Revision Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have an increased likelihood of having an abnormal coagulation profile compared with the general population. Coagulation abnormalities are often screened for before surgery and considered during perioperative planning. This study assesses a preoperative abnormal coagulation profile as a risk factor for postoperative complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA), revision THA (rTHA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and revision TKA (rTKA) and then examines specific coagulopathies to determine their influence on complication rates. Read More

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Pediatric Snakebites: Comparing Patients in Two Geographic Locations in the United States.

J Surg Res 2021 May 6;265:297-302. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Electronic address:

Background: Management of children with snakebites may vary based on subjective criteria, geographic, and climatic factors. We reviewed the incidence and management of snakebite injuries in children at two tertiary referral centers in separate geographic and climatic location to assess differences in management and outcomes of these patients.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was performed for patients ≤18 years with snakebite injuries at emergency departments (ED) of two American College of Surgeons verified trauma centers (2006-2013). Read More

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Facial first impressions form two clusters representing approach-avoidance.

Cogn Psychol 2021 May 5;126:101387. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, UK.

Existing models of facial first impressions indicate between two and four factors that underpin all social trait judgements. Here, we submitted several large databases of these first impression ratings to unsupervised learning algorithms with the aim of clustering together faces, rather than traits, to examine the ways in which impressions may be grouped together. Experiment 1 revealed two clusters of faces that exist in both a full-dimensional, and two- or three-factor representations, of social impressions, while Experiment 2 indicated that these clusters also emerged in additional datasets. Read More

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Estimation of Clearance and Bioavailability of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies from Only Subcutaneous Injection Data in Humans Based on Comprehensive Analysis of Clinical Data.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, 1-135 Komakado, Gotemba, Shizuoka, 412-8513, Japan.

Introduction: Theoretically, the separate estimation of clearance (CL) and bioavailability (F) requires both intravenous and extravascular injection data. This study investigated whether CL and subcutaneous F of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in humans can be separately estimated from subcutaneous injection data only.

Methods: First, the geometric mean of linear pharmacokinetic parameters (CL, intercompartmental CL [Q], volume of distribution in the central compartment [V], and volume of distribution in the peripheral compartment [V]) after intravenous injection for mAbs in humans that have been reported in public data sources was estimated from 103 mAbs with linear pharmacokinetics and 44 mAbs with nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Read More

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Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1β and 6.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2021 ;81(1):96-109

Laboratory of Neurophysiology , Institute of Medical Physiology "Richard Burian" , Belgrade University Faculty of Medicine , Belgrade , Serbia.

Brain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Read More

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January 2021

Plasma markers in pulmonary hypertension subgroups correlate with patient survival.

Respir Res 2021 May 4;22(1):137. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Doctor Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Recent studies have provided evidence for an important contribution of the immune system in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In this report, we investigated whether the inflammatory profile of pulmonary hypertension patients changes over time and correlates with patient WHO subgroups or survival.

Methods: 50 PAH patients (16 idiopathic (I)PAH, 24 Connective Tissue Disease (CTD)-PAH and 10 Congenital Heart Disease (CHD)-PAH), 37 CTEPH patients and 18 healthy controls (HCs) were included in the study. Read More

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Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted in Lentiviral Producing HEK293SF Cell Cultures.

Viruses 2021 04 29;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0E9, Canada.

Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are a powerful tool for gene and cell therapy and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) have been extensively used as a platform for production of these vectors. Like most cells and cellular tissues, HEK293 cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs released by cells share similar size, biophysical characteristics and even a biogenesis pathway with cell-produced enveloped viruses, making it a challenge to efficiently separate EVs from LVs. Read More

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ComplexFinder: A software package for the analysis of native protein complex fractionation experiments.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Apr 30:148444. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Max-Planck-Institute for Biology of Ageing, Joseph-Stelzmann Str. 9b, 50931 Cologne, Germany; Institute of Genetics and Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Identification of protein complexes and quantitative distribution of a single protein across different complexes are fundamental to unravel cellular mechanisms and of biological and clinical relevance. A recently introduced method, complexome profiling, combines fractionation techniques to separate native protein complexes with high-resolution mass spectrometry and allows to identify protein complexes in an unbiased manner. Due to recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation, the analysis time can be reduced dramatically while the coverage of thousands of proteins remains constant, which leads to an increased data acquisition rate and reduces the burden to initiate such complex experiments. Read More

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Nanoscale Electrical Excitation of Distinct Modes in Plasmonic Waveguides.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

NanoOptics & Biophotonics Group, Experimental Physics 5, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

The electrical excitation of guided plasmonic modes at the nanoscale enables integration of optical nanocircuitry into nanoelectronics. In this context, exciting plasmons with a distinct modal field profile constitutes a key advantage over conventional single-mode integrated photonics. Here, we demonstrate the selective electrical excitation of the lowest-order symmetric and antisymmetric plasmonic modes in a two-wire transmission line. Read More

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Decorating sdAbs with Chelators: Effect of Conjugation on Biodistribution and Functionality.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;14(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Medical Imaging (MIMA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium.

Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) have proven to be valuable probes for molecular imaging. In order to produce such probes, one strategy is the functionalization of the reactive amine side chain of lysines with a chelator, resulting in a mixture of compounds with a different degree of conjugation. In this study, we implemented anion exchange chromatography (AEX) to separate the different compounds or fractions that were further characterized and evaluated to study the impact of the conjugation degree on pharmacokinetic properties and functionality. Read More

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The Structure of Relationships between the Human Exposome and Cardiometabolic Health: The Million Veteran Program.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 19;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center (MAVERIC), Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA.

The represents the array of dietary, lifestyle, and demographic factors to which an individual is exposed. Individual components of the exposome, or groups of components, are recognized as influencing many aspects of human physiology, including cardiometabolic health. However, the influence of the whole exposome on health outcomes is poorly understood and may differ substantially from the sum of its individual components. Read More

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What Is New on Ovarian Carcinoma: Integrated Morphologic and Molecular Analysis Following the New 2020 World Health Organization Classification of Female Genital Tumors.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Molecular Pathology Laboratory, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna/Azienda USL di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Ovarian carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms consisting of separate entities with distinct risk factors, precursor lesions, pathogenesis, patterns of spread, molecular profiles, clinical course, response to chemotherapy, and outcomes. The histologic subtype and the related molecular features are essential for individualized clinical decision-making. The fifth edition of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the female genital tract divides ovarian carcinomas into at least five main and distinct types of ovarian carcinomas: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. Read More

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Menstural function preservation treatment of a primary vaginal clear cell carcinoma with ovarian transposition and vaginal brachytherapy.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 May 8;36:100764. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Greece.

Early stage vaginal carcinomas are typically treated with radical surgical procedures or radiation therapy. Both modalities impair the reproductive ability of the patients. We hereby report a case of menstrual function preservation in a 24-year-old patient with an early-stage primary vaginal clear cell carcinoma. Read More

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Evolutionary profile of the family Calliphoridae, with notes on the origin of myiasis.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 28;28(4):2056-2066. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

The family Calliphoridae is a group of heterogenous calyptrate flies with a worldwide distribution including species of ecological, veterinary, medical, and forensic importance. Notorious for their parasitic habits, the larvae of many blowflies are characterised - like some other dipteran larvae - by their ability to develop in animal flesh. When parasitism affects a living host, it is termed "myiasis". Read More

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Changes in Cytokine Profile with Immunotherapy in Viral Warts using Purified Protein Derivative, Mumps Measles Rubella Vaccine, and Vaccine.

Indian J Dermatol 2021 Jan-Feb;66(1):67-73

Department of Dermatology, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Kenduadihi, Bankura, West Bengal, India.

Background: Immunotherapy for wart employs ability of immune system to recognize certain viral, bacterial, and fungal antigens in previously sensitized individual inducing Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (up-regulated Th1 cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ; down-regulated Th2 cytokines IL-10), not only to injected antigen but also against wart virus.

Aims: To evaluate and compare the pattern of production of Th1 cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10) in patients receiving immunotherapy with purified-protein-derivative (PPD), (Mw), or mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine.

Methods: The cohort study conducted on patients receiving immunotherapy with PPD, Mw, or MMR which was injected intradermally at baseline, repeated every 2 weeks for 6 doses?. Read More

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Performance, Hemodynamics, and Stress in a Two-Day Vigilance Task: Practical and Theoretical Implications.

Hum Factors 2021 Apr 26:187208211011333. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

33319 Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To explore vigilance task performance, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), workload, and stress in a within-subjects, two-session experiment.

Background: Vigilance, or sustained attention, tasks are often characterized by a decline in operator performance and CBFV with time on task, and high workload and stress. Though performance is known to improve with practice, past research has not included measures of CBFV, stress, and workload in a within-subjects multi-session design, which may also provide insight into ongoing theoretical debate. Read More

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Separate and combined effects of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage on health-related lifestyle risk factors: a multilevel analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Socio-economic disadvantage at both individual and neighbourhood levels has been found to be associated with single lifestyle risk factors. However, it is unknown to what extent their combined effects contribute to a broad lifestyle profile. We aimed to (i) investigate the associations of individual socio-economic disadvantage (ISED) and neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage (NSED) in relation to an extended score of health-related lifestyle risk factors (lifestyle risk index); and to (ii) investigate whether NSED modified the association between ISED and the lifestyle risk index. Read More

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Epigenetic related changes on air quality.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 21;197:111155. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Unit of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander, Spain.

The exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of developing human diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms have been related to environmental exposures and human diseases. The present review is focused on current available studies, which show the relationship between epigenetic marks, exposure to air pollution and human's health. Read More

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Glioblastomas with primitive neuronal component harbor a distinct methylation and copy-number profile with inactivation of TP53, PTEN, and RB1.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

Glioblastoma IDH-wildtype presents with a wide histological spectrum. Some features are so distinctive that they are considered as separate histological variants or patterns for the purpose of classification. However, these usually lack defined (epi-)genetic alterations or profiles correlating with this histology. Read More

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Defining Surgical Terminology and Risk for Brain Computer Interface Technologies.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:599549. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Intheon Labs, San Diego, CA, United States.

With the emergence of numerous brain computer interfaces (BCI), their form factors, and clinical applications the terminology to describe their clinical deployment and the associated risk has been vague. The terms "minimally invasive" or "non-invasive" have been commonly used, but the risk can vary widely based on the form factor and anatomic location. Thus, taken together, there needs to be a terminology that best accommodates the surgical footprint of a BCI and their attendant risks. Read More

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Validation of a host blood transcriptomic biomarker for pulmonary tuberculosis in people living with HIV: a prospective diagnostic and prognostic accuracy study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: A rapid, blood-based triage test that allows targeted investigation for tuberculosis at the point of care could shorten the time to tuberculosis treatment and reduce mortality. We aimed to test the performance of a host blood transcriptomic signature (RISK11) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting progression to active pulmonary disease (prognosis) in people with HIV in a community setting.

Methods: In this prospective diagnostic and prognostic accuracy study, adults (aged 18-59 years) with HIV were recruited from five communities in South Africa. Read More

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Collaborative Profile-QSAR: A Natural Platform for Building Collaborative Models among Competing Companies.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Apr 12;61(4):1603-1616. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, 5959 Horton Street, Emeryville, California 94608-2916, United States.

Massively multitask bioactivity models that transfer learning between thousands of assays have been shown to work dramatically better than separate models trained on each individual assay. In particular, the applicability domain for a given model can expand from compounds similar to those tested in that specific assay to those tested across the full complement of contributing assays. If many large companies would share their assay data and train models on the superset, predictions should be better than what each company can do alone. Read More

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Associations Among Wearable Activity Tracker Use, Exercise Motivation, and Physical Activity in a Cohort of Cancer Survivors: Secondary Data Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey.

JMIR Cancer 2021 Apr 12;7(2):e24828. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Background: Cancer survivors who meet physical activity (PA) recommendations (≥150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week) experience better health outcomes. With the growing availability of wearable activity trackers (WATs), it may be easier to track PA. However, it is unknown what motivates survivors to use these devices. Read More

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"Hot" and "Cold" Cognition in Users of Club Drugs/Novel Psychoactive Substances.

Front Psychiatry 2021 24;12:660575. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are popular "club/party" drugs that first attracted attention in the UK in 2009 and remained legal until the 2016 Psychoactive Substances Act criminalized their distribution. Unlike "traditional" illicit drugs, very little is known about the influence of their analogs on neuropsychological functioning. We characterized the cognitive and emotional profile of NPS/polydrug users using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and EMOTICOM test battery in adult male (aged 20-49 years) recreational users without psychiatric comorbidities ( = 27; "psychonauts"), service users attending a UK specialist "Club Drug" Clinic for problematic use ( = 20) and healthy control volunteers without significant drug-taking histories ( = 35). Read More

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Physiological and Biomechanical Determinants of Sprint Ability Following Variable Intensity Exercise When Roller Ski Skating.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:638499. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

The most common race format in cross-country (XC) skiing is the mass-start event, which is under-explored in the scientific literature. To explore factors important for XC skiing mass-starts, the main purpose of this study was to investigate physiological and biomechanical determinants of sprint ability following variable intensity exercise when roller ski skating. Thirteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated mass-start competition while roller ski skating on a treadmill. Read More

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Multiplexing surface anchored functionalized iron carbide nanoparticle: A low molecular weight proteome responsive nano-tracer.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 6;203:111746. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Engineering, RMIT University 124 La Trobe Street, 3001, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Harvesting the low molecular weight (LMW) proteins from the cellular exudates is a big challenge for early disease detection. Here, we introduce a unique probe composed of surface-functionalized FeC NPs with different functional groups to harvest, identify and profile differentially expressed biomarker proteins. Three different functionalization of FeC NPs with FeC@NH FeC@COOH and FeC@PEG enabled to harvest 119 differentially expressed proteins from HeLa cell exudates. Read More

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Automated blood sampling in canine telemetry studies: Enabling enhanced assessments of cardiovascular liabilities and safety margins.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2021 Apr 7;109:107066. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

AbbVie Inc., 1 North Waukegan Rd., North Chicago, IL 60064, United States of America.

Introduction: A successful integration of automated blood sampling (ABS) into the telemetry instrumented canine cardiovascular model is presented in this study. This combined model provides an efficient means to quickly gain understanding of potential effects on key cardiovascular parameters in dog while providing a complete Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile for discovery compounds without handling artifacts, reducing the need for a separate pharmacokinetic study.

Methods: Male beagle dogs were chronically implanted with telemetry devices (PhysioTel™ model D70-PCTP) and vascular access ports (SPMID-GRIDAC-5NC). Read More

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